Sony Group Corporation
Japanese conglomerate Sony Group Corporation, better known as Sony and stylised as SONY, is based in Konan, Minato and Tokyo, Japan. While also being a notable technology company, it is the world’s largest producer of consumer and professional electrical equipment as well as the world’s largest console manufacturer and publisher. It offers quality products of different sizes and features. It has a targeted audience of every age and choice. It is the most trusted brand among the consumer and has high post-sale service. It always works for the company and defends itself as a market leader. They invest a huge amount in R&D activities, which creates a unique product and also provides its own identity in the market. They are suitable for the new and advanced technology. They have a global network of provincial dealers to increase their products to customers and providers at quality standards. One effect of Sony Entertainment Inc. is that Sony is one of the world’s largest music firms (the second-largest record label) and one of the world’s largest film studios. In terms of both media and technology, it’s Japan’s largest player. At the same time, its net cash reserves of 2 trillion make it the most cash-rich Japanese firm.
Sony Group Corporation history and company background
As a small group of dedicated and motivated workers, Mr. Masaru Ibuka and Mr. Akio Morita embarked on the journey in 1946 that would eventually lead to the creation of the well-known worldwide corporation known as “Tokyo Telecommunications Research Institute” (Totsuko). Innovating items for the general public was the primary goal of the company’s operations.
A combination of the terms “sonus” and “sonny” gave rise to the corporate name “Sony.” Sonus is a Latin word that means sound or sonic. The term “sonny” also refers to a young son. Sony is designed to represent a small group of young people who have the drive and passion to pursue unlimited creativity and unique ideas. In 1958, the firm officially selected “Sony Corporation” as its corporate name with the goal of growing internationally in mind. As a name that can be easily said and read across languages, Sony embodies the company’s values of independence and open-mindedness.
Sony Group Corporation Marketing Mix (4Ps)
Product, Place, Promotion, and Price are the four pillars around which Sony’s global commercial activities are built. In order for a business to succeed, it must have a marketing mix that outlines its advertising strategy and procedures. The consumer electronics, gaming, and entertainment sectors, as well as the financial services sector, are all important parts of Sony’s overall marketing strategy. This company has a broad variety of operations, making it difficult to come up with a marketing mix for it. Sony, on the other hand, continues to use a marketing mix that fully meets the demands of the company in terms of reaching its intended audience.
Because of the wide range of circumstances in the consumer electronics, gaming, entertainment, and finance industries, Sony developed a four-part marketing mix (4Ps) for their products. The corporation employs a wide range of methods and techniques to establish a strong foothold in its target markets.
Sony’s Products (Product Mix)
As well as the consumer electronics, gaming, and entertainment sectors, Sony also has a presence in the financial services industry. When it comes to categorizing its numerous items, the business employs a separate system. Products or outputs of a business are what is meant by this marketing component, which is referred to as the “product mix”. Product lines include mobile communications, game and network services, imaging products and solutions, home entertainment and sound, Devices, Pictures, Music and Financial services.
Place/Distribution in Sony’s Marketing Mix
Sony uses a number of distribution points to reach its target clients. Customers may transact with the company in a variety of ways, including in-person, online, over the phone, or via the delivery of items. This includes Sony Stores, Authorized retailers, Cinema and media networks as well as Sony’s own website.
Sony’s Promotion (Promotional Mix)
Many different mediums are used by Sony to spread the word about its goods. To reach its target audience, the company employs a variety of strategies and tactics, and this component of the marketing mix specifies those strategies and tactics. Direct marketing, sales promotion, public relations, and personal selling are all components of Sony’s marketing plan. Advertising is by far the most important of these.
Sony Corporation’s Prices and Pricing Strategy
Sony goods are noted for their quality. But the costs of these goods are usually rather exorbitant. This component of the marketing mix dictates the pricing strategy used by the organization. Sony has three distinct pricing strategies: premium pricing, market-oriented pricing, and value-based pricing.
