Meeting The Needs Of Service Users Essay Example


Providing adequate healthcare support to a patient suffering from various ailments is the major goal of this report. A healthcare expert is crucial in this situation for immediately giving the people who require it the finest care possible. In this situation, a healthcare worker may provide the patient with personalized treatment via an integrated care system. An integrated care system is an organizational collaboration that provides proper planning so that persons in need can receive appropriate care (Kritcher et al., 2022). On the other hand, personalized care allows patients to adjust or amend their treatment plans to their delight (Cheng et al., 2019). This paper will focus on Mrs. E, a case study of a woman with several health problems. It could aid in her recovery and ability to live a healthy life. Also, it will outline various treatment strategies that might aid Mrs. E in recovering from her present health problem.

Overview of the health condition of Mrs. E

It has been inferred from the case study supplied that Mrs. E is married and owns a little cottage where she resides with her husband. However, out of her two children—a boy and a daughter—her daughter died from cancer. As of the report, her daughter has been battling breast cancer for about ten years. In the current situation, Mrs. E’s husband is exceedingly unwell and has many illnesses, including arthritis, dementia, and hearing problems. Mrs. E’s son has suggested that his mother choose a care facility for her spouse to facilitate a speedy recovery. In the meanwhile, Mrs. E has been found to have several illnesses. At the moment, she has vascular dementia. According to her son, she frequently forgets things and does things like put groceries in the microwave. In addition, she has glaucoma, which requires her to put eye drops in her eyes every night. She must have daily medical assistance because she is also experiencing heart problems. Also, because she lost her daughter, she may experience both emotional and mental breakdowns. So, based on these, it can be inferred that her health is not excellent and that, to recover from her present health concerns, she requires both mental and physical care. Nevertheless, Mrs. E will never fully recover from the illness affecting her life. So, at this point, a healthcare expert must offer pertinent assistance and care plan direction so that Mrs. E can adjust her everyday lifestyle by partially recuperating.

Understanding of Integrated Care System with clear reference to the case study.

An integrated care system (ICS) is a statutory partnership between several organizations that acquire, offer, and organize healthcare assistance and services in their separate geographic regions. In layman’s words, an incorporated care system is a collaboration between organizations that offers patients or individuals experiencing various health problems pertinent healthcare help (Pedrana et al., 2020). The NHS, one of the well-known organizations in the UK, offers people with various medical conditions comprehensive healthcare services (Limb, 2023). The UK’s health care system operates or delivers services based on five processes. The five processes may be divided into five categories: maintaining health, identifying health issues, determining their causes, treating them, and promoting a decent quality of life (He et al., 2022). In the first procedure, the healthcare system offers several options so that a person like Mrs. E can maintain good health and avoid health problems.

Figure 1

The UK's health care system's five processes

Aside from that, the healthcare system also works to locate a patient’s health problem and offer suitable alternatives for treating it. In order to prevent these kinds of health problems in the future, the UK’s healthcare system also encourages leading a happy and healthy life. However, for patients to recover, the healthcare system must improve its delivery of healthcare services. According to the case study, Mrs. E suffers from vascular dementia, glaucoma, heart disease, and another ailment. Thus, the UK healthcare system must produce the necessary papers so Mrs. E. can receive pertinent medical assistance. For Mrs. E’s family to comprehend what kind of help must be given to her for a quick recovery, the healthcare system or the UK must also contact them. As a result, if the healthcare system included this in its plan, it could aid Mrs. E in making a partial recovery from her problem.

Personalized care for Mrs. E concerning healthcare models and frameworks

According to the case study, Mrs. E is experiencing bad health effects due to three health conditions: vascular dementia, glaucoma, and a heart condition. Also, it was discovered that she had lost a daughter who had battled cancer for ten years. Also, her husband has several health issues that have compelled her son to choose a care facility to give Mr. E the proper care. She is psychologically disturbed due to the death of Mrs. E’s daughter and Mr. E’s deteriorating health. In addition, she is battling several health difficulties, so getting better will require the right medical help and supervision. The biopsychosocial healthcare model will be used to provide appropriate healthcare assistance. In 1977, George Engel unveiled this specific model. This concept contends that only biological elements are necessary to determine a person’s health or medical state (Dantas et al., 2020). Healthcare professionals also need to focus on and consider social as well as psychological factors in the case of treating different patients. Mainly with the help of this model, Healthcare professionals will be able to create an appropriate plan based upon which relevant Healthcare support can be provided to Mrs. E. As for the provided case study, it has been detected that Mrs. E is suffering from three different diseases.

In terms of treating vascular dementia, Healthcare professionals may opt for using MRI or CT scan to detect changes in the brain of Mrs. E (Kuhn et al., 2020). With the identification, healthcare practices may offer a suitable treatment for the ailment. However, in the event of glaucoma, medical specialists can perform an eye pressure test to identify Mrs. E’s vision problems. With this diagnosis, she may thus be given the appropriate depression medication and live a healthy life. However, if Mrs. E has a cardiac condition, medical personnel may use ECK or ECG to pinpoint her issue. The identification will assist healthcare professionals in giving Mrs. E the appropriate medical treatment she needs to live a balanced and healthy life. Although none of these three ailments can be cured, Mrs. E can have a normal, healthy life if given the right daily routine. In this scenario, she has to alter her lifestyle to recover from all three disorders partially.

Additionally, medical professionals can treat Mrs. E. following the Mental Capacity Act. This law aims to give various unhealthy patients or adults the proper support they need when making decisions (Majeed, 2023). As a result of their disabilities, they cannot make sound decisions or choose an appropriate plan. Similar events are depicted in this case study. Thus, practice nurses may adhere to this decision within their organization to treat the three issues affecting Mrs. E’s life.

