Martin Luther King Speech “Letter From A Birmingham Jail” Sample Assignment

Context and Summary


The “Letter from a Birmingham Jail” speech addresses the subject that many people fighting against racism and segregation regarded as controversial at the time, particularly, Martin Luther King’s decision to use nonviolence as the means of addressing rampant racism and discrimination that could be witnessed in the United States at the time, is the primary focus of the letters. The letter was written to the opponents of Martin Luther King’s actions; particularly, it targeted clergymen that subjected Dr. King’s decisions to harsh criticism due to his decision to extend the range of his activities to encouraging change in Birmingham. Dr. King explained in his letter that he strived to battle injustice no matter where it occurred and, therefore, had to switch his focus to Birmingham, where racial segregation reached its peak at the time.


Since Martin Luther King’s decision to move to Birmingham instead of continuing his work in Alabama raised a lot of questions and led to several suggestions about the necessity to switch to a more aggressive strategy, the letter was supposed to convince the audience that nonviolence was the key to managing the issue of segregation. Thus, the pressure from the proponents of more radical measures, the need to follow the chosen policy, and the racist policies enhanced by Bull Connor are the key components of the context in which the letter was written. Thus, it is the sociopolitical conflict in the midst of which Dr. King found himself that can be considered the context of the letter. Becoming very vivid as the details of the situation unwrap in the letter, the confrontation between the clergy and Martin Luther King is the key context in which the speech has to be placed.

Induction and Deduction


The examples of induction are rather hard to trace in Martin Luther King’s speech, mostly because Dr. King general assumptions about the social and racial tensions in the U.S. based on his experience was not the purpose of the letter. However, some aspects of inductive reasoning can be located if considering Dr. King’s arguments closer. For instance, he points out that all African Americans living in Alabama, as well as some parts of the United States, are prohibited from voting, which implies that the results thereof cannot be considered as legitimate. Afterward, Martin Luther King questions the legitimacy of any regulation passed under the rule of the president who has not been elected democratically, thus, generalizing the first assumption. The specified argument can be considered an example of inductive reasoning.


The inductive reasoning of the letter, in turn, shines through as Martin Luther King addresses the nature of a nonviolent movement as the means of proving his point. According to Dr. King, nonviolent opposition contributes to the creation of social tension that leads to peaceful and efficient resolution. Seeing that his idea of opposing Bull Connor’s racist policies is that of a nonviolent protest, it will lead to efficient management of the issue. Particularly, Dr. King stresses that it is not tension that he refuses to create, but an uncontrollable amount of violence. By addressing the nature of a nonviolent action, in general, and connecting it to the type of protesting that he chose, Martin Luther King built a compelling deductive argument. The deductive elements of the speech, therefore, contribute to the creation of the sense of urgency, making Dr. King’s argument very convincing.

Definition and Description


To make his point clear and convincing, Martin Luther King used both definitions and descriptions in his speech. The definitions allowed proving his point right and getting the essence of the message across. Particularly, he subverted the idea of inequality successfully by outlining its nonsensical nature. Furthermore, the nature of the protest, as well as the people that participate in it, was defined in the speech by juxtaposing nonviolent protesters to the ones that use force as a means to an end. Although the specified definition focused on what the protesters are not rather than what they were, it still represented the goals that Martin Luther King and his supporters pursued. As a result, Dr. King’s speech became poignant and direct, pointing to the grave injustice that African American people were suffering at the time. Even though a definition was supposed to be juxtaposed to a description, thus, containing the logical element of a speech, in Martin Luther King’s letter, the two intertwined and, therefore, allowed creating a unique and persuasive argument.


Serving as emotional support for Dr. King’s argument, the descriptions used in the letter supported the main idea, thus, helping recreate the atmosphere in which the speech was written. The descriptions were used to appeal to clergymen’s sense of justice by creating an image of trials and tribulations that African American people had to stand for their voices to be heard in the American society at the time. Because of the emotionally charged arguments that Dr. King made in his speech, the descriptions add to the weight of the general argument, thus, becoming a part thereof. For example, he made a very legitimate statement about the nonviolent nature of his movement by portraying the sense of being lost and the endeavors at clinging to their identity that African American people were experiencing during the era of the civil rights movement.



