The Media’s influence on body image among females Advertisement in teen magazines and on television typically glamorizes the “ideal body” as thin models that do not resemble the average woman. The ideal body is reinforced by many social influences, including family, peers, school athletics, business and health care professionals (Levine & Smolak, 1996; Thompson & Stice, 2001, as cited in Groesz et al. 2001, p. 2). However the greatest influence on the ideal slender beauty is the media. “Mass Media” involves advertisement on billboards, magazines and television (Groesz et al. 001, p. 2). The mass media are believed to encourage girls to form unrealistically thin body ideals, which are unattainable for many females (Field et al. 2001, p. 54). Standards of thinness are seen in approximately 95% of images in the media; these images represent the sociocultural model of attractiveness. When females are constantly exposed to images that conform to the same sociocultural standards of attractiveness via the media, they are sent a message about how they must appear in order to be judged as attractive (Watson, 2006, p. 86). Adolescence is a time of significant physical and psychological change, the development of a satisfactory body image at this time is important. As social beings, adolescents seek the approval of appearance as a means of developing a personal identity and sense of social belonging (Prince, 2009, p. 38). Thus, the media is not the only sources of pressure to be thin. Weight control behaviours among adolescents are modeled partially on their mothers’ behaviours.
In addition to being affected by the comments and behaviours of parents, adolescents are also influenced by their peers (Field et al. 2001, p. 55). Thus what are consequences of society’s emphasis of the “ideal body” on females? Research suggests that the media’s portrayal of the ultra-slender body as the ideal image of beauty promotes body dissatisfaction and subsequent eating disturbances among adolescents (Levine & Smolak, 1996; Striegel-Moore et al. 986 as cited in Krones et al, 2005, p. 134). Continual exposure to ultrathin models creates an internalization of the thin ideal body image, which then contributes to body dissatisfaction in adolescents. Internalizing the thin ideal body encourages body dissatisfaction because of the social comparison process in which young adolescents compare themselves to models and subsequently fall short of these social and cultural standards. It is believed that body issatisfaction then promotes dieting and negative perception of oneself, which then increase the risk for eating disturbances (Stice, 2001 as cited in Krones et al, 2005, p. 134). Correlational, cultural, and experimental evidence indicates that there is a link between exposure to media depicting images representative of the sociocultural ideals of attractiveness and body dissatisfaction (Watson, 2006, p. 387). With this constant attention towards attaining an unrealistic body type (desire to be smaller or thinner) many individuals become dissatisfied with their own bodies.
This dissatisfaction can lead to depression, unhealthy dieting, and over exercising, Media’s messages have been linked to levels of body dissatisfaction (Stince & Shaw, 2002, as cited in Sinton & Birch, 2005, p. 167). Studies have shown that body dissatisfaction has also been linked to increases in depression (Stice and Bearman, 2001; Stice and Shaw, 2003 as cited in Stince & Birch, 2005, p. 165). It is also reported that individuals who experience chronic body dissatisfaction throughout early adolescents experience higher levels of negative affects and eating disorders into early adulthood.
Research also suggests that the relationship between body image and depression occur early in adolescents, particularly in girl because, as a young girl’s body begins puberty, her body changes away from the cultural ideal of thinness (Faust, 1983 as cited in Rierdan & Koff , 1997). This is because pubertal development for girls involves a significant increase in fat, and thus weight (Frisch, 1980; Young, Sipin, & Roe, 1980 as cited in Rierdan & Koff , 1997).
Associated with this physical change, researchers have observed a decreased in body satisfaction for young adolescent girls with a prominent focus of this dissatisfaction being weight and parts of the body associated with greater fat deposits (Kirkely & Burge, 1989; Tobin-Richards, Boxer, & Petersen, 1983 as cited in Rierdan & Koff , 1997). This dissatisfaction can drive adolescents and young women to behaviours of unhealthy dieting and over exercising in order to attain what the media portrays as the ‘accepted’ body.
The unattainable body that is advertised everywhere in society leads many individuals to be unhappy with their bodies. This can lead to the efforts to lose weight by restricting eating. This behaviour may be seen more likely in those who are overweight and have a desire to be thin, but it is also seen in normal and underweight individuals. Thus regardless of the weight, women and adolescents especially, are dissatisfied with their bodies. This is the case because these individuals have adopted an unrealistic standard of beauty (Lam et al. 008, p. 153). Utter et al. (2003 as cited in Lawrie, 2006, p. 365) found that weight control behaviours and binge eating increased in middle and high school students as their frequency of reading magazines containing diet related information increased. Similarly, Thomsen et al. (2002 as cited in Lawrie, 2006, p. 365) observed that restricting calories and taking diet pills were associated with reading beauty and fashion magazines in female high school students 15 to 18 years of age.