Care Plan for Mrs. E

Aim Interventions Caregivers
To address the widespread vascular dementia that Mrs. E is experiencing. Based on the case study, Mrs. E has vascular dementia, causing her to lose everything. In order to treat this illness, medical professionals must offer a comprehensive manual that will alter or improve Mrs. E’s way of life. Moreover, medical professionals may utilize a variety of psychological treatments, such as cognitive load, to assist patients in developing their memory, speech, and problem-solving skills (Creely et al., 2020). Nevertheless, there is no such effective treatment for vascular dementia, although psychologists and other medical specialists might be able to assist Mrs. E in adopting a healthy lifestyle.
To deliver pertinent care for the glaucoma treatment process By identifying it and offering the necessary medical assistance, healthcare practitioners can treat Mrs. E’s glaucoma, which impacts her way of life. Healthcare professionals can administer eye drops, including prostaglandins, carbonic anhydrase, and rho kinase inhibitors. Also, doctors choose various surgical procedures and treatments, including laser therapy, drainage tubes, and others, to assist Mrs. E. In this situation, medical experts like physicians and nurses can speed up Mrs. E’s recovery from the illness affecting her life.
To identify the primary factor causing the cardiac disorder and offer effective treatments for quick recovery. Regarding managing cardiovascular disorders, medical providers in the UK may unveil a healthier diet for Mrs. E; this will help her maintain her health. However, medical experts might advise some treatment Mrs. E might need in this situation. Cardiologists and other specialists, including surgeons and clinical nurses, may aid Mrs. E in making a quick recovery from this illness.


The illness that is impacting Mrs. E’s well-being has been illustrated in this research. Three illnesses, comprising vascular dementia, glaucoma, and heart problems, have been found in this instance. As a result, various strategies and solutions for treating these problems have been presented here. Additionally, a treatment plan has now been given, after which healthcare experts may offer Mrs. E the necessary health support to recover quickly.

Reflective Essay


The specific task calls for a thoughtful account of Mrs. E’s circumstances. Reflective writing is helpful for fully comprehending a certain situation while thinking about improving (Irons et al., 2021). In line with this, reflecting on Mrs. E’s circumstances will be beneficial after analyzing the case study. Similar to how reflective writing will aid in identifying mistakes made in the past and overcoming them in the present, reflective writing will aid in doing so. The study will use Gibbs’ reflective cycle while considering the needs assessment and care plan.

Main body

Gibb’s reflective cycle is popular because it offers a well-designed structure that leads to finalizing critical reflection. Comparable to this, gaining insight into previous interactions was a major consideration in developing Gibb’s reflective cycle. Furthermore, Gibbs’ reflective cycle provides a structure for outlining prior events, and its cyclical character makes it particularly suitable for the revisited experience. Similarly, allowing people to draw lessons and make plans based on events or circumstances when things went successfully or poorly. Gibb’s reflective cycle depicts methodical reflection and solitary feelings in parallel. People are helped to slow down their thinking processes, preventing them from drawing hasty conclusions. Gibb’s reflective cycle has six distinct stages when considering its structured procedure. Which are accounts, sentiments, assessments, analyses, judgments, and plans for action (Gelfand et al., 2021). Experience-based knowledge about a specific circumstance is presented during the description step. Each specific event that occurred in that context must be included. In a similar vein, it is important to consider the motivation behind the encounter. The learner must then elaborate on their feelings regarding their experience of that specific scenario during the feeling stage. Also, it must include elements such as what happened before, after, and what the situation is like right now. The evaluation step follows, which contains both what has worked and what has not in the specific case.

Both the good and bad things that could have come out of that situation have. The learner’s effort to fully understand that particular experience is what the subsequent analysis stage entails. It includes the viewpoint of the causes of the positive things that happened in the situation and the causes of the things that did not go well. The learner offers a general conclusion about the situation during the conclusion stage. The action plan, which involves creating strategies for overcoming weaknesses discovered during the reflective process of a past event, is completed last.

Description stage: According to the case study, Mrs. E is an elderly married woman who lives with her husband in a bungalow. She also has three kids: a son and a daughter, who reside in the same town. The elderly couple lost their only daughter to breast cancer ten years ago. Similarly, Mrs. E sees her daughter once a month, and her son assists the elderly couple with household chores and errands like grocery shopping. It has also been noted that Mrs. E, the husband of Mr. E, has been identified as having arthritis. It is a common illness that affects older people. Similar to Mrs. E, Mrs. E requires assistance using a walking stick and is also required to wear a hearing aid. Dementia, common and frequently found in older people, was also identified as Mrs. E’s disease. Accordingly, it has been observed that for a healthier lifestyle and disease recovery. The sons of Mrs. E advise their mother to place Mrs. E in a care facility so she can receive better and more qualified care for her health.

Mrs. E politely declined her son’s suggestion because she wanted to continue caring for her husband like always. Nevertheless, over time, Mrs. E also developed vascular dementia, which rendered her incapable of carrying out her daily tasks properly. She also has glaucoma, which causes her to need eye drops every night, and she similarly gets lost at work and misplaces things around the house. Mrs. E. must take medication daily due to her heart condition and other factors. For this reason, their son is deeply concerned about his parents’ health and is looking for medical advice before things deteriorate.

Feeling: Because the situation was bad and only getting worse over time, I was also worried about the elderly couple. I did inform social services about the situation after observing that their son was making serious efforts to reach out to his parents. I had the impression that the loss of their daughter, which affected their mental health, had hit them particularly hard. In addition to raising stress levels and causing the body to release hormones like cortisol, mental health problems can also result in several other health problems that are related to them (Mattson et al., 2021). In the long term, it has a severe influence that causes major bodily illnesses and significantly affects the mental component. In Mrs. E’s case, emotional stress might have influenced her health decline. In line with this, a biopsychological method is appropriate because it will enable the investigation of Mrs. E’s current circumstances. This theory holds that the body, as real, impacts an individual’s mental health through biomedical, interpersonal, and psychosocial characteristics (Mamurov et al., 2020).

