Mass Incarceration And Its Prejudice In The US Sample Essay


The research was conducted to investigate the issue of mass incarceration and its prejudice in the United States of America. The main questions that guided this research touched most on the relationship between incarceration and mental health relationship between incarceration and poverty levels, among others. It was found that mass incarcerations had much impact on minority communities compared to the majority communities. Incarceration relates positively to human mental health, poverty levels, education, and wealth status. The research concluded that the issues discussed under this topic cut across other nations, and every government should take the necessary measures to ensure fair services to the citizens. It was recommended that governments lead as an example by showing the citizens the best actions to undertake for a better living. Public awareness was the most effective strategy to engage the citizens in policy implementation for fair community services.


Mass incarceration is a punishment where the government detains individuals in prisons. This detaining occurs due to offenses committed or being suspected of assisting someone or a group of people in crimes. Therefore, incarceration precedes trial in most countries and states. The time someone stays in jail before being taken for trial depends on the government’s policies. Again, one can be detained more if the government exercises racism. For instance, if one comes from a minority group in America, they are likely to spend more time in incarceration than the case where the person suspected of committing a crime comes from the Majority group. Prejudice refers to a group’s negative attitudes toward a given person or subject. Prejudice may make one hate other people’s way of life and make social interactions between various groups of people a nightmare. For instance, children from minority groups may develop negative attitudes towards the ones from majority groups due to the oppression experienced. In most cases, prejudice occurs due to historical stories the modern generation received from their ancestors concerning the poor treatment they received from neighboring communities. Sometimes prejudice involves considering the community’s recent experience with one another.

The topic of mass incarceration rings in researchers’ mindsets in the modern world. It raises endless questions about why some countries or states incarcerate people more than others. Everything a country or state does at a high rate must benefit either the state officials or the citizens. Therefore, we can say that incarceration is good on the one hand and bad on the other. This research investigates the possible benefits and drawbacks of incarceration in the united states of America. The findings are organized to tackle the issue concerning the black population vERSUS the whites. The available facts show that America incarcerates people more than any other country.

Additionally, it has the highest number of prisoners. Nevertheless, what do the citizens from other countries say about incarceration rates and the high number of prisoners in America? This and other questions form the base for the current research.

History of Incarceration and Prejudice in the US

Incarceration and prejudice are as old as the 1970s when the US government enacted laws to curb the trafficking and use of drugs (Introduction: Origins of mass incarceration, 2016). Some of the policies enacted during this time include “the war on drugs” policies, and minimum sentence policies, among others. Although these laws were enacted to safeguard the welfare of human beings, they turned out to spread ethnicity. The people incarcerated included mostly people of color. This issue of ethnicity grew its roots as time passed, and now the US has the highest number of incarcerated individuals. Critics argue that incarceration involves very high costs, making it impossible for citizens to lead a good lifestyle (Introduction: Origins of mass incarceration, 2016). There is a need to create awareness concerning the efforts to cobalt the effects of incarceration in the modern world. Notably, this research considers the US because it leads to the impacts of incarceration; this implies that other countries exercise incarceration at a lower rate than the US.

Statement of the Problem

Research shows that the United States of America leads in the incarceration rate globally. More than 2.3 million people are behind bars awaiting trials at different predetermined dates (Introduction: Origins of mass incarceration, 2016). Incarceration heavily affects the marginalized groups who comprise immigrants from developing countries. Most incarcerated citizens are of color, low-income earners, and physically and mentally challenged. Sadly, the incarcerated portray high rates of hopelessness as the incarceration periods may increase at any time, according to the pronunciations of the government.