Sony Group Corporation’s mission statement
Sony’s mission statement is to “inspire and satisfy the customers curiosity curiosity.” When it comes to creating ground-breaking new excitement and delight, Sony claims, “Sony has the ability to do it.” There is no doubt that the company is solely devoted to serving its customers. Customers’ demands and requirements are what the company is most concerned about. In relation to Sony’s mission statement, the following qualities should be noted:
Life improvement. Sony’s mission statement emphasizes the importance of delivering products that its consumers want, which is reflected in the first part of the statement. Sony is acutely aware of the impact its goods have on the quality of people’s daily lives. This explains why the company is never satisfied with the status quo and never settles for anything less than perfection.
Exceeding expectations. Sony shows its continuous support for creative mindsets that lead to the production of better goods in the second component. A variety of designs have been used to do this, each promising to improve the customer’s overall experience while simultaneously strengthening the bond between the consumer and the organization.
Delivering of entertainment and excitement services. Sony does not take any risks when it comes to providing thrills and enjoyment in the Sony way. The firm has shown its ambition to remain the finest in its field via the implementation of a new technical progress process. First and second features in its mission statement also have a direct connection to these aspirations.
Sony Group Corporation SWOT analysis
This section of the SWOT analysis focuses on Sony’s business advantages. It’s important to have a company’s strengths in order to expand and profit. Sony’s profitability may be attributed to the following assets:
- Strong brand
- Diversified business
- Popular profitable products
For the areas in which it does business, Sony has one of the most well-known names in the industry. Customers are more likely to try new goods and services if the company has a well-known brand name. In addition, Sony offers a wide range of products. The company also sells a wide range of electronic gadgets and games. As a consequence of this diversification, Sony’s business is more stable, which decreases market risk. Not to mention that Sony can make money off of its well-known and profitable products, such as the PlayStation 3. Profitability is ensured in the face of fierce competition, which is one of Sony’s strong suits. Strengths assure a company’s long-term success based on this part of the SWOT analysis. In order to compete effectively with its rivals, Sony must build on these qualities.
Internal strategic variables limiting or reducing the performance of Sony have been identified as a result of the SWOT analysis in this section. Business development is hindered by the presence of weaknesses. Here are some of Sony’s weaknesses:
- Lack of dominant mobile devices
- Vulnerability of databases and networks
- Imitability of some products
Sony’s absence of dominating mobile devices is a fundamental flaw in the company’s business model. Comparatively speaking, the products of this firm are underwhelming on the market. Even more importantly, as more people rely on online services, Sony is obligated to address the security of its records and networks. Customers and the company are concerned about the safety of their personal information due of this flaw. As a result, several Sony products are readily counterfeited. The company’s cameras and home entertainment systems may be copied by competitors. The SWOT analysis of Sony Corporation has significant flaws that stand in the way of growth. To increase the company’s profitability and competitiveness, these challenges should be addressed.
Opportunities for Sony Corporation
According to this section of the SWOT analysis, Sony has the ability to grow its business. External strategic considerations, known as opportunities, may increase the growth and profitability of a firm. With these potential in mind, Sony may look forward to success in the following areas:
- Further business diversification
- New product development
- Rapid innovation
Sony’s growth may be boosted by expanding its business portfolio. As an example, a corporation might look for possibilities in similar areas by using its present strengths. Sony also has the chance to produce new items that provide new sources of revenue. Furthermore, given the fierce competition in the market, quick innovation might help a firm gain a competitive edge. According to this part of the SWOT analysis, both the existing and new sectors in which the organization operates have profitable growth potential.
Threats Facing Sony Corporation (External Strategic Factors)
Because of its many operations, Sony must find a way to overcome and resolve threats. Threats are elements beyond of a company’s control that might have a negative impact on its success. Sony is exposed to the following dangers from the outside world:
- Cyber attacks
- Software piracy
Sony is particularly vulnerable to cyber-attacks due to the company’s growing dependence on internet information and networks. Competitor aggression in marketplaces all over the globe is another issue that worries the company. Maintaining profitability is a major issue when it comes to piracy. Sony’s games and associated product sales, for example, may suffer from copying. As a result, finding ways to safeguard its software is critical for the business. It is important to take steps to protect Sony against potential threats, as shown in this section of the SWOT analysis.