Evaluation: I considered the biopsychology approach when assessing Mrs. E’s condition. The subject aided me in identifying the main cause of her medical condition. However, using this biopsychological approach, I thoroughly analyzed the subject’s formal requirements (Gurunathan et al., 2019). Thanks to it, I developed a delivery strategy and patterns for the patient’s needs. I also realized I had ignored any social factors that may have affected Mrs. E’s health. To the full examination, it is detrimental. The beginning of the entire procedure of Mrs. E’s health examination is why I would have used the social aspect.

Analysis: I received significant assistance from the case study in learning how different factors contribute to the development of the health problem. The biopsychological approach in healthcare accepts that problems with psychological factors only influence diverse biological components (Syme et al., 2020). In Mrs. E’s instance, it could have been preferable to focus on the health issue instead of the psychological component of the applied biological model. This would have led to the creation of a stronger care strategy and a quick but temporary recovery for Mrs. E. I have been a part of a counseling program for the healthcare plan. In order to help Mrs. E’s disease advance slowly, it will be beneficial to address important issues.

Comprehending Mrs. E’s health situation has benefitted from the biopsychological model. Recognizing the external factors of Mrs. E’s changing problems is similar. I did not pay enough attention to the social factors affecting physical and mental health. That is the cause of the gap that Mrs. E’s healthcare plan has created. Similar to how the biochemical process has emphasized treating the full picture, including social, psychological, and bodily well-being, rather than just the obvious symptoms. However, the spiritual component, which might enhance healthcare, has gone unaddressed.

Action plan: I realized that getting a deeper grasp of various techniques is necessary after going through the entire reflection process after the distinct phases. It will help me use appropriate techniques based on the scenarios if I better grasp the various models and approaches (Hoffman et al., 2019). Similarly, my verdict on this specific circumstance will be more realistic and practical for those with health issues. To be more enriched and competent, I must get information from online and offline sources, such as the internet and relevant literature.


The study mentioned above wrapped up with an overview of Gibb’s reflective cycle and its importance for recognizing and studying the past. Corresponding to this, it has been noted that the biopsychological framework has helped to clarify the fundamental problems. In terms of the findings, it was determined what the patient Mrs. E was dealing with was. Evaluating the patient from all angles is advised to conclude with effective results in the future. Also, it is advised to use a holistic approach while developing effective healthcare programs for the given medical conditions and regions.


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Palliative Care Interview And Analysis Essay Example For College


Policies related to palliative care providers are essential for ensuring that patients with life-limiting illnesses receive high-quality care that meets their physical, psychological, social, and spiritual needs. These policies are designed to guide healthcare providers in delivering palliative care, which involves relieving pain and symptoms, improving quality of life, and addressing end-of-life issues. One important policy related to palliative care provision is the World Health Organization’s (WHO) definition of palliative care. According to the WHO, palliative care is an approach that “improves the quality of life of patients and their families facing the problems associated with life-threatening illness, through the prevention and relief of suffering by means of early identification and impeccable assessment and treatment of pain and other problems, physical, psychosocial and spiritual (Dzierżanowski, 2021, 192).” This definition provides a framework for healthcare providers to deliver comprehensive palliative care that addresses the holistic needs of patients.

Implementing advanced care planning is yet another essential component of providing palliative care (ACP). ACP involves patients discussing their desires for end-of-life care and deciding their future medical treatment (Keijzer-van Laarhoven et al., 2020). ACP is critical for ensuring that patients receive treatment following their beliefs and choices, particularly as they get closer to the end of their lives. Policies relating to ACP can guarantee that patients have access to this necessary procedure and that their wishes are honoured. This access can also help to ensure that patients have policies relating to ACP.

In addition, policies relating to ethical issues in palliative care service are vital for ensuring that patients receive care congruent with their values and beliefs (Benites et al., 2021, p. 13424). These policies address decision-making around end-of-life care, the use of life-sustaining treatments, and cultural disparities in attitudes towards death and dying. Policies based on ethical principles serve as a roadmap for healthcare practitioners to follow when confronted with challenging choices and as a framework for resolving potential disagreements that may crop up while providing care.

Area of Interest in Palliative Care

The psychological struggles that patients dealing with life-limiting illnesses go through are an area of palliative care practice that has received much attention recently. Individuals with life-threatening conditions may suffer from various mental diseases, including anxiety, sadness, terror, and existential discomfort (Ross et al., 2022, p. 109174). Addressing these psychological issues in palliative care is vital since they can substantially impact the patient’s quality of life and capacity to deal with their disease.

Studies have indicated that psychological therapies, such as cognitive behavioural therapy, relaxation techniques, and mindfulness-based stress reduction, can assist patients with life-limiting illnesses reduce their psychological distress and enhance their quality of life (Ross et al., 2022, p. 109174). Nonetheless, several obstacles must be overcome to address psychological difficulties in palliative care effectively. For instance, patients may be hesitant to discuss their psychological distress with healthcare providers, and in some settings, there may be a lack of resources available for psychological interventions. Additionally, healthcare providers may not always be aware of the need for psychological interventions.

As a result, a crucial component of palliative care treatment is the development of solutions to address the psychological obstacles that patients with life-limiting illnesses encounter and an awareness of the psychological challenges that these patients face. The ability of patients to deal with the effects of their illness and maintain a high quality of life can be significantly boosted when healthcare personnel treat patients’ psychological suffering (Lohrasbi et al., 2023, p. 31).

