Media Ethics And Freedom Of Speech


Media ethics and freedom of speech occupy a contentious space within journalism, an area that calls for some balancing between expectations people have of an individual’s right to speak freely versus what is proper and necessary. This is not only for selected individuals but entire communities as well. When informing the public, it is indeed vital for media personalities to impart only verified information. They should also be wary of misinformation efforts that may harm individuals. This essay explores the balancing act between the right to freedom of expression and the media’s responsibility not to spread false information.

Media Ethics and Freedom of Speech

In modern societies, the spread of freedom of expression stands tall amidst all components needed for making democracy fulfilling. It fosters openness within societies where people can articulate their ideas without being held back by restrictions such as censorship, limiting them from openly sharing different thoughts and opinions. On an expansive level, one would find nations like America, where deep reverence exists for freedom of speech. Their constitution has enshrined this into law according to its First Amendment: “Congress shall make no law… abridging the freedom of speech” (Zoller, 2009). This is a fundamental right for Americans, as it allows them to express their opinions and ideas without fear. In the United States, the right to free speech includes the right to express unpopular or controversial opinions and the right to engage in peaceful protest and assembly.

Free exchange of ideas is inseparable from democratic societies for one primary reason: it creates opportunities for individuals to have meaningful interactions across diverse perspectives leading to fresh perspectives on most things. Without freedom of expression, society would be devoid of an essential driver for progress, given that innovative breakthroughs require healthy debate and an open atmosphere for new ideas to flourish effortlessly unrestricted by constraints. The rights conferred by free speech accommodate all manners whereby individuals can express themselves inclusively through art forms or verbal communication (Hurley, 2021). Media houses act as trustworthy custodians watching over public interests while keeping users engaged and driving accountability among those empowered to make significant changes within communities. Despite its crucial role in shaping society positively, some still argue that limiting certain types like hate speech is healthy because they might incite violence or discrimination (Howard, 2019). Although justified claims, noteworthy callings ensue, and settling whether such declarations qualify for protected or unprotected rights falls within the courts’ mandate. It is undoubtedly barbaric to curtail free speech through unjustified censorship, where internet access remains censored, and information dissemination is limited. The act clashes with ethical principles guiding Human rights practices globally and must garner immense criticism.

Despite the significant role played by the media, there is a need to comprehend that the media has frequently been the source of false information since its inception. The role of media in shaping public opinion is undeniable, but at times, the exactness of the data introduced has gone under scrutiny. The rise of social media and its simple openness to the majority has exacerbated this issue. The media’s impact is unquestionably strong, and fake data can prompt deplorable results for individuals and society (Cifaldi, 2023). The simplicity of sharing data and the absence of reality-checking necessities have prompted a multiplication of manufactured news and paranoid fears. Virtual entertainment calculations that push the most thrilling stories to bigger crowds add to this issue. This makes a closed-quarter’s impact that covers accurate reports while enhancing outrageous perspectives and paranoid fears. Thus, individuals can become insulated from opposing viewpoints, preventing them from engaging in rational debates and constructive discussions.

One of the most infamous examples of how false information can impact society occurred during the early 20th century. The dissemination of unfounded data through documents like The Protocols of Elders of Zion occasioned significant ramifications for European societies at the beginning of the twentieth century (John, 1996). This was done through inducing anti-Semitism among citizens at worst or suspicion at best towards Jews everywhere based on accusations made without any valid evidence whatsoever backing them up. Functioning as a reminder of how dangerous propaganda could be, this isolated incident serves as a classic example of misinformation’s long-lasting impact. People must educate themselves and reject false information to avoid justifying acts like violence and unjust discrimination against certain groups of people.

In recent history, people can look back at the 2016 U.S. Presidential Election as an example of how influencing factors like social media line between misinformation and fact-related content. A significant problem during this time was creating a discussion around “fake news.” Fabricated articles flooded various internet channels outside traditional outlets by transcribing falsehoods distributed via networks amongst properly researched and less-reliable sources (Savoy, 2018). This put confusion into voters’ minds, leading to a lack of education before casting ballots. Researchers signify wrongly operating media sites such as Facebook had dense participation in their two billion daily users engaged in spreading disinformation on its network effectively, without laws restraining creators behind false reporting or proper control frameworks allowed for false information cycles to prevail throughout the election season. This slowed down unbiased truth-seeking channels with equal opportunities to shine through.