Sony Group Corporation growth strategy recommendations.
Market Penetration (Primary). Sony’s ambitious growth ambitions are aimed at gaining a foothold in new areas. Increasing the company’s market share in places where it currently operates is the major objective of this aggressive strategy. Market penetration Intense expansion requires a company’s product to be unique in order to attract and retain more customers. Sony’s strong marketing strategy is aimed at keeping up with rivals in the financial services, entertainment, gaming, and electronics industries.
Product Development (Secondary). As a supplementary, but no less important, approach to increasing Sony’s revenue, product creation is being used. Expansion strategies that focus on creating superior products are the goal of this approach. The gaming items developed by Sony, for example, serve as a crucial growth engine that surpasses the competition. When it comes to product design, differentiation is a key component of this growth strategy. To ensure that their products stand out from the crowd, Sony employs a variety of innovative strategies.
Market Development. Sony’s ambitious growth plan relies heavily on market development. When this complete strategy is put into effect, the company is able to develop into new markets and market segments. As a case in point, Sony has the potential to sell its products in nations where it has yet to build a big presence. It is also possible for the business to develop a new market for its goods by finding new uses for them.
Diversification. Diversification is not a priority for Sony’s ambitious growth goals. Through the establishment of new enterprises, this strategy tries to grow the market share of the firm in question. Focusing on a smaller number of products has diminished the relevance of diversity for Sony. These items are the most profitable in the company’s product portfolio.
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Specific Language Impairment (SLI) Essay Example
Definition and Background Information
Specific language impairment is a neurodevelopmental language disorder associated with difficulties using and learning languages in processing linguistic information. An individual affected with language impairment disorder has grammar, vocabulary, and putting words together (Gray, 2016, p 84). SLI has a 5-7% prevalence, and the language difficulties persist to adulthood. In addition, SLI mainly occurs during early childhood, is specific to language impairment, and has no association with other conditions such as mental retardation, hearing impairment, neurological injury, and psychological trauma (Gray, 2016). This literature review will explore the diagnosis, clinical manifestation of SLI, challenges associated with SLI, and best practices educators can implement to support kids with specific language impairment.
Diagnosis and Clinical Manifestation
Speech-language pathologists use the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria ( Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders) to diagnose specific language impairment. For instance, Gray (2016, p84) notes that the diagnostic criteria for SLI include persistent difficulties using language in different modalities such as spoken, written, or sign languages. Also, according to NIH, trained professionals directly observes the child, interviews the child and the parents, asses learning capacity, and use standardized language performance test to determine if the child has SLI. Children with SLI have reduced vocabulary, limited sentence structure, reading problems, and difficulties forming and finding the right words (Gray 2016, p 84, NIH, 2019). In addition, they cannot connect sentences to form sentences, explain an event, have problems understanding figurative language, and experience common grammatical and spelling errors. The difficulties in language modalities result from deficits in comprehension and production below the expectations at a particular age. Generally, the DSM-5 clinical specifiers identify clinical manifestations of SLI.
Causes of Specific Learning Impairment.
Although there is no known cause of SLI, recent research links SLI to genetic factors. For one, NIH reports that children with specific language impairment have a high likelihood of having siblings or parents with communication difficulties and delayed speech (2016). 50-70% of children with SLI have at least one sibling with the disorder (NIH, 2016). Moreover, Chen et al.’s (2017) research of whole-exome sequencing of 43 unrelated probands links pathogenic gene variance to diverse language-related syndromes. These pathogenic variant genes include ERC1, GRIN 2A, and SPRX2 (Chen et al., 2017). Molecular research studies on twins with SLI also indicate a strong genetic correlation with SLI. Even though the cause of SLI remains unknown, there is a strong genetic correlation between children suffering from SLI and their genetic factors.