During this interview, I will talk to a priest who presently works in an environment associated with hospice care. This interview aims to gain insight into the challenges and strategies for resolving psychological distress in patients with life-limiting illnesses in a hospice setting. Specifically, this interview will focus on patients diagnosed with cancer. During the interview, we will discuss the following topics:

  1. The interviewee’s experience working in a hospice setting.
  2. The most common psychological challenges that patients with life-limiting illnesses face are.
  3. How psychological distress is identified in patients.
  4. Strategies for addressing psychological distress in patients.
  5. Specific cases where addressing psychological distress improved a patient’s quality of life.
  6. Vulnerable patient populations and how their care is approached differently.
  7. Resources available for addressing psychological distress in patients.
  8. Barriers and challenges encountered when addressing psychological distress.
  9. Opportunities for improving the availability and accessibility of psychological support for patients with life-limiting illnesses.

Interview context

Throughout the interview, I spoke with John, a hospice chaplain whom a sizable hospice organisation in the United States employs. John explained that the standards that govern how his place of employment runs at the federal level mandate that they offer palliative care and hospice services to patients who are suffering from illnesses or conditions that are terminal. John also mentioned that they must abide by state-specific regulations, which might differ from one state to the next. John has gained a profound awareness of the mental and spiritual struggles endured by patients and those closest to them directly from his profession and ongoing experiences in this line of work. He emphasised the significance of offering support for anticipatory sorrow and addressing cultural differences in palliative and hospice care delivery.

John emphasised the significance of beginning conversations regarding end-of-life care as early as possible in the palliative care process. This was significant to me because my area of research focuses on advanced care planning and ethical dilemmas. He mentioned that these conversations could be challenging, but they are essential to guarantee that patients’ preferences are respected and that they get the care they want. John also discussed how diverse perspectives on end-of-life care among family members can lead to ethical disputes, and he emphasised the significance of having a strategy in place for resolving such disagreements before they occur (Tanaka Gutiez et al., 2023).

Literature Review

Barker et al. (2019) conducted a systematic review to determine the prevalence and incidence of anxiety and depression among children, adolescents, and young adults with life-limiting conditions. They found that the prevalence of anxiety and depression was high in this population, with anxiety being the most commonly reported mental health problem. These findings highlight the need for increased psychological support and interventions for this vulnerable population.

Breen et al. (2022) conducted a systematic review to identify the psychosocial support needs of patients with mesothelioma and their caregivers. They found that patients and caregivers experienced various psychosocial issues related to the disease, including anxiety, depression, and social isolation. The authors recommend developing and implementing tailored psychosocial support programs to address these needs.

Nowels et al. (2023) conducted a systematic review and meta-analysis to examine the effects of palliative care interventions on psychological distress. They found that palliative care interventions effectively reduced psychological distress in patients with advanced illness, with the most effective interventions focused on improving communication, symptom management, and emotional support.

Oechsle (2019) conducted a literature review to explore the problems and needs of relatives and family caregivers during palliative and hospice care. The review found that family caregivers often experience high levels of burden and distress and may have unmet information and support needs. The authors recommend providing tailored support and education for family caregivers to address these issues.

Sudore et al. (2017) conducted a Delphi panel to develop a consensus definition of advanced care planning for adults. The resulting definition emphasised the importance of communication and decision-making in advance care planning and highlighted the need for healthcare providers to address the values, beliefs, and goals of individual patients.

Tanco and Epner (2018) discussed challenging conversations in palliative care, including end-of-life decision-making, prognosis, and symptom management. The authors emphasised the importance of effective communication and empathetic listening in these conversations and provided practical guidance for healthcare providers to navigate these complex discussions.

White et al. (2018) conducted a randomised trial to evaluate the effectiveness of a family-support intervention in intensive care units. The intervention included family meetings and support from a dedicated family liaison and was found to improve family satisfaction with care and reduce symptoms of anxiety and depression among family members.

Yennurajalingam (2018) discussed the hospice approach to palliative care, focusing on interdisciplinary care, symptom management, and psychosocial support. The author highlighted the importance of addressing patients’ and their families’ physical, emotional, and spiritual needs and emphasised the role of hospice in improving the quality of life for patients with advanced illness.

Interviewee’s workplace context

The interviewee, who works as a palliative care nurse practitioner, discussed the setting in which she operates. Her place of employment is a sizable academic medical facility located in the heart of a major city in the United States. A comprehensive palliative care programme is offered at the medical facility and available to patients in inpatient and outpatient settings. Patients facing the end of their lives and their families can receive comprehensive treatment through the palliative care programme, run by a team of palliative care physicians, nurses, social workers, chaplains, and volunteers. This team works together to provide this care (Vernon et al., 2022, p. 114731).

The interviewee’s respondent noted that the palliative care programme at her place of employment takes more of a collaborative approach. This indicates that other medical professionals turn to the palliative care team for assistance in managing symptoms, fulfilling spiritual and psychosocial needs, and facilitating communication between patients, their families, and medical professionals (Venkateswaran et al., 2020, p. 119). The respondent also indicated that the palliative care team at her place of employment utilises a team-based approach to providing care, which includes holding frequent team meetings, case conferences, and collaboration among team members.

In addition, the respondent mentioned that her place of employment is dedicated to providing high-quality care that is centred on patients and is in line with the objectives and priorities of those patients. She noted that the palliative care team at her place of employment utilises various interventions to improve their patient’s quality of life. Some of these treatments include pain and symptom management, advanced care planning, and psychological support (Rivera et al., 2023). The person interviewed stressed how important communication is in palliative care and how crucial it is to ensure that patients and their families are educated, given agency, and actively participating in their treatment.