Ideally, incarceration increases the gap between the rich and the poor, planting the seed of hatred throughout communities. Unfortunately, people face inhuman treatment in the well-up states rather than developing nations. We expect America to lead other nations with good morals depicted by proper exercises of legal proceedings and systems. If not corrected, incarceration will increase poverty rates and deter rehabilitations which may increase evil deeds among the community members. For instance, people of color may organize riots against whites making life unbearable in America. Again, this incarceration may encourage bloodshed, where members from different social classes fight for their security. In this case, security is in the form of poverty reduction and the fight for peaceful coexistence (Fornili, 2018). The blacks fight for poverty reduction while the whites fight for peace. Therefore, there is a significant need to research the relationship between incarceration and the well-being of society. The topic concerns the critical and most-current issues that the government should address for a turn-around in community welfare.

The issue of prejudice is evidenced in various ways in the criminal justice system of the United States of America. In most cases, the officers in charge of prisons treat people of color worse than whites (Fornili, 2018). Again, there are not as many whites as people of color under incarceration; this implies that the rates of prejudice in the criminal system are very high, and there is a need to curb that trend for better interactions.

Questions of Study

The question of the study is crucial in every research. They help the researcher stay focused throughout the research. They also help avoid time wastage in researching items that make no meaning to the research outcome. Therefore, research questions are the roadmap for the research to stay focused. The following questions guide the research concerning incarceration and prejudice in the US.

  • Is there any significant relationship between incarceration in America and the criminal justice system?
  • If there, how does the interplay of incarceration and prejudice increase the mistreatment in the criminal justice system of the United States of America?
  • Is there a positive relationship between incarceration and human well-being?
  • How do incarceration and prejudice impact the rehabilitation of individuals with mental disabilities from minority groups?
  • Is there a positive relationship between incarceration and the poverty cycle?

The Population of Study

The study population involves individuals with similar characteristics concerning the topic under study. In this case, the study examines the American population that is positively or negatively affected by incarceration deeds. This population cuts across the minority groups, the Black Americans, and the physically or mentally challenged. Minority groups in America include all individuals who have experienced instances of discrimination. Most of these individuals are immigrants who came to the US to find settlement and improve their economic well-being. They are highly stigmatized, making them lose hope in the US criminal justice system. Since they come from various nations, they speak diverse languages making it hard to share social resources effectively. Hence, there are high rates of disagreements among the members of this group. Therefore, it is important to study how incarceration and prejudice affect this group’s interactions.

Data Collection Methods

The main data collection method used in this study involved secondary analysis. This analysis calls for the researcher to look into the various data written and stored in electronic or library forms. Since the topic deals with the study of a current issue, online sources helped compile various data for analysis. This method is very fast since it involves just a click of a button, and one gets all the information relevant to the topic under discussion. The statistical information used in the study came from the government website and other scholarly sources. This data collection method is cost-effective because it involves simple procedures (Schoenfeld, 2012). Again, it can be a group of researchers. For example, only one researcher can effectively carry out all the elements quickly. Since American citizens are very busy carrying out business activities, it is impossible to conduct interviews and surveys. Therefore, the best option left for this study was to conduct online research. The data on incarceration and prejudice is already calculated and analyzed online. Therefore, the research was easy since one needed to pick the information and relate it to the topic discussed. For example, online graphs show the relationship between incarceration and prejudice over the years. In this case, the researcher observed the trend and concluded the current study.

Relationship between incarceration and the criminal justice system

There is a significant relationship between incarceration and the criminal justice system in America. The criminal justice system involves various activities, including prosecuting criminals, enforcing the law, and formulating policies, among others (Bennett, 2013). These policies dictate the length and harshness of conditions in jails.

On a different note, the various rules and regulations may be hard for people to adhere to. For example, policies on mandatory minimums make it hard for people to lead a free and fair lifestyle. This tempts citizens to commit crimes to maneuver their way into difficult economic situations. The war on drugs is another area where policies are hard to follow for many individuals. People break the law as they try to use drugs, saying they want to keep themselves happy. Scientific research shows that mass incarceration is mainly due to the policies put forth to regulate human behavior. For example, in 1981, the government of the United States of America put up policies that helped minimize the use of drugs (Bennett, 2013). In this regard, the policymakers instituted a minimum sentencing period. These minimum sentencing policies increased the number of people involved in mass incarceration.