To make the main idea even more convincing, Dr. King introduced a range of comparisons into his speech. For example, he compares justice to a river, the waters of which roll free and unrestrained. The use of similarities allows appealing to the audience’s emotions by drawing lines between the subject matter and the images and experiences that are relatively universal and, therefore, are likely to be familiar to the intended audience. As a result, the dangers of extremism as an alternative to Dr. King’s movement are outlined very clearly, and the reasons for him to choose nonviolence as the means of fighting against discrimination and racism become evident. The allusions to Bible that Martin Luther King made in his speech also served the purpose of pointing to the wrongfulness of segregation and proclaiming equality as the only possible foundation for relationships between representatives of different races and ethnicities.


To produce the intended emotional effect, Martin Luther King also used contrasts in his famous letter. For example, he refers to the time when he was supported by the church during his bus protest that took place in Montgomery. Stressing that he received significant assistance from church members, he juxtaposed his elevated emotional state when being encouraged to the disappointment that he experienced when observing the lack of cooperation from the church. Being emotionally charged and logically sound, Martin Luther King’s statement uses contrast effectively and delivers its message to the reader immediately.

Personality Type Determination: The Impact Of Personality Type On Effective Leadership In Healthcare Settings

In many cases, the leadership qualities of individuals depend on their personality types and associated characteristics that can determine their reactions and behaviors in different situations. The Jung Typology Test is one of the tools that help determine the personality type concerning Carl Jung’s theory and Isabel Briggs Myers’ analysis of personalities (“Jung Typology Test,” 2018). The purpose of this paper is to describe how the personality type determined with the help of the Jung Typology Test can affect leadership in healthcare settings and explain the four aspects associated with the personality type in detail.

The Impact of the Personality Type on Leadership in Healthcare Environments

After responding to the questions proposed in the test, the following formula associated with a unique personality type was determined: ENFJ. In this formula, “E” stands for “extravert,” “N” stands for “intuitive,” “F” stands for “feeling,” and “J” stands for “judging.” As a result, the personality type can be described as oriented to communication because of developed interpersonal skills and focused on intuition rather than senses. Moreover, people with this personality type refer to their feelings often than to thinking and analysis, but they are more oriented to judging than to perception. The variety of these characteristics allows for assuming that individuals with this personality type can develop their potential as leaders and communicators in different situations and settings.

While analyzing how this personality type can influence effective leadership in the sphere of health care, it is important to note that the ENFJ type is frequently possessed by leaders and managers who need to cooperate with people as well as organize their activities. These persons are described as having developed interpersonal skills because they are extroverts, and they can easily set goals for other people and motivate them to achieve higher results. These qualities are extremely important for effective leadership (Mash, Blitz, Malan, & Von Pressentin, 2016). Moreover, these individuals can perform multi-tasking and effective problem solving because of their focus on judging activities. They also can assist other people and stimulate their progress. All these qualities are important for leaders in actively changing healthcare environments where multi-tasking and the necessity of making quick effective decisions are usually observed.

As a result, an individual with the ENFJ type can achieve high results in not only performing managerial tasks but also leading other people. The qualities typical of persons of this type enhance effective leadership because they are flexible, inspirational, supportive, and able to work with many employees. In healthcare settings, these leaders can successfully motivate employees and stimulate them with those benefits and bonuses that are appropriate in particular cases.

Four Aspects of the Personality

Having described the formula of the determined personality type, it is also necessary to focus on explaining all four factors that are used to form the specific personality. The focus on extroversion means that a person can easily interact with other people, and what is more important, this individual prefers working with people and sharing tasks. As a result, these people usually demonstrate better results when working in teams (Waite & McKinney, 2018). The focus on intuition means that a person relies on his or her intuition when making decisions without paying much attention to analyzing associated rational aspects.

The focus on feeling is also typical of the ENFJ type, and these people refer to their emotions when they need to make decisions regarding communication with other persons, conflict resolution, and negotiation. All problems are resolved with the help of communication, empathy, and a person’s interest in other people’s feelings, emotions, and reasons behind this or that behavior. However, it is also important to pay attention to the fact that the focus on judging rather than on perceiving guarantees that representatives of this personality type also use a rational approach to analyzing situations and events related to their activities and everyday tasks. Thus, these people are inclined to check the theoretical knowledge in practice and make their judgments. They are effective learners, and they are always interested in finding new solutions and testing new ideas to select the most effective ones. These qualities contribute to developing leadership attributes in persons who belong to the ENFJ personality type.


In this paper, the results of performing the Jung Typology Test have been presented concerning the analysis of how a certain personality type can contribute or not to developing effective leadership in healthcare settings. It has been found that people with the ENFJ personality type are active extroverts with developed interpersonal and leadership skills and attributes. As a result, they can effectively communicate with different people and organize them for working to achieve the set goal. Moreover, these persons prefer multi-tasking, and they can realize their potential while working in challenging environments. These people’s orientation to change and progress allows them to organize different types of operations and lead a team to complete strategic objectives. From this perspective, it is possible to state that people with the ENFJ personality type can be effective leaders in any sphere, including healthcare.