Interviewee’s understanding of the area of interest and how it has developed through experience and training

During the interview, the healthcare professional discussed the significance of providing patients and their families with psychosocial support when receiving palliative care. They underlined the importance of a holistic approach to treatment that considers not just the patient’s medical ailments but also the emotional, social, and spiritual requirements of the patients and their families (Llop-Medina et al., 2022, p. 3195). They also emphasised the relevance of advance care planning, which is conversing with patients about their choices and values towards end-of-life care and documenting that discussion. The person interviewed stated that doing so helps ensure patients receive care per their desires and values.

The person interviewed stated that they have better understood palliative care through education and practical experience. They have received extra training in palliative care and have worked with teams providing palliative care in various healthcare settings. They mentioned that they had witnessed the positive impact that psychosocial support and advanced care planning have had, both directly on patients and directly on the families of those patients. They have also experienced difficulties in providing this kind of care, such as limited resources and time limits; nevertheless, they have discovered solutions to overcome these obstacles through collaboration with interdisciplinary teams and community resources (Montano et al., 2021).

Interviewee’s views on what facilitates or impedes care provided

During the interview, the interviewee discussed the factors that either help or hurt the delivery of high-quality palliative care. The interviewee identified having a multidisciplinary team approach in palliative care as one that helped facilitate the process. They stressed how important it is to involve a variety of healthcare specialists, including social workers, chaplains, and mental health experts, in treating patients and caring for the patient’s relatives. The person being interviewed also stressed the significance of maintaining open lines of communication and working together to ensure that patients receive all-encompassing care that caters to their physiological, psychological, and spiritual requirements (Pratt et al., 2020, p. 12388).

On the other hand, the respondent brought up several obstacles that, when they arise, can make it challenging to deliver high-quality palliative care. They cited a need for more access to resources and services as one of their challenges, which could be more problematic in underdeveloped or rural areas. This can include a lack of skilled professionals in palliative care, restricted access to drugs and medical equipment, and inadequate funding for groups that provide palliative care (Abu-Odah et al., 2020, p. 12). The interviewee also mentioned the difficulty of overcoming linguistic and cultural hurdles when providing medical care to various patient populations.

The interviewee also provided insight into various healthcare policies’ influence on delivering palliative care. They talked about how policies can affect the availability of resources, the funding of programmes that provide palliative care, and the training of healthcare providers. They observed that policies that focus on palliative care could make it easier to provide high-quality treatment, whereas policies that do not prioritise palliative care have the potential to make it more difficult (Ersek et al., 2022, p. 250).

Interviewee’s role and any gaps or strengths identified

During the interview, the subject provided insight into their work as palliative care nurses and detailed their responsibilities. They stressed the importance of developing relationships with patients and their families and providing emotional and psychosocial assistance to those involved. The respondent also emphasised the significance of open and honest communication between members of the medical community and the requirement that patients and their families be included in the care planning process (Pratt et al., 2020, p. 12388).

The respondent identified some strengths and weaknesses associated with their role. One of the organisation’s strengths was its capacity to serve patients and their families with sensitive care. They also noted that working well with interdisciplinary team members was one of their strengths. The respondent did highlight, however, that there were some holes in their job, such as the necessity for additional education and training on specific aspects of palliative care, such as symptom management and communication skills (Turrillas et al., 2019, p. 162). The person interviewed pointed out a demand for improved access to resources for patients and families, particularly those from socioeconomically deprived situations.

The respondent, in general, conveyed a solid commitment to enhancing the quality of care offered to patients and families of patients receiving palliative care. They stressed the necessity of continuing education and training for healthcare practitioners and the significance of addressing the socioeconomic determinants of health in palliative care practice as two essential points.

Unexpected information shared during the interview

During the interview, the interviewee shared some unexpected information regarding the challenges of delivering palliative care in specific cultural contexts. The interviewee noted that in some cultures, discussing end-of-life care and advanced care planning is considered taboo and is often avoided (Martina et al., 2022, p. 6). This can make it challenging to provide appropriate palliative care to patients and their families, as they may have needed more discussions or made preparations. The interviewee also mentioned that, in some cases, cultural practices or beliefs might conflict with the goals of palliative care, such as pain management or prolonging life. This can create ethical dilemmas for healthcare providers and require sensitive navigation of cultural differences.

The interviewee also shared some unexpected insights into the importance of interdisciplinary collaboration in palliative care. They emphasised that palliative care requires a team-based approach, with input from physicians, nurses, social workers, chaplains, and other healthcare professionals (Rhee & Brizzi, 2021, p. 572). This interdisciplinary approach is essential for addressing the complex needs of patients and families facing serious illnesses and can lead to better outcomes and improved quality of life for patients.


The interviewee shared valuable information about providing palliative care to individuals with terminal illnesses. They emphasised the significance of providing treatment oriented to the patient, in which their requirements, preferences, and objectives are considered. They talked about the difficulties of treating psychological distress in patients with life-limiting diseases, such as anxiety and depression, and they underlined the necessity for individualised interventions that cater to the specific requirements of each patient. The respondent to the interview emphasised the significance of open lines of communication and collaborative decision-making between patients, carers, and healthcare professionals. They found holes in the provision of care, such as a need for more resources for providing patients and their carers with psychosocial support and additional education and training for healthcare workers on delivering palliative care.