The policies on drugs affected the blacks and the Latinos because they had a history of using and trafficking drugs. This did not mean that the whites could not traffic drugs, but due to financial disparities between the blacks and whites, the blacks depended on drug trafficking for income. Therefore, the policies seemed to be set as a trap for the minority groups who could not access other sources of income (Bennett, 2013). This implied that, although drug use was common in America, the traffickers faced the law more harshly than any other person.

On top of drug trafficking, the government of the United States of America set laws that regulate the consumption of various drugs. If a drug is not curative, then it is against the law. According to the 2020 data on drug use, approximately 46% of individuals in the US are incarcerated due to the misuse of drugs (Simpson et al., 2020). Among these inmates, the majority are Black Americans. This number and composition of the inmates suggest that the law enforcers are ethnic. Likely, the whites did not face the law in the same measures the minority communities did.

Incarceration and Prejudice

The whites’ negative attitude toward blacks makes life uncomfortable for the inmates. The incarceration period is sometimes longer for black inmates than for their white counterparts. On the same note, if two people are caught guilty of a given offense, the law prescribes that the two should face equal punishment. However, this is not the case in most cases; the judiciary will conclude that the blacks are the perpetrators of the given crime (Prejudice in the US in the 20th century, n.d.). One may mostly say that marginalized communities are prone to committing crimes to earn a living.

Historically, the criminal justice system of the United States mistreats people of color and people living with disabilities. There may be no reasonable argument for this mistreatment, but whenever one is found to come from these marginalized groups, they may not receive excellent judicial services. To American citizens, coming from marginalized groups is a curse and is associated with evil deeds, including murder, and theft, among others.

Mass incarceration poses a great threat to the lives of the inmates. Overcrowding is one of the bad situations that affect these inmates. These inmates are prone to airborne diseases as there is no free flow of air in the jail. The little air that enters the jails finishes very fast due to high demand from many inmates (Prejudice in the US in the 20th century, n.d.). The inmates may sometimes suffocate and face untimely death due to poor ventilation. Furthermore, the minority groups in jails do not access healthcare facilities.

Research shows that people with mental disabilities are many in United States jails. This implies that the law enforcers do not mind checking the mental soundness of the individuals suspected of committing certain criminal offenses. Again, the high influx of the Black-Americans in jails makes the inmates overthink, making them lose memories. The law requires that people with mental disabilities be placed in jails with special equipment to take care of the disabilities. For instance, jails should have rehabilitation facilities to enhance the recovery of the mentally-challenged individuals (Jouet, 2017). However, this is not the case in most jails in the US. Consequently, incarceration and prejudice hit more people with mental problems than the ones with a normal mind-functioning state.

Summarily, the interplay between incarceration and prejudice has led to the great mistreatment of minority groups. It is likely that if things do not change soon, minority groups will stop existing in America (Prejudice in the US in the 20th century, n.d.). Incarceration and prejudice cause physical and mental torture to black inmates and people with disabilities.

Relationship Between Incarceration and Poverty Cycle

The research shows a positive relationship between the incarceration rate and the poverty level. The higher the rate of incarceration, the higher the poverty level. This relationship is because of several factors. Firstly, incarceration deprives people of the time they could spend working. Most of the inmates are in the age of adults implying that they are mostly the breadwinners in different families. Incarceration deters these inmates from providing food and other basic needs to the family members. in this case, the families in the minority groups continue suffering from poverty (Prejudice in the US in the 20th century, n.d.). To worsen the situation, the people taken to jail do not have huge salaries and therefore do not save. Therefore, the families of the inmates do not have anything they can withdraw from their breadwinners’ saving accounts.

Incarceration comes with huge court fees. The fees are a financial burden to poor communities. Most poor people live from hand to mouth. Therefore, imposing court fines on them is against their financial freedom (Wagner & Sakala, 2014). These fines drain the little the poor had earned for the given day. The fines may also be too high that the incarcerated individuals rely on their family members for clearance. In this case, individuals work not to support their family needs but to have the court fines settled.