According to Coss & Dhillon (2019), due to a lack of stringent regulatory measures by government organizations and private self-regulating oversight, there may be false stories resonating effectively among readers. The act of sharing fake news articles further circulated amongst unsuspecting voters without awareness, building interventions and ultimately destroying democracy’s trustworthiness being established among all voters regardless of political affiliation. One crucial component that contributed to the spread of rumours, propaganda material and deceptive claims can be traced back to social media platforms needing more reliable access to diverse sources of unbiased information. As a result, many people now almost exclusively rely upon these digital mediums with little regard for questioning their source or credibility. Moreover, since several users pass around stories they have read through people in their network only reinforces selective perspective.

One pressing challenge for social media regulators is curtailing the spread of false information. The high volume of posts complicates verifying facts, making it difficult for these platforms to prevent the dissemination of fake news or conspiracy theories entirely. Though specific steps have been taken towards combatting this issue, such as Twitter’s labelling policy for tweets containing false information, there remain limitations amidst these efforts. Acknowledging how significantly the media influences people’s opinions while mischief-makers capitalize on this platform remains critical. Furthermore, misleading information spreads faster than reliable data via ‘information cascades’. In an ‘information cascade,’ people base their decisions on others’ opinions or actions, leading to a significant effect where inaccurate data spreads uncontrollably across several channels, making it toughto counteract its effects effectively.

Balancing act between the right to freedom of expression and the media’s responsibility not to spread false information.

Balancing the right to freedom of expression and the media’s responsibility not to spread false information is a critical issue affecting many societies worldwide. Freedom of expression is an integral human right but is equally crucial and encumbered by shared obligations among society members (Campbell, 2011). At its heart lies democracy which embraces free speech as its standard foundation block around so many states worldwide today, signed into law by the United Nations touching on fundamental human rights across constitutional laws today. She was guarding liberty to vocalize unique ideas or opinions, taking up challenges against issues plaguing society while questioning power-holding individuals accountable for specific actions. Sadly, this can come at a price as the age of information comes ever closer to us and digital communication modes like social media gain further attention.

Spreading false information must deter at all costs, which is why media’s accountability lies in ensuring accuracy, truthfulness, and fairness – integral components today which give quality journalism pretty much its foundation. Undoubtedly so, letting false data increase consciousness and cascading through different platforms propagate misinformation (Martens et al., 2018). This explains the urgency underlying this shared obligation to prevent the spreading those stories. Passing them on could prove problematic, resulting in unforeseen critical problems, including widespread political-social discontent among communities. Central to an intricate balancing within these bounds lies keeping freedoms whilst preserving accuracy in the continuous rollout of well-defined communicative rights ahead.

Media ethics and regulation have been developed as responses to curb journalistic excesses from media outlets. Responsible journalism plays a critical role in fostering healthy democratic societies. Media platforms offer educational information on social, political and economic issues affecting communities and states; hence a necessity for upholding rigorous ethical codes. While press freedom ensures the right to access relevant news information, journalists need provisions that promote responsible reporting behaviour (Jamil, 2020). Professional organizations such as The Society of Professional Journalists (SPJ) have set guidelines that require factual-based reporting free from bias while minimizing harm caused by their actions independently without conflicts of interest. Unfortunately, these codes do not always adhere when covering sensational events that leverage public curiosity but do little justice regarding unbiased storytelling. Such practices may negatively impact one’s reputation, and privacy or lead to adverse situations like Ahmaud Arbery’s case, where irrelevant leaked video clips caused distress and further victimization towards him along with his immediate family members with no bearing on its outcome whatsoever.