Challenges in the Classroom/Educational Setting
Children with language impairment experience more learning challenges than same-age peers. For example, children with speech and language issues have difficulties following oral instructions, especially if they contain multiple words or steps. Also, these children have difficulties learning how to read and spell. NIH (2019) and Helland & Helland (2017) argue that language impairment is a risk factor for children developing learning disabilities. Since children with SLI have difficulties learning the primary language, their classroom performance is significantly affected (NIH, 2019). Furthermore, the elevated risk of social exclusion leads to academic failure. In other words, children with SLI experience significant learning difficulties.
Due to comprehension and production deficits, children with SLI have difficulties translating letters into reading sounds. Their writing skills in class are further weakened by grammatical errors, limited vocabulary, difficulties comprehending thoughts and organizing them into coherent sentences (NIH, 2016). As a result of comprehension issues, children with SLI have difficulties with mathematical word problems, and some of them show signs of dyslexia. Unfortunately, SLI persists to adulthood, and by this time, adults with language impairment have more reading, spelling, and math disabilities.
Challenges Socializing with Peers
Children with SLI maintain low levels of language development and lag behind their peers through childhood and beyond. Children with SLI are socially withdrawn and fearful of social situations because of language difficulties and emotional difficulties. Since peer interactions are mediated by oral communication, SLI communication deficits put these kids at a disadvantage in the social arena. Hence children with SLI tend to depend on older adults or children who can comprehend and match their level of communication (Kiegman, 2020). Even after language-impaired children become fluent talkers, they cannot produce oral narratives as fluent as their peers. Their conversations are characterized by short stories, fewer prepositions, main ideas, and grammatical elements. Older children’s stories have fewer elements of mental state descriptions hence the dependence (Kliegman, 2020). Overall, children with SLI are socially isolated from their peers due to communication incompatibilities.
Challenges with full integration
Children with language impairment are easily overlooked due to their learning and social disabilities. According to Rice (2016), recent studies show that about 25% of language-impaired children received medical services, and 39% of language-impaired children with no diagnosis are referred to therapy. In addition to that, education services records show that children who are dropped from speech therapy at elementary school are later identified to need help at higher classes (Rice, 2016, p 312). Even when help is provided, there is often not enough time to fully integrate the child with SLI into the same communication and performance level as their peers in a classroom setting.
In addition, children are perceived as immature by their peers and adults due to their intellectual limitations. Therefore, children with SLI are disadvantaged socially and academically. Furthermore, since they are characterized by social, behavioral, and emotional problems, it is more challenging to fully integrate them into education settings (Rice, 2016, p312). As a result, it is hard to integrate children with SLI into school systems due to social and academic limitations.
Best Practices for Educators
Collaborations with Parents
Speech and language therapy is the key to addressing specific language impairments. Parents and teachers should collaborate through direct and indirect interventions to support children with SLI. Also, the parents can conduct indirect therapy in the early stages of development and through teachers in later stages (Law et al., 2019). The parent should seek early diagnosis and interventions once the speech-language pathologist has confirmed the SLI diagnosis. After diagnosis, children should join education programs that support children with SLI. Also, early language development can be facilitated at home by a speech-language specialist (SLP) (Law et al., 2019). Later, classroom learning can be facilitated with a speech-language pathologist. Archibald (2017) conquers with law et al. (2019) that SLP-based classroom educator programs will go a long way in promoting specific skills. Although preschool language intervention and classroom interventions will not eliminate SLP, they will significantly reduce many learning difficulties associated with the disorder.
Children with SLI have limited social interactions with their peers. The social interaction difficulties are characteristic in activities such as turn-taking during play. However, heterogeneity is noted, and peer interactions are strong in language-impaired children’s ability to make friends, use verbal and non-verbal cues to make joint decisions with peers, and participate in pretend play activities (Law et al.,2019). Therefore, educators should embrace a holistic approach to link these different skills domains to facilitate peer interactions. In other words, Increased peer interaction will reduce peer stigma and help improve social skills.
