Mass Incarceration Paper Writing Sample

Mass incarceration leads greatly to America’s rate of poverty. Conservatives, liberals, and law enforcement influential now agree that the county’s jail population must be reduced and that this can be done without jeopardizing public safety. It’s tempting to believe that progress en route for federal change is unattainable in a divisive political environment. However, even today, the necessitate to confront troubles in the way we arrest, put on trial, and imprison remains a rare area of bipartisan agreement. Republicans and Democrats alike recognize that without cause lengthy federal prison terms obstruct rehabilitation, fueling recidivism and economic inequity. According to the Prison Policy Initiative, the pace of mass incarnation is increasing. In 2006, an estimated at over 9 million people were imprisoned globally at any one moment. Out of which half were held in only three countries: the United States, China, and the Russian Federation. Worldwide, 0.15 percent of the population is imprisoned, or one in every 670 people (Alexander Solzhenitsyn).

To assist in bridging that gap, this article proposes solutions to maintain low crime rates and demonstrate support for law mechanisms while also reducing mass incarceration. The most robust of these programs need government and legislative action. Others may be implemented with the assistance of a kind administration. When combined, these ideas form the backbone of a national plan for federal leaders to make the country safer and more equitable. Additionally, they serve as examples for state and municipal government activity.

The government may repeal the Federal Subsidy for Mass Incarceration by legislation: Federal funding assists states and local governments in developing criminal justice policies. To restore liability to the flow, Congress may enact a Reverse Mass Incarceration Act that would dedicate a certain number of residents to states with a low crime rate and a low incarceration rate. This would stimulate state and local government action across the nation.

Legislation may also be used to abolish Federal Incarceration for Low-Level Crimes: The criminal justice system is heavily reliant on the jail, with imprisonment serving as the default punishment for most offenses. On the other hand, redundant incarceration is expensive and ineffective in preventing recidivism as well as promoting rehabilitation. Timely estimates indicate that around 49% of the federal prison populace is likely to have been imprisoned without a compelling public safety justification (Lynch 695). Congress may enact legislation to eliminate compulsory minimum sentences for low-level offenses and reduce mandatory minimum sentences for other crimes. This way, it can safely and significantly reduce the prison population.

Additionally, the government may establish a program to bring up to date the law enforcement by establishing a police corps: The country is amidst a national police crisis. According to some, overzealous enforcement has reached a tipping point. Some say that police are underfunded and undersupported. We can all agree on the fact that something has to change. To build a twenty-first-cenury law enforcement force, Congress may provide sufficient monies over six years to hire new officers and educate them in contemporary policing strategies centered on crime hindrance, as well as techniques to minimize unnecessary arrests, force, and incarceration.

Most importantly, the government can redirect Federal grants away from mass Incarceration: Because many of the injurious incentives embedded in federal criminal justice grants are enshrined in law, truly bringing to an end the federal subsidization of mass incarceration will require congressional act as outlined above. However, the Justice Department may take the very first step by modifying performance metrics for grants to recognize states that employ federal monies to decrease crime and imprisonment.

Furthermore, Case Law Changes Regarding the Eighth Amendment: Federal case law is the second critical legal development that must be addressed in explanations of American mass imprisonment. Again, a growing amount of empirical literature, mainly in the law and society tradition, demonstrates how federal courts’ supervision of prisons has contributed in unforeseen ways to mass imprisonment (Lynch 678). The lesson from this work is similar to that from the study of “tough-on-crime” sentencing initiatives. It hows that state politicians in some jurisdictions publicly eschewed practical solutions to demanding and severe criminal justice troubles and cast off criminal law expertise when responding to court orders.

This essay makes a case for ending mass incarceration and reforming the criminal justice system. Federal government funding has the potential to influence state policies and contribute to the present dilemma of mass incarceration. And the federal government puts the national tone, which is critical for mounting public support for and drive for change on a national scale. This may be accomplished by discontinuing Federal Subsidies for Mass Incarceration, discontinuing Federal Incarceration for Low-Level Crimes, establishing a Police Program to bring up to date the Law Enforcement, and redirecting Federal grants away from mass Incarceration. Without a well-built national movement, the necessary radical changes at the state and municipal levels will not occur.

Work Cited

Alexander Solzhenitsyn, 1962 “‌Data source provided”

Lynch, Mona. “Mass Incarceration, Legal Change, and Locale.” Criminology & Public Policy, vol. 10, no. 3, 19 July 2011, pp. 673–698, 10.1111/j.1745-9133.2011.00733.x. Accessed 10 May 2019.

Prison Policy Initiative. “World Incarceration Rates If Every U.S. State Were a Country.” Prisonpolicy.org, 2021, www.prisonpolicy.org/graphs/2021.html. Accessed 23 Mar. 2022.