Jung Typology Test. (2018).

Mash, R., Blitz, J., Malan, Z., & Von Pressentin, K. (2016). Leadership and governance: Learning outcomes and competencies required of the family physician in the district health system. South African Family Practice, 58(6), 232-235.

Waite, R., & McKinney, N. S. (2018). Personality typology: Understanding your preferences and striving for team effectiveness. ABNF Journal, 29(1), 8-16.

Intermodal Transportation Regulations In The USA And Europe

Intermodal transportation can be defined as “seamless door-to-door freight transport operations using at least two different modes of transport” (Harn & Toshinori, 2005, p. 3). Historically, freight logistics markets were strictly regulated in both Europe and the USA. Policies, laws, and regulations helped protect the existing firms’ position within the sector yet challenged the survival of new entrants. Nowadays, one can observe a trend towards the liberalization (deregulation) of intermodal logistics in these regions. The given trend creates new opportunities for innovation and competition in the market. The impacts of regulation/deregulation on intermodal transportation in the USA and Europe will be discussed in the following paragraphs.

European Union

A well-developed transportation system plays an essential role in the EU’s efforts to create a unified market and break down the barriers between the member states. The Common Transport Policy is one of the major documents that help develop a supportive environment for the integration of transportation operations between the European countries. It mainly aims to encourage the development of Trans-European Transport Networks, promote further deregulation of the transportation markets, and increase the sustainability of networks (Reggiani, Cattaneo, Janic, & Nijkamp, 2000). This and some other transport policies introduced in Europe at the beginning of the 21st century largely contribute to revitalizing alternative transportation modes and substantially increase market access, especially in the road transport market.

At the same time, the liberalization of the rail sector remained delayed in many member states because they strived to maintained national monopolies (Senior European Exports Group, 2013). Thus, it is still largely associated with unequal competition, which complicates the development of intermodal logistics. Nevertheless, as part of the deregulation process, some European states, e.g., Netherlands, initiated the programs such as the Marco Polo program aimed to establish contacts between the government and private organizations to increase their engagement in the intermodal logistics activities (Harn & Toshinori, 2005). Such endeavors largely helped improve the perception of intermodal logistics among companies, develop expertise, and enhance intermodal practices.


The Intermodal Surface Transportation Efficiency Act of 1991 is one of the main policies aimed to promote intermodal logistics activities in the country by providing a framework for the development of “a National Intermodal System that shall consist of all forms of transportation in a unified, inter-connected manner” (Harn & Toshinori, 2005, p. 7). The major impacts of the given regulation included more flexible intermodal funding opportunities, as well as the creation of shared public-private investments; facilitated access to the market, and consequently increased competition among shippers, which also resulted in the reduction of transport-linked transaction costs.

Due to the government incentives to enhance transportation intermodality, many large logistics enterprises started to have special units for intermodal operations. However, the greater openness of the transportation market has also triggered the emergence of third-party shippers and carriers. The growth of third-party players in the market occurred “hand-in-hand with expansion of intermodalism” (European Commission Directorate-General VII & U.S. Department of Transportation Office of Intermodalism and Federal Highway Administration, 1998, p. 9). The emergence of such small companies helped eliminate multiple non-economic hindrances, which large corporations had when shifting towards intermodal logistics, e.g., unmanageable scale, and so on. In this way, it helped increase productivity in the intermodal transport sector.


In Europe and the USA, a few effective projects have been performed to support the promotion of intermodal logistics. Their major impacts included the increased accessibility to the market, lower transaction costs for businesses, shifts in the perception of intermodal transportation (i.e., it started to be associated with some customer values such as greater ecological sustainability due to the use of alternative transport modes). It is possible to say, that some more improvements in the intermodal operational management and processes are still required there. Greater openness to the competition may foster more innovative and creative solutions.


European Commission Directorate-General VII & U.S. Department of Transportation Office of Intermodalism and Federal Highway Administration. (1998). Toward improved intermodal freight transport in Europe and the United States: Next steps. Web.

Harn, B. E., & Toshinori, N. (2005). Intermodal logistics policies in the EU, the U.S. and Japan. Web.

Reggiani, A., Cattaneo, S., Janic, M., & Nijkamp, P. (2000). Freight transport In Europe. Iatss Research, 24(1), 48-59.

Senior European Exports Group. (2013). The liberalisation of Europe’s railways. Web.

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