Incarceration is an enemy of education. Once taken to jail, individuals will stop their education for an unknown period. By the time one comes from jail, one may not think about going back to education; this is partly because their fellow learners have gone to the next level in the education ladder by the time one completes service of their jail sentence. Again, if a parent is incarcerated, the young ones may not continue with education due to a lack of financial support. This is more so in cases where the learners are at lower education levels (Wagner & Sakala, 2014). At the lower level, the learners need financial support and parental or guardian support. If this support misses, one may not continue with education.

Summarily, incarceration deters education. This, in turn, increases the poverty rate since people who lack education may not get well-paying jobs. Again, if one has the education, one may have excellent skills for self-employment (Prejudice in the US in the 20th century, n.d.). Poor access or lack of education contributes to an endless poverty cycle.

Incarceration and Human Wellbeing

According to research, there is a positive relationship between incarceration and human well-being. Human well-being refers to the health and wealth status of human beings. Incarceration affects human health in different ways. For instance, due to overcrowding in jails, one may develop communicable diseases (Schoenfeld, 2012). Again, one may develop pneumonia and other related illnesses due to the cold conditions of the jails in which they are incarcerated. The poor conditions in the various jails threaten human health to the extent of causing untimely deaths.

Incarceration also affects the wealth status of the incarcerated due to the inability to access job opportunities. Wealth creation is for people with good health. If one comes from jail with poor health, they are likely to fail to work effectively, hence getting little earnings (The contours of mass incarceration, 2020). Notably, most people in minority communities do not earn salaries. Instead, they earn wages. These wages follow the principles of piece rate. This implies that if one works at a lower rate than they used to before their health deteriorates, the wages will also go down.


Mass incarceration and prejudice affect minority groups more than the majority. As seen from the findings, the US greatly perpetuates the idea of prejudice, making the citizens experience moments of mistreatment across families in marginalized communities. People from these marginalized communities pay it dearly when the criminal system puts them in jail or fines them. For instance, a jailed parent will not effectively support the young ones, contributing to physical and mental poor growth. Much money may be used to settle fines charged by law courts for crimes committed by various individuals.


The US government will continue to experience a great disparity between the rich and the poor if the right measures are not implemented. Some of the possible actions to take are establishing a system of services that considers human rights irrespective of bias or prejudice. The government should be t the frontline to show its citizens that all the soles are equal and should be treated fairly at all times. The government can establish a policy allowing citizens to follow the proceedings in law courts and compare the punishments extended to people from various ethnic groups. If there are favoritisms in the court proceedings, the concerned individuals can request another hearing for better service provision. Above all, public awareness is key to awakening the citizens to understand their human rights and stand up to safeguard them.


Bennett, M. W. (2013). A Slow Motion Lynching: The War on Drugs, Mass Incarceration, Doing Kimbrough Justice, and a Response to Two Third Circuit Judges. Rutgers L. Rev., pp. 66, 873.

Fornili, K. S. (2018). Racialized mass incarceration and the war on drugs: A critical race theory appraisal. Journal of Addictions Nursing29(1), 65-72.

Introduction: Origins of mass incarceration. (2016). From the War on Poverty to the War on Crime, 1-26.

Jouet, M. (2017). Mass incarceration, executions, and gun violence  in “the land of the free .”Exceptional America.

Moore, R. (2017). An analysis of Michelle Alexander’s The New Jim Crow: Mass incarceration in the age of colorblindness. Macat Library.

Prejudice in the US in the 20th century. (n.d.). Resources for Teaching History: 14–16.

Schoenfeld, H. (2012). The war on drugs, the politics of crime, and mass incarceration in the United States. J. Gender Race & Just.15, 315.

Simpson, S. A., Steil, J., & Mehta, A. (2020). Planning beyond mass incarceration. Journal of Planning Education and Research40(2), 130-138.

The contours of mass incarceration. (2020). The Punishment Imperative, 17-46.