Media ethics violations have prompted governmental and regulatory bodies to establish strict regulations around these matters globally. For example, in the U.S., the regulatory entity FCC in the United States has been responsible for governing broadcast media content and providing guidelines such as The Fairness Doctrine (Napoli, 2021). News outlets are under obligation with this doctrine guideline to offer both sides of a narrative or issue; this ensures no promotional activity is associated with any news channel/provider. In the UK, the self-regulation model was introduced via Press Complaints Commission during the early 1990s. However, subsequent events of unethical journalism from top publications led governments like UK’s public authorities to establish Independent Press Standards Organization (IPSO). IPSO now governs all daily selling newspapers, over 1,000 copies, outlining an ethical code that strictly includes honest reporting, accuracy commitment, and source protection (Duncan, 2023). IPSO works independently as a regulatory body, ensuring almost all UK newspapers selling over 1,000 copies are held liable for their actions thus far while also working towards preventing future violations. By ensuring that journalists report honestly and accurately, they maintain the public’s trust by safeguarding their sources’ privacy via enforced ethics code provisions.

One significant benefit of IPSO regulation is strengthening public trust in journalism. According to a 2019 YouGov poll, 71% of the public agreed that there should be an independent regulator, and 68% of people believed that IPSO was effective (Hall, 2020). This indicates that people are now more likely to trust what they read, knowing that an independent body regulates UK newspapers. Moreover, IPSO has powers of enforcement that make it an effective regulator. For example, it can order newspapers to issue corrections, apologies, and retract news stories. It can also impose fines of up to £1m; for the most severe breaches, it can refer cases to the courts. The ability to impose these penalties on newspapers and media outlets means that there are real consequences for media outlets that breach the code of ethics set by IPSO. This effectiveness is due to IPSO’s independence. For instance, IPSO’s board comprises independent, non-industry representatives, ensuring that the regulating body is free from the influence of newspapers. This independence eliminates the potential conflict of interest and ensures that IPSO can responsibly regulate the media.

It must be noted that criticisms surrounding the effectiveness of IPSE regulation abound- however, action must be taken with objectivity regarding facts as opposed to sensationalism and a tendency towards polarizing arguments within spheres like Journalism Ethics. One focus of concern involves how paper checks on other papers due to inevitable inter-connectedness from disputes about reliability, credibility and accusation and a potential bias across different camps regarding IPSE’s independence; a prime example would be the report on IPSO by The Guardian in 2017. In cases where regulation is not stringent enough, the efficacy of IPSE has been drawn into question. Compounding this issue is that while IPSE can mandate an apology for errors made in journalistic reporting, it cannot prevent such inaccuracies from happening again or stop them from spreading (Henderson, 2022). This weakens its power to regulate media ethics diligently across journalism channels. With the advent of social media, individual citizens can now report on news as it happens. Sometimes, news is estimated to reach social media before traditional news sources. Social media platforms have also become an alternative forum where citizens can voice grievances against unfairness and unethical behaviour by journalists and media outlets. This exposure has brought more attention to media ethics violations. It also allows individuals to confront unethical behaviour by journalists and media outlets responsible for reporting the news.

Moreover, the media should establish codes of conduct that set guidelines for journalists and editors regarding the accuracy and balance of the information they disseminate. These codes of conduct should be enforceable and should include penalties for non-compliance. Self-regulation allows the media to regulate itself without being subject to government interference. Another way to achieve the balance between freedom of expression and the media’s responsibility not to spread false information is through government regulation. Governments can establish independent regulatory bodies overseeing the media to ensure it complies with established standards and guidelines. Government regulation ensures that the media disseminates accurate, balanced, and truthful information (Vese, 2022). However, government regulation must be balanced against the right to freedom of expression, and it should not be used as a tool to suppress dissenting voices. The balance between freedom of expression and the media’s responsibility not to spread false information is not always easy. In some cases, disseminating false information may be unintentional, and the media must take steps to correct it. However, in other cases, disseminating false information may be deliberate, and the media may attempt to influence public opinion. As individuals, there is the need also to have a responsibility to ensure that the information we disseminate is accurate, truthful, and balanced. We should critically evaluate the information we receive before sharing it with others. We should also be careful not to contribute to the spread of false information through social media and other platforms.