Effective Teaching Methods for Children with SLI
Classroom-based SLP (Speech-Language Pathologist) interventions are the best for kids with language impairment. SLP employs various delivery models outside the school environment, such as pulling out individuals or groups from the classroom for interventions (Archibald,2017). Through SLP programs, children can also be coached to promote specific skills. In addition, Archibald notes that collaboration with the SLP educator in classroom services will support SLI students with SLP curriculum expertise like phonological awareness (2017). Lastly, teachers should jointly engage SLP experts to deliver lessons in the classroom setting. SLP follows an individualistic approach that promotes specific skills and facilitates attentive learning in language-impaired children.
Specific language disorder is a developmental disorder linked to genetic factors and is characterized by significant discrepancies between cognitive and functional language levels. Clinically, it is manifested through delayed speech and communication difficulties. Also, specific language impairment can persist through adolescence to adulthood. However, even though children with SLI experience many problems in learning and social interactions, a combined educator, peer and parents support involving speech-language pathologists will significantly minimize their social and learning challenges.
Archibald, L. M. (2017). SLP-educator classroom collaboration: A review to inform reason-based practice. Autism & Developmental Language Impairments, 2, 2396941516680369.
Chen, X. S., Reader, R. H., Hoischen, A., Veltman, J. A., Simpson, N. H., Francks, C., … & Fisher, S. E. (2017). Next-generation DNA sequencing identifies novel gene variants and pathways involved in specific language impairment. Scientific reports, 7(1), 1-17.
Gray, S. (2016). Psychopathology-A Competency-Based Model for Social Workers (4th Ed.). Brooks Cole.
Helland, W. A., & Helland, T. (2017). Emotional and behavioral needs in children with specific language impairment and children with autism spectrum disorder: The importance of pragmatic language impairment. Research in Developmental Disabilities, 70, 33-39.
Kliegman, R. (2020). Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics-Language Development and Communication Disorders.
Law, J., Levickis, P., Rodríguez-Ortiz, I. R., Matić, A., Lyons, R., Messarra, C., & Stankova, M. (2019). Working with the parents and families of children with developmental language disorders: An international perspective. Journal of communication disorders, 82, 105922.
NIH. (2016). Specific Language Impairment. Nidcd.nih.gov. https://www.nidcd.nih.gov/sites/default/files/Documents/health/voice/Specific-Language-Impairment.pdf
Rice, M. (2016). Children with Specific Language Impairment and Their Families: A Future View of Nature plus Nurture and New Technologies for Comprehensive Language Intervention Strategies [pdf]. https://cldp.ku.edu/sites/cldp.ku.edu/files/docs/Rice_2016_Seminars_in_Speech_and_Language_Children_with_SLI_and_their_Families.pdf.
Sports Events Tourism: Theories, Concepts, Issues, And Impacts Sample Assignment
Sports Event tourism provides a common platform for cooperation and development for both the sport and tourist sectors. S port tourism is a colloquial term that refers to the fusion of sporting and tourist activities (Mollahet al., 2021). Since the 1990s, both sport and tourism corporations, as well as academics, have paid increasing attention to sport tourism. Sport tourism is not a new concept, but the phrase has gained popularity in the recent decade as a way to characterize this kind of travel. Governments throughout the globe have launched sports tourism efforts that have met with different levels of success (Gibson, 2005). There are several diverse sub-niches within sports tourism, just as there are within eco-tourism, but the potential for sport as a tourist niche in other locations is maybe less well-known than it should be (Bull & Weed, 1999). Sports participants have varying associations with the activities they select and the communities that host these events, which may influence their decision to participate. These include occupational, environmental, and human factors issues, as well as physical health (Aicher et al.,2015).
Defining Sports Events Tourism
Sport tourism’s obscurity as a term is exacerbated in part by the difficulties in describing it. To date, most of the writing on the issue has focused on defining sport tourism as a whole rather than breaking it down into its component elements. Most authors use the terms “sport” and “tourism” interchangeably to express the concept of sport tourism. It is useful to understand what sport tourism is, but this definition is much too broad. Data cannot be effectively inferred because of the prohibitively large sample sizes owing to an excessively broad definition (Deery et al., 2004). There are two types of sport tourism: active and passive. The third type of athletic tourism, on the other hand, appears to be based on nostalgia, which is consistent with a broader trend in tourism. People who engage in physical activities, observe physical activities, or appreciate areas linked with such activities are known as sport tourists, and they go to these destinations for such purpose (Gibson, 2005).