Mathematical Modeling Of FACTS Device: STATCOM Essay Sample For College

Introduction

In the electricity transmission and distribution business, FACTS devices are a revolution. The FACTS devices regulate a variety of essential parameters of an electrical energy signal at a rapid rate with minimal mechanical effort [1]. When the other series of shunt-linked FACTS devices add novel dynamic regulations to the power systems, their inclusion in the electrical power transmission system has substantially impacted the performance of classical distance schemes. STATCOM, a shunt-connected FACTS system, and its mathematical technique are described in this work.

Advantages of STATCOM

Unlike SVC, STATCOM (Static Synchronous Compensator) is an upgraded FACTS device that does not need a physical inductor or capacitor to sustain reactive power [1]. STATCOM provides reactive power by transferring instantaneous reactive power between AC system phases. Similarly to a synchronous condenser, the regulated output voltage is kept in step with the line voltage and may be adjusted to draw between capacitive or capacitive current from the line. The transmission grid is shunt linked to the STATCOM system. The STATCOM has voltage transformers (VTs) that measure the grid voltage.

The Advanced Digital Control (ADC) receives the voltage waveform from the VT input and regulates the different sub-modules to create one of two voltage waveforms [2]: When there are no power system issues, the STATCOM acts as an inductive device, absorbing responsive power from the grid; when there are grid issues, the STATCOM acts as a capacitive device, producing reactive power to the grid; when there are grid issues, the STATCOM acts as an inductive device, absorbing reactive electricity from the system; when there are grid issues, the STATCOM acts as a capacitive device, producing reactive power to the grid; when there are grid issues, the ST Finally, the STATCOM maintains grid stability by continuously monitoring grid voltage and adjusting its reaction power output in reaction to system disruptions.

Power flow in STATCOM

The voltage from the operating power (HV) bus is reduced by a transformer (TR) so that reduced power rating valves (S1-S6) can be used [3]. It features a capacitor at the dc-link to create a current route. To lower the harmonic components in voltage, a smoothing reactor/transformer is utilized. STATCOM has a response time of 15-30 milliseconds, which is among the fastest FACTS devices. The main reasons for its quick reaction are the elimination of any rotating motion and the use of IGBTs, IGCTs, or GTOs as power switches [3]. This is where the name STATic synchronous COMpensator comes from (STATCOM). The principal STATCOM controller in a balanced electrical system comprises an internal current circuit and an outside control loop.

Multi-pulse converters and multilevel converters are the two major kinds of STATCOM main switchboard configurations. Three-phase bridges are linked in parallel on the DC side of a multi-pulse translator. The spans are magnetically connected through a zigzag generator, commonly configured so that the bridges look in series when seen from the AC side. Each transformer winding is phase-shifted to remove chosen harmonics and provide a multi-pulse output voltage. Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) can be used to increase harmonic content at the cost of increased switching and snubber loss and a lower fundamental Var rate [2]. The downsides of a multi-pulse converter architecture are that the phase-shift transformers make the process complex and heavy, and each STATCOM installation will have its transformer design.

Types of STATCOM

Inverters are more versatile and have a wider use than multi-pulse converter-based STATCOM. They can be used to handle imbalanced loads and as active power filters. This layout does not require a phase shift transformer, reducing investment costs and lesser power loss. The three types of multilevel converter setups are phototransistors, flying capacitors, and cascade converters.[3]

In addition, the controller has been tweaked to account for the effects of various coupling transformer configurations. A neutral current controller is designed for STATCOM functioning in unbalanced electrical systems, leveraging the Fortes cue decomposition approach to get sequence components [4]. Without using a 2nd spectral notch filter, the segregation of desirable and undesirable sequence components is demonstrated. Following that, a supplemental controller for load compensation is created, which comprises voltage control and inverse sequence load current compensation. In asymmetric failures, a transitory overvoltage (TOV) controller is also being developed[4]. A power balancing controller and a voltage regulator are created and block schematics of entire controllers.

The OMFDS (Operation Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System)

The OMFDS (Operation Monitoring and Fault Diagnosis System) is a critical component of the STATCOM installation that has received insufficient attention [2]. Real-time supervision, fault alerting, post-fault analysis, and a consumer Human Machine Interface are all provided by OMFDS (HMI). It serves as the STATCOM’s information centre, collecting and storing data from all subsystems and determining if the STATCOM is operational [2]. The analysis findings are presented to clients through HMI, and authorized remote OMFDS can access them over a Local Area Network or the Internet.

As for switching devices, STATCOM uses IGBT, IGCT, or GTO. Both are flipping ON, and flipping OFF events may be regulated in these switches. As a result, compared to the one degree of flexibility provided by thyristors in SVCs, this provides two degrees of freedom. This allows it to be controlled more quickly and efficiently.

STATCOM's mathematical model is depicted in the diagram above

STATCOM’s mathematical model is depicted in the diagram above [3].