Likewise, celebrities frequently endorse these products, enhancing the power of the message in this culture where ‘stars’ are closely followed and emulated by adolescents and young adults. Thus, media pressures to be thin influence unhealthy dieting behaviours. Society and the media place unrealistic expectations of what their body ‘should’ look like. People are bombarded with messages and advertisements about how they ‘should’ look and what kind of person they ‘should’ be. Thus to meet these expectations females over-exercise.
To meet these expectations however, can be exhausting, unhealthy, and damaging to ones self-esteem. Women and adolescent girls are motivated by models to diet and over exercise in hopes to attain their “ideal body size”. When that goal is not full met females tend to compare themselves with other women who have an appealing body in society. Studies have shown that those who compared themselves with a fit, slender peer had an increase in body dissatisfaction. Recent experimental work showed comparisons with fit peers lowered women’s feelings of body satisfaction (Krons, 2005; & Lins, 2002, as cited in Wasilenko et al. 2007, p. 743). The study also found that women who exercised in a campus recreation center within view of a fit peer experienced significantly lower body satisfaction relative to women who exercised on the same apparatus without any peers in view. Thus, even those with relatively low body fat levels experienced lower body satisfaction in response to a fairly short exposure to a fit peer (Wasilenko et al. , 2007, p. 743). The study also showed that women who were less fit exercised for a longer amount of time when a fit peer was in their view (Wasilenko et al. 2007, p. 744). This suggests that the pressure from the media and peer pressure causes females to do the extremes in order to attain what the public portrays at the “ideal body” Lastly, experimental studies have found that women exposed to magazine images of the ultrathin super models, and women who compared themselves to fit peers experienced a host of negative emotions including depression, stress, guilt, shame, insecurity, and body dissatisfaction (Heinberg & Thompson, 1995; Irving, 1990; Stice & Shaw, 1994 as cited in Krones, p. 35). Thus, consequences of society’s emphasis of the “ideal body” on females are feelings of dissatisfaction. This dissatisfaction with her body can lead to feelings of depression and negative diet and exercise behaviours. The constant emphasis on the idea body image causes women and young girls to constantly compare themselves to others. This constant comparison leads these girls to a negative perception of themselves.
The First Article In The United Constitution
Federalism is best defined by Homes and Kern (2009, p. 16) as a “system of overspent in which the people are regulated by both federal and state governments. ” The United States Constitution developed and designed these two bodies of government to prevent the American people from tyranny and ensured powers were delegated appropriately. The two governmental powers are ran side by side. Both federal and state governments are composed of three branches of government: executive, legislative, and judicial branches. The federal courts have their jurisdictions and the states theirs.
However, there are shared jurisdictions of both court systems, in which a citizen could be trialed in both courts. Often people assume this is double jeopardy, in which all actuality it is not because they violated laws set forth by both the federal and state laws, requiring justice sought in both jurisdictions. Overruling these two courts systems is the United States Supreme Court, which is the highest court of the United States of America. The federal courts, or government, have expressed powers given to them under the first article in the United States Constitution.
These expressed powers give the federal government jurisdiction over the declaration of war, regulation of interstate and foreign trades, establishing post offices, foreign policies, and the ewer to add new states. The federal government is also given the authority of implied powers, as well. Implied powers gives the federal government the ability to make and enforce laws necessary to carry out their delegated powers. The state also has authority to make powers within its boundaries.
However, the states cannot make laws areas that are within conflict of the federal laws in areas that are preempted by the federal government. The states have authority over areas such as establishing and maintaining local governments and schools, providing public safety, regulating business within the state, making marriage saws, and other areas not assigned to federal government. In the Fourteenth Amendment of the United States Constitution, equal protection and due process was ratified to include the state government is also practicing equal protection to its people as with the federal system.
This was due to ensure that the state maintained the constitutional rights under its government as well. Both the federal and state government have a shared responsibility in maintaining law and order, levying taxes, borrowing money, chartering banks, establishing courts, and providing welfare to its citizens. These are a shared responsibility of both deader and state to ensure the citizens are being treated and not one body of government can become absolute authority and over empower the other body of government.
In which this sometimes often leads to conflict between the federal and state government. The Supremacy Clause Due the conflict that arises between the federal and state bodies of government because of their shared jurisdictions, the Supremacy Clause has been outlined in Article Six of the United States Constitution. In act of conflict, the clause makes the Constitution and the United States law the supreme law of the land (Homes &Ekern, 2009). The federal government law then succeeds if it holds preemption in that area.