Theories and Concepts of Sports Events Tourism
Before looking deeper into the ideas and concepts of sport event tourism, it is important to point out some of the academic problems. This is not the first time that the topic of sport tourism has come to a crossroads, according to Gammon et al. (2017). There is no acknowledged theoretical foundation for this industry’s development outside of special interest or niche tourism despite quality guaranteed, peer-reviewed research outputs being produced for over a decade. Sports event management, as well as a revival in serious leisure studies, have arguably left sport and tourism researchers lacking some fundamental principles of engagement. No theoretical model has yet been produced that correctly encompasses what academics feel to be crucial in the creation and consumption of sports-inspired tourism, despite a major growth in the sport tourism study community over the previous two decades. Gibson brings even more attention to these problems (2017).
Serious sports event tourism relies heavily on the notion of a serious leisure. Sport tourism involvement may be evaluated and explained using the six features of serious leisure that Gibson (2005) discusses. Subcultures and societal and personal identity creation are outlined in this section (Gibson, 2005). Social identity theory suggests that patterns of sport tourism engagement should be evaluated in terms of how strongly a person connects with an activity. A person’s level of involvement, for example, will have a significant impact on how they behave. Subcultures and the notion of identity are inextricably interwoven. Groups of people that share an interest in an activity like surfing or snowboarding typically form their own beliefs, attitudes, and customs based on those interests (Gibson, 2005).
Current sport tourism study takes advantage of the constraints framework created by leisure studies’ academics and researchers. A historical perspective is used to explore the constraints framework in North American leisure studies. The notion of constraint negotiation, as articulated by Gibson (2005) and highlighting the three categories of constraints: intrapersonal, interpersonal, and structural, has taken researchers 10 years to adjust their views about how constraints interact with behavioral choices from seeing them as insurmountable hurdles to participation. Restrictions imposed in outdoor leisure might be useful to the sport tourism industry (Gibson, 2005).
Over ten years ago, social scientists began to focus on nostalgia as a topic of study. Tourist places all across the globe have incorporated a nostalgic theme into their renovations and marketing materials. For instance, while Hede (2005) found that the emotive and cognitive components of television programs influence post-consumption sentiments regarding Greece, he also found that telecasts had a significant impact on the attitudes of those who had seen them. Nostalgic sports tourism often includes visits to dream camps and halls of fame (Gibson, 2005). While visiting sports stadiums and museums might elicit feelings of nostalgia, so can a group of sports tourists who have had an event together, such as an annual bus excursion to the stadium to see their team play. Sports fans who have a long history of traveling to support their team might benefit from a deeper knowledge of sport tourism involvement via the use of these theoretical views, which share certain similar ideas and can be utilized alone or in conjunction with each other (Gibson, 2005).
One relevant theoretical framework for studying how and why people support large events is the Social Exchange Theory (SET), which has been used in many research. People will engage in the exchange process and help relevant efforts if they obtain advantages without any unanticipated expenditures, which is the premise of the SET model (Kim & Kaplanidou, 2019). When citizens see the advantages, their level of support rises. Most research that employed SET in their analysis of mega sport events focused on the economic, environmental and sociocultural aspects of citizens’ attitudes about the events and how these elements were linked to their support. SET-based research have demonstrated that citizens’ support for mega events is influenced by their perceptions of the events’ positive and negative impacts (Kim & Kaplanidou, 2019). For example, Ma et al. (2013) used this idea in their research of how host citizens’ perceptions of big sporting events changed. According to the findings of Presenza and Sheehan (2013), who also used the SET in their research, citizens’ views toward tourist development and their perceptions of their level of engagement in the formulation of strategy and direction for development are intimately tied one another. When If this hypothesis is applied to a wide range of settings, kinds of event tourism and even nations, it seems to hold up well (Boonsiritomachai & Phonthanukitithaworn, 2019)
The field of sport events tourism studies has also paid close attention to the concept of destination image or branding. Event sport tourism has gotten a lot of attention from governments throughout the world because of the belief that hosting a major sporting event would boost tourism and economic investment. Previous research on destination image and destination branding has largely been seen as incompatible from two independent study paradigms. On the other hand, some people believe these ideas have hindered the creation of an overarching concept for destination branding. Using a theoretical framework established by Gibson (2005), a destination’s brand may be developed through sport tourism and the behavior of sport tourists studied. Sport events may need that a connection between the event and the destination’s brand be shown (Chalip & Costa, 2005).