Wagner, P., & Sakala, L. (2014). Mass incarceration: The whole pie. Prison Policy Initiative12.

Media Effect Of Campaign Free Sample

Media has been used to share information with a wide audience over the recent past. Media has been increasingly used in political campaigns, creating brand awareness among businesses, advertising products and services, and mobilizing people of common interest in various encounters. The influencers in the various media platforms seek to develop trust with their target audience and seek to convince them to make decisions that suit the influencer’s interests. The technical advancements being experienced around the globe have led to most communication being done through social media platforms like Facebook, Twitter, and bloggers. The effects of social media can be negative or positive depending on the influencer’s intention, the audience’s perception, and the campaign’s contextualization. This paper seeks to analyze, reason, and discuss the effects of a media campaign on both micro-level (individual) and macro-level (group).

Campaign Effects on Individual

In modern society, individuals rely essentially on media information to make decisions (Pop et al., 2022). Media campaign creates increased awareness and knowledge of an individual, which enable them to make informed decisions. Media campaigns through platforms like newspapers, bloggers, and Twitter provide detailed information on political candidates, issues, and products, enabling an individual to be knowledgeable about the choice to make (Greiner et al., 2023). Through media coverage, individuals form opinions on whether to support or reject the point that influencers present.

Despite the various benefits of the media campaign to an individual, they preset some negative impacts; they evoke emotional responses in individuals. When intimidating and threatening information is shared through social media, an individual may be evoked to respond emotionally through fear, anger, and enthusiasm (Greiner et al., 2023). These emotions are amplified or suppressed by the nature of the media coverage. Often, media campaigns may give people information that is undesirable and make them deviate from key life issues. Pop et al. (2022) articulates that media campaign has caused high desensitization since most of the shared content makes individuals less empathetic to real issues. Besides, the information overload that comes with a media campaign may overwhelm an individual and lead to confusion, apathy, or an individual developing a sense of helplessness (Bright et al., 2020). It is important that individuals be keen with the information they obtain from a media campaign to ensure that they benefit from it; the negative impacts should not be overlooked as they can be harmful to personal well-being.

Campaign Effect on Groups or Communities

Influencers often structure information to reach out to targeted individuals and communities. Information shared can significantly influence collective attitudes, behavior and beliefs making the community respond in a particular manner (Bright et al., 2020). The effect can be positive or negative depending on how the influencers present it to the audience. Notably, media campaigns have the effect of raising awareness in a particular community. The targeted community can be aware of issues that affect them; these may extend from the suitable political leaders a community should consider electing, health issues that concern the community, or even products and services that a community should consider buying (Pop et al., 2022).

Besides, media campaign affects a community by mobilizing their action as it brings about behavioral change and policy implementation (Boulianne, 2020). Through media campaigns, people are aware of how they can get involved in activities that concern the community. The influencers encourage people to take action that will present their (influencers’) best interests. The campaigns often use persuasive appeals to convince people of the best actions they should take (Greiner et al., 2023). By providing a clear message, specific actions to take, and accessible ways to get involved, media campaigns can effectively mobilize a community to take action toward a shared goal. The effect of mobilization towards a common purpose is vital for the advancement of a community because the members can join efforts to either put a leader in position, pass a proposal or amendment that serves the collective good or even oppose initiatives that can harm the society (Boulianne, 2020). Speaking in one voice is desirable as it gives a community power to govern through policies that favor the majority.

Moreover, media campaign affects a community by fostering community engagement and social cohesion, especially when the shared information encourages community-building initiatives in various political, health, social, cultural, and economic (Bright et al., 2020). Media platforms provide a key avenue in which matters pertaining to a community can be shared. Media campaign enables a group to create social power, which provides major pathways for communal conduct and cultural values (Greiner et al., 2023). The effect of a media campaign on a group depends on the campaign objective, the receptivity of the target audience, and the context in which it is received.