The interview with the palliative care provider provided beneficial insights into the difficulties and achievements associated with providing palliative care. It became abundantly clear throughout the interview that providing effective palliative care necessitates adopting a multidisciplinary strategy that takes into consideration the physiological, psychological, and spiritual requirements of the patient as well as the requirements of their family. The person interviewed emphasised how important it is to communicate, empathise with patients, and be flexible to provide patient-centred care that considers their needs and preferences. The conversation highlighted the importance of continuing education and training for palliative care practitioners to keep up with advancements in their area, such as using technology and telemedicine to support patients and families. The interview also underlined the significance of treating patients’ and caregivers’ mental and emotional needs, including anxiety, despair, and sorrow.

Recommendation for Future Palliative Care Provision

  1. Addressing communication gaps: Communication was highlighted as a critical factor that can facilitate or impede the provision of palliative care. Therefore, future palliative care providers should receive communication training that equips them with the necessary skills to engage with patients, families, and caregivers.
  2. Addressing psychosocial needs: Patients and caregivers require adequate psychosocial support to help them cope with the challenges of palliative care. Future care providers should receive training that equips them with the necessary skills to provide such support.
  3. Addressing caregiver burden: Caregivers play an essential role in providing palliative care. Therefore, future care providers should receive training to identify and address caregiver burden.
  4. Addressing cultural diversity: Palliative care providers should receive cultural competence training that equips them with the necessary skills to provide care sensitive to patients’ and families’ cultural and religious needs.
  5. Emphasising interdisciplinary care: Palliative care provision should involve an interdisciplinary team that includes physicians, nurses, social workers, and chaplains. Therefore, future care providers should receive training that emphasises the importance of interdisciplinary care provision.
  6. Enhancing advance care planning: Future care providers should receive training on facilitating advanced care planning discussions with patients and families. This will help to ensure that patients’ end-of-life care preferences are respected.
  7. Incorporating technology: Technology can be used to enhance the provision of palliative care. Therefore, future care providers should receive training on technology to provide remote care, telemedicine, and patient monitoring.

References List

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Breen, L.J. et al. (2022). “Living with mesothelioma: A systematic review of patient and caregiver psychosocial support needs,” Patient Education and Counseling, 105(7), pp. 1904–1916. Available at:

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Keijzer-van Laarhoven, AJJM et al. (2020). “Which moral barriers and facilitators do physicians encounter in advance care planning conversations about the end of life of persons with dementia? A meta-review of Systematic Reviews and primary studies,” BMJ Open, 10(11). Available at:

Llop-Medina, L. et al. (2022). “Palliative care in older people with multimorbidities: A scoping review on the palliative care needs of patients, carers, and Health Professionals,” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 19(6), p. 3195. Available at:

Lohrasbi, F. et al. (2023). “Promoting psychosocial health of family caregivers of patients with chronic mental disorders: A review of challenges and strategies,” Chonnam Medical Journal, 59(1), p. 31. Available at:

Martina, D. et al. (2022). “Opportunities and challenges for advance care planning in strongly religious family-centric societies: A focus group study of Indonesian cancer-care professionals,” BMC Palliative Care, 21(1). pp.1–8. Available at:

Montano, A.R., Cornell, P.Y. and Gravenstein, S. (2021). “Barriers and facilitators to Interprofessional Collaborative Practice for community‐dwelling older adults: An integrative review,” Journal of Clinical Nursing [Preprint]. Available at:

Nowels, M. A. et al. (2023). Palliative care interventions effects on psychological distress: A systematic review & meta-analysis. Journal of Pain and Symptom Management. Available at:

Oechsle, K. (2019). Current advances in palliative & Hospice care: Problems and needs of relatives and family caregivers during palliative and hospice care—An overview of current literature. Medical Sciences7(3), 43. Available at:

Pratt, H., Moroney, T. & Middleton, R. (2020). “The influence of engaging authentically on nurse–patient relationships: A scoping review,” Nursing Inquiry, 28(2). Available at:

Rhee, J.Y. and Brizzi, K. (2021). “Palliative care for polio and postpolio syndrome,” Physical Medicine and Rehabilitation Clinics of North America, 32(3), pp. 569–579. Available at:

Rivera, F.B. et al. (2023). “End-of-life care for patients with end-stage heart failure, comparisons of International Guidelines,” American Journal of Hospice and Palliative Medicine®, p. 104990912311545. Available at:

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Place Analysis – San Antonio Writing Sample

It is unbelievable that despite San Antonio city being a vibrant, growing city and a tourist attraction center in the USA, it still experiences unimaginable challenges. Globally, several people think that all the cities in the United States are perfect, thus having no challenges affecting them, thus leading to faster growth which is a different case. San Antonio has many desirable characteristics, including being globally known for tourist attractions like the Alamo and the Tower of Americas. Furthermore, San Antonio has a rich diversity, thus offering tourists the opportunity to learn about cultural differences and customs. Despite San Antonio city being rich in Historical identity, a thriving adventure scene, enjoyable food, a thrilling municipal, and a dynamic economy, the town experiences various challenges that endanger its protracted viability and well-being that have increased randomly for decades. The problems experienced also contribute to slowing the development and growth rate of the city. Therefore, among the various challenges experienced by San Antonio’s residents, some of them entail; poverty or the homelessness issue, rapid expansion, and environmental pollution, among others.