Additionally, seasonality is a crucial concept for both academic and practical reasons in tourist research. Destinations’ capacity to attract visitors has long been understood to be seasonal. Seasonality is greatly influenced by the changing climate throughout the year (Gibson, 2005). For instance, when it comes to winter sports destinations in the northern hemisphere such as skiing and snowboarding, the most popular months in the winter are December through February. The off-peak months are November through March and April. As a result, extending the tourist season is a major concern for places that rely on tourism. Sport is one method to achieve this, especially by having regularly scheduled league games that draw a reasonable number of fans during non-peak tourist months (Gibson, 2005).
Impacts of Sports Events Tourism
Internationally renowned iconic tourist events like the Olympic Games or the FIFA World Cup have the potential to have long-term or short-term consequences. Events are considered short-term if they take place in the immediate aftermath of the occurrence. The long-term period starts with the event’s bidding and continues until a future date that has not yet been decided. Because the emphasis is on the aftermath of an event, which happens by definition during the post-event phase, the prevent period is sometimes disregarded when discussing long-term effects (Solberg & Preuss, 2007). It seems that the long-term impact of major sporting events appears to be directed by a path-dependence development process. As a result, the event’s strategic planning and management are impacted by the local context’s resources and skills (Zagnoli & Radicchi, 2009). According to Fredline (2005), the economic, physical and environmental, and social impacts of sport tourism are all possible.
On the economic front, many major sporting events produce money that covers operating expenses but not investment expenses. Short-term earnings may not be adequate to meet operating expenditures, resulting in a need for more public funds to pay for the shortfall. That might have detrimental long-term effects on other activities that depend on tax money if it is true. A well-known case in point is the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, which left the city burdened with massive debt (Solberg & Preuss, 2007).
Multisport events also have an influence on the secondary structure, notably housing, in terms of physical and environmental impacts. During big multisport events, participants, officials, and members of the media are often housed in their own villages. There may be gentrification in these areas, which is frequently a stark contrast to the neighborhood’s former nature. It may be seen in the neighborhood renovations for the Olympics in Barcelona and Seoul or the Manchester railway station area in 2002. (Solberg & Preuss, 2007). Sport parks, on the other hand, are typically used to organize many sports facilities in a city. Recreational sports and cultural events are also offered in these parks, which are surrounded by parkland and service infrastructure that makes them ideal places for people to relax (Solberg & Preuss, 2007).
Host cities of big sports events typically experience an increase in civic pride and a feeling of self-actualization as a result of sport tourism’s social benefits (Fredline, 2005). The organization of a significant sporting event has the potential to improve individuals’ knowledge and abilities. Improvements in human capital may be attained in three ways at the very least. Firstly, volunteers in the hospitality sector may improve their skills and expertise by participating in hospitality training programs. People learned new talents, such as cooking, during the Sydney 2000 Olympic Games. In most cases, the planning committees set up training programs aimed at improving workers’ abilities in the service sector. Taxi drivers for the 1988 and 2004 Olympic Games in Seoul and Athens and the 2006 FIFA World Cup in Germany were among those who received English language training (Solberg & Preuss, 2007). Secondly, we can increase our expertise and abilities to win more bid contests in order to attract congresses, trade shows and cultural and athletic events. As a last point, the ability to ensure a safe environment may be improved. For example, during their preparation for a large sporting event, volunteers might hone their abilities for spotting potentially dangerous circumstances. The local police are given stronger tools, and the security network is strengthened by establishing connections with national and international anti-terrorist groups (Solberg & Preuss, 2007).