However, there are various negative effects of media campaigns on a community. These include aggravating divisions within the community by reinforcing stereotypes, promoting misinformation, or stigmatizing particular groups. Media campaigns can portray certain groups as criminals or terrorists, reinforcing negative stereotypes and further marginalizing particular communities (Boulianne, 2020). Additionally, media campaigns may promote misinformation in a community which can lead to confusion and misunderstanding within the community (Pop et al., 2022). Misinformation can cause people to make misguided decisions that harm themselves and others, such as refusing to get vaccinated or campaigns that encourage participation in harmful activities.

Furthermore, Greiner et al. (2023) articulate that media campaigns can stigmatize particular groups in society by focusing on their negative attributes rather than their positive contribution to society (Boulianne, 2020). Through negative influence, marginalization can grow to an alarming extent which can harm the whole community; this is because through divisions societal power of a community is weakened. The campaign creates polarization and division within a community by pitting different groups against each other. For instance, political rivals may use divisive language to mobilize their supporters and create hostility and conflict within the community, leading to the breakdown of social cooperation and cohesion (Pop et al., 2022). Community members should be careful with the information they access, while influencers should be responsible for what they share to protect the community.


Media campaigns can positively and negatively affect an individual and community. While media campaigns may increase awareness, promote collective action and foster community engagement, they can also lead to emotional response, intensify divisions, promote miscommunication, and stigmatize particular groups. Individuals and communities need to be discerning in their consumption of media. For influencers to be responsible in the messages they disseminate to the public. Ultimately, media campaigns should strive to promote social cohesion, respect for diverse opinions, and the common good of society.


Boulianne, S. (2020). Twenty years of digital media effects on civic and political participation. Communication Research, 47(7), 947-966.

Bright, J., Hale, S., Ganesh, B., Bulovsky, A., Margetts, H., & Howard, P. (2020). Does Campaigning on social media Make a Difference? Evidence from candidate use of Twitter during the 2015 and 2017 UK Elections. Communication Research, 47(7), 988-1009.

Greiner, L. H., Record, R. A., Wipfli, H., Strickland, J., Owens, J., Pugel, J., & Matt, G. E. (2023). Evaluation of a social media campaign designed to increase awareness of thirdhand smoke among California adults. Health Communication, 38(3), 437-446.

Pop, R. A., Săplăcan, Z., Dabija, D. C., & Alt, M. A. (2022). The impact of social media influencers on decision making: The role of trust in the consumer decision journey. Current Issues in Tourism, 25(5), 823-843.

Medication Errors As A Patient Care Problem In Nursing University Essay Example

Describe a patient care problem with an impact on the budget as a financial management issue in your workplace.

Medication errors are one of the serious patient care problems in nursing that impact the patient’s health and affect financial management in healthcare organizations. It involves dispensing the wrong medication, wrong dosage strength, or form. It also involves wrong dosage or failure to consider drug interactions or contraindications for a particular patient (Dirik et al., 2019). Medication errors in nursing also involve administering a medication to the wrong patient; this can result in serious health and financial issues to the patient receiving the drugs, the patient who was supposed to receive the drug, and the healthcare organization. Administering medication at the wrong time, mixing up medication, or generally not observing the prescription requirement of the drug is considered a medication error in nursing.