The media plays a critical role in our society; however, journalistic freedom should always be balanced against their responsibilities toward the public interest. To meet this obligation, news organizations must ensure that presented information is factual, impartial and extensively investigated (Tilak, 2020). In addition to this commitment toward accuracy, fact-checking has emerged as a fundamental aspect of responsible journalism which works effectively as an appended layer of verification while promoting accuracy across news-reports. The significance of genuine representation cannot be over-emphasized as several marginalized communities are subject to unfair portrayal or outright neglect by mainstream media outlets. With their influential power over public psychology and perception toward underrepresented communities, it becomes imperative for industry players to integrate fairness into reportage by ensuring entities receive what they deserve. Through fair depiction by journalists alike they will further promote mutual harmony, boost morale within groups towards one another, and project societies’ outlook via reinvigorated views. Furthermore, however, it is also important to safeguard the freedom of expression. The media should not face censorship or persecution for expressing their opinions. They should be allowed to report on important issues and express their views without fear of retaliation. Freedom of expression is a core value of democracy, and it should be protected. The media has a responsibility to report on issues that are important to the public and to raise awareness about issues that would otherwise not receive attention. There is a delicate balance between the right to freedom of expression and the media’s responsibility not to spread false information. The media should be allowed to express their opinions and report on important issues, but they should also be held accountable for the information they provide. It is essential for the media to report on facts accurately and avoid promoting false information. The media should also take responsibility for any harm caused by the spread of misinformation.


In conclusion, it is widely acknowledged that Freedom of speech is one of the most fundamental rights exercised by individuals in any democratic society free from fear or persecution due to expression- this right happens to be enshrined within United States’ First Amendment since long Thus highlighting its pivotal role towards ensuring free expression without being gagged by political red-tapism.Having said this ,this right recently suffered gravely with multiple but easy media platforms giving voice to spreading falsehood which ended up becoming distorted realities mainly because there was no filter process through which these pieces went before being put forward. A pivotal role can be played here by journalists as they are at forefront of informing public about any current events or political and societal issues. The advent of social media has made the finer act of differentiating truth from falsehood all the more cumbersome since bloated statements or false reporting gets propelled to wider audience through digital channels. Without proper monitoring, even these seemingly innocuous misinformation has the potential to cause irreparable damage. Responsibility, therefore rests heavily on shoulders on media personnel who should strictly follow ethical guidelines ensure transparency ensuring avoidance fueling fear and panic due to misleading information. For instance:-professionalism will entail using only accurate information that has been sourced from impartial sources while eschewing sensationalism which can give rise to needless alarm in people. Limiting the spread of misinformation demands a collective effort from various sources including news media. Particularly with social media whereby spreading unverified information is widespread, it is vital for these platforms to assume responsibility within their jurisdiction. They should ensure accurate reporting through thorough fact checking before broadcast or publication since accuracy cannot be traded for sensationalism at any cost when lives are involved. Furthermore, every journalist must also recognize that every story told has consequences beyond its words.


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Movie Review: Geoflick – “San Andreas”

The name of the film: San Andreas

The medium used to view the film: DVD rental

Approximate length of the film: 1 hour and 54 minutes

Classmates who watched with you: None of them

Your star ranking for the film: 3.8 stars out of 5


Brad Peyton’s 2015 geo-movie “San Andreas” was fascinating. The review will assess the film’s aesthetic appeal, plot intricacy, and scientific veracity. The movie’s accuracy and use of geological principles will determine its rating, even if it exaggerates geology for drama. We will examine the story’s architecture, character arcs, and special effects. We will analyze “San Andreas” to determine its disaster film success and scientific accuracy.

Scientific Accuracy

“San Andreas” takes extensive creative liberties with geological occurrences to create a fascinating apocalyptic scenario. The movie recognizes California’s San Andreas Fault. Seismicity and earthquake frequency are overstated. The footage shows earthquakes occurring quicker and more violently than geophysicists assume (Cuse et al.). Movies do not show earthquake processes like this.