Sustainability of Sports Events Tourism
No single definition or strategy to achieve sustainability has been adopted, but there has been recognition that it is much more than a “greening of events” and in this sense the discourse is strongly tied to appraisals of worth, arguments for public sector action and portfolios and populations (Getz & Page, 2016). Sustainability focuses on long-term circumstances, while sustainable development focuses on short-term outcomes (Gibson et al., 2012). Smaller sporting events are less likely to be seen as problematic spectacles than their larger, more commercialized counterparts because they are less advertised, more sanitized, and more accountable to local stakeholders. Local sports commission activities and small-scale event sport tourism are examples of sustainable tourism development for the host community (Gibson et al., 2012). According to these proponents of small-scale event sport tourism, it is a feasible alternative to the organization of large-scale events since it encourages an ongoing flow of visitors, utilizes existing facilities, and is of a size suitable with the host town. According to the authors, small-scale event sport tourism might be a viable alternative for sustainable tourism growth in many places (Gibson et al., 2012).
For many host cities, investing in major sports events is justification for promoting “sustainable development” or “sustainable regeneration.” According to a number of studies, sports events seem to have a negative impact on the social sustainability of host cities. Despite the fact that individuals are physically displaced from their homes, such events cause societal unrest that has little to do with their sporting qualities. Local inhabitants may find it challenging to build a sense of place, purpose, and belonging in their own communities while undergoing major upheavals. Events may bring in a new era, but the goodwill they inspire is unlikely to remain long in society (Smith, 2009).
Sports events may have a lasting ‘feel-good’ effect, but only if clever leverage programs are put in place. As a means of achieving social sustainability, this seems to be ineffectual. A “feel-good aspect” is a popular indicator for researchers to inquire about the general positive effects of an event. People are seldom asked in studies whether they feel better or how long these feelings last as a result of the encounter. Events’ social sustainability would be greatly enhanced if the “feel good factor” could be transformed into a “do good factor,” when people make continuous efforts to assist their local communities and act more responsibly. (Smith, 2009). Significant events have an unsatisfactory record in terms of social sustainability due to the neoliberal ideology of contending for footloose capital, which entails the regeneration of communities, rather than the regeneration in communities. In the wake of big events, cities see a rapid increase in population and infrastructure. There is a negative impact on existing communities. Rather than simply transferring problems elsewhere, socially sustainable principles demand for steady growth and meeting present requirements (Smith, 2009).
Several issues can arise from sports event tourism. For instance, an overly positive outlook on the local tourist business might lead to excessive investment. Realistic expectations must be held by everyone participating in the planning and preparations process—for both short- and long-term outcomes. There is a risk that too many permanent enterprises may lead to bankruptcy, especially in the lodging sector if this is not addressed (Solberg & Preuss, 2007). In order to promote an event to lawmakers or the general public, event sponsors often engage consultants to prepare evaluations that emphasize the event’s advantages. As a consequence, people may have unrealistic expectations about how well tourism may be used in the long run. Event tourism and regular tourism both fall under this umbrella. After the 2010 FIFA World Cup, South Africa spent money on new and renovated stadiums, for example, as reported by Giampiccoli et al. (2015). South Africa had an oversupply of goods as a result of its many sports stadiums and luxurious hotels. As expected, South Africa’s economy benefited from the 2010 World Cup; although, the beneficial effect was focused on the cities of Johannesburg, Cape Town and Durban and the huge wildlife parks and beaches situated nearby. Therefore, building stadiums and other sports infrastructure does not ensure that a location would benefit in the future.
Additionally, event planners and everyone engaged in event planning should coordinate their efforts in order to fulfill the high demand that occurs during an event. In this category, temporary lodgings such as dormitories, tents, or bureau buildings that have been repurposed are included. Cruise ships may be hired to alleviate some of the high demand for lodging in maritime cities. It is a smarter plan, even though it may lead to import leakage that reduces economic advantages for the local community, to build a smaller hotel capacity than is likely to be needed in the future (Solberg & Preuss, 2007).
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