The first challenge facing San Antonio is Poverty; poverty is described as being enormously deprived, in which an individual or family lacks direct exposure to necessities entailing healthcare, food, education, and shelter. San Antonio is a city located in the south-central region of Texas. Despite San Antonio city being rich in Historical identity, a thriving adventure scene, enjoyable food, a thrilling municipal, and a dynamic economy, their poverty level is uncontrollable. In San Antonio, poverty is an intricate problem that touches most city residents. Based on the research conducted by the census bureau of the united state, San Antonio’s deprivation prevalence in the year 2019 was 17.3%. This was enormously larger than that of the local and national estimates. The poverty incidence in the town deeply worries the Hispanic and Black inhabitants, where the Hispanics have 21.2 %, and the black inhabitants have 28.2%. The deprivation rate for households with kids younger than 18 is even more significant, at 22.4%. Deprivation has wide-ranging repercussions in San Antonio, affecting all of its inhabitants. Impoverished Folks frequently encounter barriers to top-notch education, medical services, and other basic needs like housing and sustenance. Deprivation has led to societal discrimination, less employment prosperity, and poor mental and physical health (Mendiola Ross). Poverty severely affects young people’s intellectual, sentimental, and physical growth. San Antonio’s poverty is a complicated issue with many underlying causes. Low-income and minority families have always made up a significant portion of the population of San Antonio. The result has been a cycle of poverty that is hard to break, exacerbated by a lack of higher education and employment possibilities. San Antonio has always been a Democratic bastion and has not invested enough money in the city’s poorer regions. The issue has also been exacerbated by economic reasons such as a volatile employment market, poor earnings, and restricted access to cash and credit (Mendiola Ross). The high cost of living in San Antonio has also been a problem, making it challenging for locals to make ends meet. Also, San Antonio is home to a sizable immigrant community, many lacking the tools and assistance to locate work and housing.

Additionally, low-salaried occupations in San Antonio city are also a significant cause for the higher risk of the poverty level in the town, a significant issue affecting the economic growth and the lifestyles of several of the city’s inhabitants (Rivera & Lopez, 2019). The low-paid individuals in the city experience hardships in providing for and sustaining their families. They generally need admittance to financial capabilities that allow them to devote themselves for the coming years or put away for emergencies. In a study released by the United Way of San Antonio, approximately 40% of the town’s families are categorized as Asset Limited, Income Constrained, or Employed, meaning they generate more than the federal poverty threshold yet cannot purchase the city’s living cost (Rivera & Lopez, 2019). These underlying causes must be addressed to alleviate the San Antonio poverty issue. This entails funding public services, expanding employment prospects for those with less financial means, and enhancing access to instruction and job training. Additionally, efforts must be made to lessen prejudice and provide support systems for the poor.

Since poverty is detrimental to everyone in San Antonio, it might be difficult to identify who benefits from it. However, certain firms, such as those that provide inexpensive products or services, could profit from the existence of a large group of underprivileged individuals. Businesses that provide homeless services, such as soup kitchens, shelters, and clothing donations, may also profit (Rivera & Lopez, 2019). San Antonio’s poverty may also benefit companies that provide services exclusively for poor people, including job placement or financial support. San Antonina’s affected by the issue of poverty in a variety of ways. Some individuals are disappointed and furious that the city still has so much poverty and inequality. Others are depressed and think they can do nothing to change things. Others remain optimistic that the community can work together to improve the lives of people who are poor and transform San Antonio into a prosperous and opportunity-filled city.

The City of San Antonio has attempted several strategies in the past to combat poverty. Some of these options include providing employment training and placement services, creating incentives for economic growth, and providing housing support for people in need. The city collaborates with nearby NGOs, companies, and groups to make transportation, health care, and financial literacy programs accessible. Other alternatives include investing in community-led projects, helping those in need financially, and exposing children to educational and career possibilities. In order to provide low-income families support, such as food aid and housing subsidies, the City of San Antonio collaborates with neighborhood groups (Zottarelli et, al.). In addition, the city has launched several business and housing developments that provide employment and homes for individuals in need.

These efforts’ efficacy has fluctuated. Programs for job training and placement have successfully placed individuals in work, but the occupations are sometimes low-paying and do not necessarily result in long-term economic stability. However, the cost of services is still a barrier for others. Healthcare and social service expansions have made getting the needed services easier for many individuals. The number of high school graduates has increased thanks to initiatives to raise educational attainment. However, many students still need help enrolling in college and other post-secondary educational possibilities. Tax breaks and other financial assistance might lighten financial difficulties, but many individuals still struggle to satisfy their basic requirements.

The projects have only sometimes been successful since the root causes of poverty are too complicated and call for more all-encompassing remedies. Many programs’ narrow scope also makes it challenging to maintain them over time. More finance and resources are needed to improve the effectiveness of programs to reduce poverty.

The second challenge affecting the San Antonio residents is rapid expansion and infrastructure (White et al.). According to research, History, politics, economics, and social considerations have contributed to San Antonio’s rapid growth and infrastructure development. Since the Alamo’s construction in 1836, San Antonio has served as an important military center home to several military facilities. This has benefited the city’s demographic and economic growth (White et al.). Politically, the municipal government of San Antonio has made significant investments in infrastructure and economic development programs, such as the creation of the River Walk and Hemisfair Park. The city has benefited significantly from federal and state funding for initiatives like the San Antonio Intercontinental Airport. Economically, San Antonio has become an important center for the oil and gas sector and tourism, with the city’s closeness to Mexico making it a popular destination for tourists.

Last, San Antonio’s social sector has been a primary factor in giving its residents top-notch education and employment possibilities. The fast development of San Antonio’s infrastructure has been facilitated by all of these causes (White et al.). San Antonio must first address the root problems of poverty, inequality, and insufficient access to resources in order to properly solve the issue of the city’s fast development and infrastructure. This entails expanding access to high-quality education, employment options, and economic growth. The city must also invest in public transit programs, infrastructure development, and upkeep. Last but not least, San Antonio must continue to prioritize social programs like fostering local companies, encouraging the preservation of the environment, and guaranteeing access to high-quality, affordable housing. Low-income people and communities of color, who are often left out of the advantages of city development, are the ones who are severely impacted by the fast expansion and infrastructural developments (Cotrell, Charles).