Application of STATCOM

STATCOM’s primary application offers reactive current compensation and keeps the voltage on the connected bus within safe limits [4]. STATCOM has been used in the mining and metallurgical sectors to improve their electricity supply. Because petrochemical companies employ high-capacity motors, the voltage on the feeder drops. The utility has deployed three MVAr STATCOM units in British Columbia to ensure power reliability and offer timely dynamic voltage support under stable and unstable fault scenarios [3]. Gold mine facilities have employed the STATCOM system to help with high power requirements or increasing load owing to expansion mining facilities [2]. High-power electrical machinery must be fed over extremely long cable lengths for a new mining operation in Ontario. They utilized six STATCOM units, each rated at 4.5 MVAr, for reactive power supply and voltage regulation to aid their functioning [1]. STATCOM’s quick reaction time guarantees that power performance requirements are met and the lifetime of motors and manufacturing applications, resulting in a quick return on investment.

In conclusion, with the significant increase in electric power demand in recent years, the restoration of urban and distribution power networks has become increasingly necessary. During the transmission improvement process, there will be a high need for reactive power adjustment to improve the efficiency and reliability of AC transmission systems. The global electricity business has grown at a breakneck pace in the previous two decades. With fast development comes various issues in power systems, such as insufficient dependability, significant line losses, and poor power quality. FACTS devices, such as STATCOM, are critical to tackling these issues.

REFERENCES

[1] A. Augustine, E. Paul, R.D Prakash, B.M Balakrishna, & R. Xavier. (2016, March). Voltage regulation of STATCOM using fuzzy self tuning PI controller. In 2016 International Conference on Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT) (pp. 1-7).

[2] N. Djagarov, Z. Grozde, G. Enchev, & J. Djagarova. (2019, May). Mathematical Model for Study of Low-Voltage Ride Through of Wind Permanent Magnet Synchronous Generator by means of STATCOM. In 2019 20th International Scientific Conference on Electric Power Engineering (EPE) (pp. 1-5).

[3] M. Murali, A. Gokhale, A. V Pandey, & E.Sharma. (2016, July). Modelling, design and comparison of PI and PID controllers for Static Synchronous Compensator (STATCOM). In 2016 IEEE 1st International Conference on Power Electronics, Intelligent Control and Energy Systems (ICPEICES) (pp. 1-6).

[4] P.Singh, & R. Tiwari. (2019). STATCOM model using holomorphic embedding.  Access7, 33075-33086.

Mayor Landrieu Leadership Free Writing Sample

While Mayor Landrieu was charged with the challenging decision of removing the Confederate monuments from public spaces in New Orleans, he showed good leadership skills that helped him achieve the task. According to Kruse (2012), leadership is doing what one thinks is right, for they will be criticized anyway. Mayor Landrieu’s actions seemed to have resonated with this definition. According to the mayor, the statues were not justified to be standing in the middle of the city. He believed that the soldiers whose monuments stood in the city did not fight for the country but instead fought against it. They may have been worriers but should not be viewed as patriots to deserve such an honor. As he remarked, the statues are not materialistic as they seem. Neither do they resemble the innocence of the benign history.

Even though a faction may believe that the celebration of the said soldiers was justified through the monuments, the major purposively chose the right thing to remove them across the street. According to the mayor, it was high time the city forgot about the statues and their history. In the wake of the civil war, the monuments became part of terrorism. They were established to mainly signify about who was still in charge of the city.

Another definition that resonated with the mayor’s action is an ability of the leaders to spot a problem before escalating to an emergency. According to the mayor, putting the confederacy on the pedestal in the most iconic places of honor is an inappropriate recounting of the past. History is unchangeable and cannot be moved like a statue. The civil war ceased, and the confederacy lost. It is high time to remove the dark time to recognize that the cause of the confederacy was unjustified. The standing of the statues seems to constantly remind people of the past hence a problem. The problem could exacerbate by the persistence of the monuments. Hence the need to remove them.

It is critical for every leader to identify a problem and take appropriate steps to restore sanity and peace to the people. The statues may bring indivisibility in the future that may not be easy to root out in society. As a successful leader, part of soliciting other people’s ideas for solving a problem, having amicable solutions to relate to other people’s views is fundamental for a successful step.

Lastly, the mayor’s actions also coincide the leadership art, which is to say no and not say yes as yes is said more easily. He said no to the erection of the monuments, and he desired to bring down the turmoil brought by the monuments. As he states, taking down the monument could be tough, he believed he was elected to do the right thing. While some believed the monuments meant good for the people. The mayor said no to this illusion and did the right thing of taking it down. According to him, moving the monuments is not about politics and any retaliation but showing the whole world that the city acknowledges, understands, reconciles, and chooses a pleasant future for ourselves, making straight anything crooked and making right every wrong.

References

The New York Times. (2017). Opinion | Mitch Landrieu’s Speech on the Removal of Confederate Monuments in New Orleans (Published 2017). Nytimes.com. https://www.nytimes.com/2017/05/23/opinion/mitch-landrieus-speech-transcript.html?auth=-google1tap.

Kruse, K. (2012). 100 Best Quotes On Leadership. Forbes. https://www.forbes.com/sites/kevinkruse/2012/10/16/quotes-on-leadership/?sh=6e0f87fb2feb.