Artificial Intelligence Research Paper Artificial IntelligenceArtificial
Artificial Intelligence Essay, Research Paper
Artificial intelligence is a extremely problematic subject. You either believe that it may be achieved or believe it can ’ t, and the center is a small fly-by-night. Artificial Intelligence is the survey to make a machine that can move like a human encephalon, including emotions, and consciousness. This address will cover the topic of if it can of all time be achieved and at what degree. This would be a elephantine technological measure. If it is of all time achieved, mundane activities such as vacuuming, or wash, would go machine-controlled. The leader in the field of AI is really non a concern, but MIT ’ s Artificial Intelligence Laboratory. It does more land interrupting research in the all Fieldss of AI, including robotics and nervous webs, than any other installation in the universe.
First I will depict the different techniques and Fieldss that autumn under AI. The first technique that is used to make intelligent systems is the top-down attack. That is when the computing machine is given a written set of waies such as “ IF that is ruddy, THEN travel frontward ” and it will travel from at that place harmonizing to the plan. This technique was widely used back in the 1950 ’ s when AI was still a cryptic topic, but it has major defects. To compose complex plans that take in all their milieus would take 100s of 1000s of lines of codification, which no 1 has the clip to compose. The newest technique that is being used is bottom-up. That is the agreement of informations into a complex system where all information is connected, like a encephalon, which is why it is besides referred to as a nervous web. It is highly complex and confounding at some points, so I won ’ t depict it here, but you don ’ t need to understand it to reply the inquiry at manus.
There are besides many different Fieldss of survey that autumn under AI. The first field that I ’ ll speak about is robotics. This field has been thriving in the ’ 90 ’ s. It is non so much the technology for the automatons that is doing the deadlock in functionality of these machines, but the computing machines that control what they do, which is the job with all signifiers of AI right now. There is besides database processing, which works with the manner that a computing machine kinds and retrieves information. And intelligent package agents that can state you when to purchase and sell stock among many other things. But, what this address chiefly focuses on is the theory behind all this, which has its ain field.
There are four classs of point of views that one may hold on this subject.
“ A. All thought is calculation ; in peculiar, feelings of witting consciousness
are evoked simply by the transporting out of appropriate calculations.
B.Awareness is a characteristic of the encephalon ’ s physical action ; and whereas any
physical action can be simulated computationally, computational simulation
can non by itself evoke consciousness.
C.Appropriate physical action of the encephalon evokes consciousness, but that physical
action can non even be decently simulated computationally.
D.Awareness can non be explained by physical, computational, or any other
ientific terms.” Penrose 12
All that says is that it all depends if the encephalon maps computationally or physically ( chemical reactions ) and whether or non you believe that either of those can be simulated by a machine or biological creative activity of some sort. We will be covering with point of view A and D.
If you believe in point of view A than you believe that computing machines can go “ cognizant ” of their milieus. The word “ cognizant ” means that it can take in its whole milieus and do judgements and actions for itself, which a elephantine spring from where AI is at now. It truly depends on how you view how the encephalon maps. Research is being done by neurobiologists to unlock the secret of how the encephalon works. It could work by calculation or chemical reactions, no 1 is truly certain. If you think that it is all done computationally, and that worlds can imitate it in a machine of some kind than you believe in A. “ A is an deduction of a extremely operational attitude to scientific discipline, where, besides, the physical universe is taken to run wholly computational. ” Penrose 13. There has been no grounds that supports or denies this point of view because the secret of how the encephalon plant has non been solved, yet.
The point of view D, on the other manus wholly rejects the whole thought that computing machines, or any machine can accomplish any signifier of intelligence that may be mistaken for human action. The chief ground for trusters in this class is from the work of a German mathematician named Kurt Goedel. He was a good friend of Albert Einstein and helped him with his theory of relativity. He was more into the inquiry of logic. His “ Logic Theorem ” is extremely complex and impossible to explicate in this address. It reasonably much says that logic is merely a biological procedure and can non be simulated utilizing any signifier of device or algorithms. Some how he proved this utilizing mathematics. His work is extremely problematic and still merely a theory and that is why the point of view A is still a possibility.
We will non acquire into the B and C point of views because they are highly brumous, and non really precise. They reasonably much say that you believe that the encephalon maps computationally and physically, but can non be simulated by any machine. Whereas in D you believe the key to making “ awareness ” in a machine will ne’er be reached.
I, myself, believe that A, can and will be achieved. The roar of technological progresss in both the country of AI and Neurobiology coerce me to believe in that point of view. My anticipation is that it will be achieved by the twelvemonth 2050. I ’ m non certain yet if it is traveling to be a good thing. Many occupations will be lost due to mechanization. Hundreds of 1000s of people will replaced with machines that perform flawless and mistake free. And it would be cheaper to purchase a machine for $ 5,000 that can work for 10 old ages, than to pay person $ 40,000 a twelvemonth for 10 old ages, that is merely simple math.
AI is a really interesting field that is still in the early phases. There have merely been major progresss in that field in the last 10 old ages and I believe that it will maintain on traveling like that. Hopefully, when I am old and can ’ t map for myself I will hold a computing machine that can make it all for me.