Medication errors have a great impact on healthcare budgets. It affects the cost of healthcare maintenance due to long recovery time or complications that may arise due to medication errors. It can significantly impact a healthcare organization’s budget as a financial management issue (Dirik et al., 2019). Medication errors in nursing may lead to financial losses in hospitals or other healthcare organizations. Financial losses associated with medical errors are caused by the increased cost of care, litigation, and increased insurance premiums. When patients are exposed to medication errors, they may have mild health issues that can resolve easily after the medication errors are corrected. Sometimes, medication errors can cause serious fatal effects on the patient’s health, increasing the cost required to care for such patients. On some occasions, medication errors as a patient care problem have resulted in death, which has negative financial implications for healthcare organizations, nurses, and patient’s family members. Medication errors in nursing can therefore affect various budgets in healthcare because the extra capital is spent on patients affected by medication errors as patient care problems. The healthcare organization, therefore, experiences difficulties in managing the finances and incomes of the healthcare organization due to medication errors that occur from tie to time. One medication error that negatively impacts financial management is overdosing; this medication error leads to a shortage of medication in healthcare pharmacies and drug stores as more than the budget drugs are spent on a patient (Dirik et al., 2019). This increases the cost of treatment and stretches the health organization’s funds as more drugs outside of the budgeted drug are purchased to cover for the deficiency of medication left due to overdosing. The nurses’ leaders and other stakeholders have a great role to play in reducing medication errors in healthcare as it has major financial impacts on healthcare organizational financial management. It is also difficult to account for financial losses caused by small medication errors that are not documented or are not realized. However small or serious, medication errors are reflected in health organizations’ financial records.

Provide a short analysis of the nurse leader’s role in relation to this problem as described in the literature.

A nurse leader is important in reducing and preventing medication errors in healthcare. The nurse leader creates an environment that fosters safety and accountability in medication and patient care. This includes creating a safety culture, ensuring that nurses are properly trained and that all patient safety protocols are followed during patient care. The nurses’ leaders ensure the nurses have mastered the skills of medication delivery with consideration of medication errors and their implications for health (Dirik et al., 2019). They also provide ongoing education and training on medication safety to ensure the nurses reduce medication errors and improve patients’ health and quality of life. Nurse leaders also have a role to proactively get involved in identifying potential errors and developing systems to improve the accuracy and effectiveness of medication delivery.

The nurse leader should also ensure adequate communication between all healthcare team members and that any errors are reported and addressed in a timely manner (Dyab et al., 2018). The nurse leaders also have a role in ensuring that all nurses and staff are held accountable for their actions concerning medication. This helps to ensure that medication errors are identified and corrected before they become a major problem that can pose negative financial implications to healthcare, patients ad family members. Nurse leaders have primary roles, including ensuring that the nurses under their supervision effectively deliver quality patient care (Dyab et al., 2018). Nurse leaders must be knowledgeable about the latest evidence-based practices and be aware of potential risks and hazards associated with medication and general care delivery.

Nurse leaders should ensure that their nurses are well-informed, have access to the necessary resources and tools, and are encouraged to practice evidence-based care when caring for patients. Nurse leaders should also ensure that nurses are adequately trained and have the skills to recognize and respond to potential medical errors to avoid adverse financial and health effects associated with medication errors (Dyab et al., 2018). Nurse leaders must provide education and training opportunities to their nurses, such as simulation training. This ensures that their nurses are well-equipped to handle medical situations and to reduce or avoid medication errors.

Nurse leaders also have a role in promoting a culture of safety and quality within the organization. This can be achieved by implementing policies encouraging open communication and collaboration between stakeholders and fostering nurses’ accountability. Nurses should hold regular meetings and staff development activities that promote problem-solving and teamwork (Dyab et al., 2018). Nurse leaders have a role in ensuring that medical errors are promptly reported and addressed. This includes developing systems for reporting medical errors, conducting root cause analysis to identify the underlying causes, and implementing corrective actions to prevent similar errors.

Explain the regulatory agencies and policies that are involved in the issue.

There are various regulatory agencies involved in preventing and reducing medication errors. The U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) is among the main regulatory agencies in medication administration and reducing medical errors. It is responsible for ensuring that medications are safe and effective for their intended use. The FDA reviews reported medication errors and take appropriate action to prevent future errors (Darrow et al., 2020). It also monitors and evaluates medications for safety and efficacy and evaluates the labeling and packaging of medications to ensure that the information provided is clear and understandable. The FDA also works with nurses, healthcare providers, pharmacists, and other health stakeholders to increase awareness of medication errors and the steps that can be taken to reduce them. It provides educational materials and resources to healthcare providers and consumers to help them understand the risks of medication errors and how to reduce them (Darrow et al., 2020). FDA has also developed tools and strategies to encourage reporting of medication errors and to track and analyze trends in medication errors.