The movie predicts earthquakes more accurately than science can (Cuse et al.). Despite efforts to enhance earthquake forecasting, location, magnitude, and timing remain unpredictable (Cuse et al.). In “San Andreas,” the main protagonists can precisely foresee earthquake likelihood and size and prepare ahead of time.

To increase drama and tension, the movie makes several scientific errors (Cuse et al.). The film builds urgency and risk for its characters and audience by dramatizing seismic occurrences and earthquake prediction.

Finally, “San Andreas” disproves geologic principles. It overstates earthquake mechanics and predicts earthquakes beyond science. Despite creating a compelling catastrophic scenario, these reality distortions contradict geological principles (Cuse et al.).

Plot Development

“San Andreas” follows Dwayne “The Rock” Johnson, a rescue helicopter pilot, through a series of devastating earthquakes caused by the San Andreas Fault (Roberts). Despite its straightforward narrative, the film is suspenseful.

As usual for the subgenre, the main character strives to keep his family together during an earthquake. Ray Gaines must hurry to safeguard his ex-wife and children from the city’s earthquakes.

The film goes quickly, balancing action and character-focused passages. The movie holds viewers’ interest by moving between thrilling disaster scenes and quieter ones (Roberts). Ray Gaines goes on a fascinating emotional journey as he grieves and reconciles with his family.

The primary character’s journey is apparent, but the supporting cast must be utilized more. They are tale starters, not characters. The story might have been improved by exploring the supporting cast’s motives and backstories.

“San Andreas” is a catastrophe film about the hero’s bravery. The story is intriguing and provides high-stakes action, but the supporting characters are undeveloped (Roberts).

Special Effects

A feature of “San Andreas” is the eye-popping special effects, which are crucial in illustrating the damage caused by earthquakes. The effects guys performed an excellent job. They are evoking complete chaos and devastation.

The earthquake scenes, collapsing structures, and rampaging tsunamis are brought to life on screen by incredible special effects. These moments are a tribute to the talent of the painters since every crumbling structure and rampaging wave appears to be quite realistic (Roberts). The seamless blending of computer-generated imagery (CGI) with live-action footage considerably enhances the film’s visual splendor.

The stunning effects also stand out more because of the cinematography (Roberts). The camera’s ability to capture the magnitude and intensity of the catastrophe draws the observer into the chaos. The aerial and wide-angle shots clearly show how destructive the earthquakes were for the region and its residents.

It is impossible to exaggerate the value of sound design in complementing visual effects. The sounds of rumbling tremors, crashing debris, and roaring tsunamis heighten the tension in disaster scenes (Roberts). The ideal blend of sight and sound will arouse all of your senses.

Overall, “San Andreas”‘ special effects do a fantastic job of capturing the damage caused by the earthquakes. The film’s stunning visual effects, professional cinematography, and captivating sound design enable the spectator to become engrossed in the crisis scenarios (Roberts).

Entertainment Value

An intense moviegoing experience is provided by “San Andreas”‘ tense action and tense situations. The movie keeps the audience riveted and lives up to its reputation as an action-packed catastrophe thriller with jaw-dropping special effects.

Dwayne Johnson, who gives Ray Gaines much personality, lifts the film. Johnson’s portrayal of the role makes him more relatable and intriguing (Cuse et al.). His portrayal helps the audience care about the protagonist and his battle to save the people he loves.

The action-packed plot of “San Andreas” keeps viewers engaged and prevents boredom from setting in (Cuse et al.). The movie keeps up a sense of urgency while switching between dramatic action sequences and personal investigation.

Despite its predictable plot and one-dimensional supporting cast, “San Andreas” delivers the thrilling cinematic experience that its trailers promised (Cuse et al.). The movie embraces its genre and offers an exciting spectacle.

Overall, “San Andreas” is enjoyable because of its thrilling action, stunning scenery, and Dwayne Johnson’s charismatic acting. Despite its predictable plot and weak supporting cast, the movie fulfills its promise of being an entertaining disaster movie experience (Cuse et al.).