San Antonio and its residents are the principal benefactors of the city’s fast growth and infrastructural development. As a result of the expansion, local developers, as well as companies, are also able to take advantage of more lucrative commercial prospects. Furthermore, the improved infrastructure can help neighboring towns and visitors who would find it simpler to get to San Antonio. Most San Antonio residents favor the city’s expansion and improvement. Many people believe that as the city improves, more employment and economic possibilities are being created for the locals, making it more dynamic and contemporary (Puentes, Robert.). They also like the upgraded infrastructure since it makes it simpler to go to the city and adjacent cities. San Antonina feels equipped to contribute to the solution of the infrastructure development and fast expansion issues. Residents often participate in the planning and execution of development projects and may provide insightful feedback on how they would want to see their city evolve. The city is also home to a wide range of public and private groups that may work to ensure that the community benefit from the city’s growth and development. San Antonio has already made various efforts to handle its fast development and infrastructural requirements. The construction of the comprehensive urban plan SA Tomorrow, which emphasizes smart growth, environmental sustainability, economic development, and mobility, has been one of the most prominent projects. The city has also implemented several transportation measures, such as bike-friendly corridors, an enlarged bus network, and a modern streetcar infrastructure. In addition, the city has committed to a thorough “Complete Streets” strategy that emphasizes the security and convenience of all street users, including bicycles, pedestrians, and transit users. The city has also invested in various environmentally conscious initiatives to mitigate stormwater runoff and lessen floods, including rain gardens and green roofs.

These programs still need to meet San Antonio’s quick infrastructure demands. The city’s extensive urban plan has assisted in preparing for future expansion, while infrastructure efforts have enhanced safety and mobility. The “Complete Streets” program has assisted in making the city more walkable and bikeable, while the green infrastructure projects have been beneficial in lowering floods and increasing water quality. The programs’ efficacy, however, has been considerably constrained by inadequate finance and political resistance. Furthermore, the city needs help dealing with the problem of rising housing affordability, which has been made worse by the inflow of new inhabitants.

The third challenge facing San Antonio is the problem of environmental pollution. These pollutions are contributed mainly by numerous industries in the area, deforestation, and also from the transportation sectors where every individual has a private car, thus increasing the level of gas emission, which leads to the destruction of the ozone layer. The gas emitted by motor cars in the city affects the ozone layer and causes various health deficiencies, such as respiratory problems, cardiac diseases, and other health problems(Yi, Hoonchong, et al.).To solve this, the state government should enact a law for individuals to use public transportation methods to reduce the numerous gases emitted by personal or ten private cars. Because San Antonio city has numerous industries, including refineries, motor industries, and other factories that emit gases, this is also a significant cause of environmental pollution in the city. Conserving water is yet another crucial strategy to support environmental protection. The city has developed several water conservation initiatives, including xeriscaping, rainwater harvesting, and water-efficient toilets and showerheads. These programs aid in resource conservation and water use reduction.

Fortunately, the San Antonio government is not at rest and ignoring these issues. Therefore, various solutions are implemented to deal with this problem in the city, which entails; encouraging individuals to walk if not using public vehicles and also recycling to prevent the emission of dangerous gases from the manufacturing industries, practicing some agricultural activities to embrace consuming of natural food rather than the manufactured one thus reducing gas emissions from the manufacturing industries. Additionally, the government should encourage San Antonio residents to embrace renewable energy sources to prevent folks’ reliance on fuels that pollute the environment.

The City of San Antonio is taking action to lessen environmental pollution and foster a healthier environment for its residents by implementing these measures. San Antonio is setting the bar for building a more environmentally friendly and livable city via recycling, water conservation, energy conservation, and air pollution reduction.

In conclusion, San Antonio in Texas is thriving and expanding quickly. Unfortunately, several difficulties come along with its expansion. Over 10% of San Antonio’s residents live below the poverty line, making poverty a persistent problem in the city. Numerous issues, such as poor pay and a dearth of employment possibilities, are to blame. As a result, many locals struggle to make ends meet and cannot get the help they need to better their lives. Another issue in San Antonio is rapid growth. The demand for housing rises as more firms and industries settle in the city, which causes housing costs to soar and a dearth of affordable housing. Due to this, it may be challenging for those with low incomes to obtain suitable accommodation, which may result in overcrowding and homelessness. In San Antonio, environmental pollution is a significant problem. Industrial waste, chemical runoff, and other types of pollution have had a negative impact on the city’s air and water quality. These contaminants can potentially harm human health and the ecosystem in the long run. Although San Antonio is a wonderful city, its difficulties should not be disregarded. The local administration should prioritize fixing these issues to secure the city’s continued health and prosperity. This can include expanding employment prospects, investing in affordable housing, and implementing environmental rules to reduce pollution. By doing this, San Antonio can be a wonderful location for all its citizens.

Works Cited

Cotrell, Charles L. “Municipal Services Equalization and Internal Colonialism in San Antonio, Texas: Explorations in” Chinatown.” (1975).

Mendiola Ross, Ángel. “Governing Inequities Through Police in the Inland Empire.” (2020).

Puentes, Robert. “Why infrastructure matters: rotten roads, bum economy.” Metropolitan infrastructure initiative. Washington Examiner (2015).

White, Bridgett, Bill Baars, and Beverly Ross. “I. Introductions.” (2019).

Yi, Hoonchong, et al. “Social segregation of ecosystem services delivery in the San Antonio region, Texas, through 2050.” Science of the total environment 667 (2019): 234–247.

Zottarelli, Lisa K., et al. “Effects of social vulnerability and heat index on emergency medical service incidents in San Antonio, Texas, in 2018.” J Epidemiol Community Health 75.3 (2021): 271–276.