The Institute for Safe Medication Practices (ISMP) is another agency that helps reduce medication errors in nursing and patient care; it is a nonprofit organization that provides education and resources related to medication safety. ISMP publishes guidelines and recommendations to help reduce the risk of medication errors. It also offers evidence-based practices, such as safe medication administration and storage, to help reduce the risk of medication errors. The agency also provides resources to help healthcare professionals stay up-to-date on the latest medication safety guidelines (Darrow et al., 2020). ISMP also offers resources to patients and consumers so they can be informed and empowered to help protect themselves from medication errors. Another agency that helps reduce medication errors is the National Coordinating Council for Medication Error Reporting and Prevention (NCCMERP).

This is a coalition of organizations and individuals working together to reduce medication errors. It develops and encourages the use of standardized terms and definitions to accurately report medication errors (Darrow et al., 2020). The State Board of Pharmacy is another agency that aids in regulating pharmacy practice, including dispensing medications. State boards of pharmacy also review medication errors and take appropriate disciplinary action. The State and Federal laws, such as the Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA) laws, regulate the prescribing and dispensing controlled substances. These laws help reduce the risk of medication errors, improving patient care and patient outcomes in health organizations. They give directions on prescription practices and the legal implication of deliberate medication errors or other unethical practices related to medications.

Identify which organizational budgets would be impacted by this issue.

Medication errors can affect various organizational budgets; the most affected ones include the operating, capital, and labor budgets. The operating budget would be affected by increased costs related to litigation, settlements, and medical malpractice insurance premiums. The labor budget would be affected by increased costs for additional staff training and supervision to reduce medical errors in healthcare organizations (Ann et al., 2021). The capital budget would be affected by increased costs for new technology and equipment to reduce medical errors. Medication errors can be reduced by installing medication technologies, among other strategies. The financial resources used to buy and install such technologies create a financial burden to the healthcare organization, causing medical errors, a patient care problem that must be addressed (Ann et al., 2021). Hospital operating budgets can be impacted by increased medical errors, as the costs associated with medical errors, such as legal fees, additional resources, and patient care, would need to be covered by the hospital. Hospital capital budgets may be impacted if additional resources need to be purchased or procedures need to be modified to prevent or reduce medical errors.

Explain how the organizational budgets would be impacted.

The hospital budget would be impacted in several ways due to increased medical errors. Increased medical errors can lead to additional costs for medical care, such as additional tests or treatments, as well as additional costs for legal costs and other costs associated with medical malpractice and medical errors (Ann et al., 2021). In addition, increased medical errors can decrease patient satisfaction and loyalty, leading to a decrease in revenue due to fewer patients. Finally, increased medical errors can increase insurance costs, as insurers may increase premiums to cover the risk of medical malpractice. The organization may also be spending more on caring for patients who develop complications due to medication errors or those patients who experience long hospital stays due to medication errors (Ann et al., 2021). The organization can also spend more to acquire medication thatused wrongly through overdose or other misuses that result in medication errors.


Ann, E, R., Camacho, E., Jankovic, D & Faria, R. (2021). Economic analysis of the prevalence and clinical and economic burden of medication error in England. BMJ Quality & Safety 30(2), 96-105.

Darrow, J, J., Avorn, J & Kesselhem, S, A. (2020). FDA approval and regulation of pharmaceuticals, 1983-2018. Jama 323(2), 164-176.

Dyab, A, E., Elkalmi, M, R., Halimah, B, S & Jamshed, Q, S. (2018). Exploration of nurse’s

Knowledge attitudes, and perceived barriers towards medication errors reporting in a tertiary healthcare facility; A qualitative approach. Pharmacy 6(4), 120.

Dirik, F, H., Samur, M., Seyda, S, I & Hewison, A. (2019). Nurse’s Identification and reporting of medication errors. Journal of Clinical Nursing 28(5-6), 931-938.