Finally, “San Andreas” is a fun movie due to its gorgeous surroundings, thrilling action, and Dwayne Johnson’s charming portrayal. The film is amusing and engaging despite exaggerated seismic events and geological catastrophes. The integrated CGI-live-action effects capture the earthquakes’ devastation. Photography and sound design intensify the calamity for viewers. The movie’s high-stakes action and Johnson’s portrayal of the protagonist keep audiences engaged despite its predictable plot and weak supporting characters. “San Andreas” delivers an intriguing and dramatic catastrophe film despite scientific inaccuracies and storytelling limits.

Work Cited

Cuse, Carlton, et al. “San Andreas.” IMDb, 27 May 2015, Accessed 26 June 2023.

Roberts, Sheila. “San Andreas Movie: 18 Things to Know about Dwayne Johnson’s Disaster Movie.” Collider, 26 May 2015, Accessed 27 June 2023.

Network Design In IBM’s Reverse Logistics Process

Reverse logistics plays a crucial role in managing the flow of used products and optimizing their value recovery. Network design has strategically contributed to IBM’s efficient processing of 51,000 tons of used equipment, resulting in a landfill rate of only 3.2%. Key aspects include the impact of product perishability and compressed product life cycles, the establishment of refurbishment centers, and compliance with environmental regulations.

One of the critical aspects of this process is the consideration of product perishability and compressed product life cycles. Product perishability and tight product life cycles are significant challenges in the electronics industry. The rapid advancement of technology leads to shorter product life cycles and a growing volume of disposed electronic waste. IBM recognized this trend and proactively responded by establishing a network design that efficiently handles the increasing number of returns. By doing so, they minimized the time between product returns and dispositioning, reducing the risk of further product deterioration.

One strategic initiative IBM implemented was the establishment of refurbishment centers. These centers play a pivotal role in maximizing the value recovery potential of returned products. IBM operates nine refurbished centers worldwide, each specializing in a specific product range. Dedicated centers allow efficient refurbishment processes, leveraging expertise and streamlining operations (Clancy, 2012). Refurbished equipment deemed marketable is then made available for resale, either through IBM’s website or via internet auctions, providing an additional revenue stream.

Environmental regulations have been a driving force in shaping reverse logistics practices, particularly concerning electronic waste. As a responsible corporate citizen, IBM acknowledges its obligation to comply with take-back regulations in various countries. By participating in take-back programs and fulfilling their legal requirements, IBM demonstrates a commitment to sustainable practices and environmentally responsible disposal of end-of-life products. This compliance helps meet regulatory obligations, enhances the company’s reputation, and strengthens customer loyalty.

IBM embraces network design and value recovery. IBM’s network design ensures that returned equipment is efficiently processed to maximize value recovery. The disposition of returns is a critical step in this process. The Global Asset Recovery Service (GARS) division, established in 1998, is dedicated to managing the worldwide dispositioning of returns. With 25 collection centers worldwide, returns are inspected and assigned to the most appropriate recovery option, considering refurbishment, spare parts reuse, component recovery, and recycling.

Another critical aspect of IBM in the network design reverse logistics process is minimizing landfill waste. IBM’s network design and strategic initiatives have effectively minimized landfill waste. By prioritizing refurbishment and reusability, IBM ensures that a significant portion of returned equipment is remarketed, extending its life cycle and reducing the need for disposal. The dismantling center, responsible for recovering valuable components, further optimizes recovery. The remaining equipment is broken down into recyclable material fractions, then sold to external recyclers. This comprehensive approach significantly reduces the amount of equipment ending up in landfills.

In conclusion, IBM’s strategic network design has played a crucial role in processing 51,000 tons of used equipment, resulting in a landfill rate of only 3.2%. By addressing the challenges of product perishability and compressed product life cycles, IBM established refurbishment centers, complied with environmental regulations, and optimized value recovery. IBM has demonstrated its commitment to sustainable practices and responsible reverse logistics through efficient dispositioning, refurbishment, spare parts reuse, and recycling. This successful implementation of network design principles highlights the importance of strategic planning and execution in managing reverse logistics flows within the electronics industry.


Clancy, H. (2012, February 29). Targeting e-waste, IBM opens a China facility for refurbishing servers. ZDNET.