Mellville And Darwin’s Writings On The Galapagos I Essay Example

slandsDuring the nineteenth century, two prominent writers, Herman Mellvilleand Charles Darwin both voyaged to the Galapagos islands off the coast ofEcuador. Both of these individuals wrote descriptive passages about thephysical attributes and atmosphere of the Galapagos Islands. The passages varyin specific content due to the intentions and interests of the respectiveauthors, even though the object described is the same. Charles Darwin, bestknown for the theory of evolution, wrote for the purpose of science; HermanMellville, best known for Moby Dick, for the purpose of entertainment. Theaudience intended, the tone of the author, and the terms used in description-these all vary between the two passages. These passages exemplify that a singlesubject, under varying conditions, can be seen and portrayed using differingstyle and rhetoric.

Mellville’s passage uses allusions, analogies, and comparisons to well-known entities to better illustrate the Galapagos Islands to the common reader.

Mellville assumes that the reader is unfamiliar with the Galapagos islands, or”Encantadas,” as he chooses to refer to them as and paints a picture of theGalapagos Islands using everyday terms. An important part of Mellville’s styleis that the he never directly describes the islands. “Take five-and-twenty heapsof cinders dumped here and there in an outside city lot” is how Mellville’sdescription of the Galapagos Islands begins. This reduces the Galapagos islandsfrom a large, nearly inconceivable place to objects of which most any readercan create a mental picture. When Mellville describes the flora of theGalapagos Islands, he compares it with drying “Syrian gourds,” aching for water.

Mellville discusses the solitude of the Galapagos Islands in comparison withGreenland, a familiar place of solitude, the clear water in terms of Lake Erie,and the “azure ice” in terms of malachite. They know not autumn writesMellville, as if these heaps of cinder are conscious of anything at all. Allthese segments of Mellvilles passage are illustrations of how Mellville createsa personal relationship between the Island and the reader.

Darwin uses scientific and specific words, gearing the passage for ahighly specialized audience. He centers his writing around the vegetation andrelated matters; rarely straying from direct description or using comparisons.

Darwin in one of his few comparisons, relates the vegetation of the GalapagosIslands with that of “the volcanic island of Fernando de Noronha,” unheard of byall, except the most worldly. This shows that Darwin makes no investment inthe creation of an image in the minds of the common reader. Darwin writes of aspecific island, Chatham Island, and replaces Mellville’s heaps of cinders with”A broken field of black basaltic lava,…crossed by great fissures.” Usingspecifics, Darwin notes on the abundance of “Euphorbiaceae”; not only unheard ofby the common reader, but unpronounceable as well. This illustrates that theintended readers of Darwin’s passage are perhaps botanists or biologists. As ifin a laboratory report or scientific analysis, Darwin describes the physicalelement of the Galapagos Islands, rarely straying into emotions.

Varying themes found in the diction of the two passages createsdifferent overall impressions for the reader. In Darwin’s diction, one finds anobvious theme, the repeated use of words involving heat. “Lava,” “sun-burnt,””dry,””parched,” “heated,”sun” and “stove” are all used within the first foursentences. It is not uncommon to find a subject-verb-complement structure onlyslightly modified; Nothing could be less inviting than the first appearance.

is a example of this. Primarily, Darwin uses mild variations on the simplesentence structure; Mellville, varied structures. The third paragraph ofMellville’s passage consists solely of one long sentence, formed by pilingimages:And as for solitariness; the great forests of the north, the expanses ofunnavigated waters, the Greenland icefields, are the profoundest of solitudes toa human observer; still the magic of their changeable tides and seasonsmitigates their terror; because, though unvisited by men, those forests arevisited by the May; the remotest seas reflect stars even as Lake Erie does; andin the clear air of a fine polar day, the irradiated azure ice shows beautifullyas malachite.

This sentence, both in complexity and uniquity, displays the immense variationsin sentence structure at Mellville’s disposal.

The mood of Mellville’s entire passage is both sad and lonely; wordsthroughout the passage display this: “solitariness,” “solitudes,” “desolation,””sympathy,” “sorrows” and “sad.” Mellville awakens thoughts of sympathy as hecompares The Encantadas with withering cities and disheveled cemeteries.

Towards the end, Mellville displays this superbly, Have mercy on me,’ thewailing spirit of the Encantadas seems to cry. With emotion andpersonification, Mellville approaches the Galapagos Islands poetically. Hedescribes the terror as well as the solitude experienced on the islands; givingthe reader a sense of atmosphere.

In conclusion, these points demonstrate possible ways to relate asubject to a reader using varied style and rhetoric. Such drastic differencescan be found elsewhere as well. The Bible outlines rules and restrictions forits followers to live by; books of law, rules for all who live in the UnitedStates. Even though there are major differences found between passages ofDarwin and Mellville, similar to those between the Bible and formal law books,there are obvious similarities. Both passages talk of the scattered black hillsthat form the Galapagos Islands. Both portray an uninviting island; Darwinwrites: “We fancied that even the bushes smelt unpleasantly.” The use of “even”by Darwin implies that other objects on the island emit a stench as well. With asimilar outlook, Mellville writes: “ruin itself can work little more upon them.”These passages, both written about the Galapagos Islands, have many significantdifferences, as well as some similarities. They demonstrate contrasting ways toperceive and relate a subject as well as the Bible and books of law.

Category: English

Pathology Arises Out Fo The Ex

Concepts of pathology, as treated by the traditions of clinical psychology and psychiatry, define what is ‘normal’ and ‘abnormal’ in human behaviour. Various psychological paradigms exist today, each emphasising diverse ways of defining and treating psyopathology. Most commonly utilised is the medical model which is limited in many respects, criticised for reducing patients problems to a list of pathological symptoms that have a primarily biological base and which are to be treated behaviourally or pharmacologically (Schwartz & Wiggins 1999). Such reductionistic positivist ways of viewing the individual maintain the medical discourse of ‘borderline personality’, schizoid’, ‘paranoid’ or ‘clinically depressed’, often failing to address the wider socio-ltural environment of the individual. Pilgrim (1992) suggests that such diagnostic pidgeon-holing does not enhance humanity, nor aid those who are dealing with the distressed individual to find meaning. It also neglects to consider life beyond the physical, failing to address the more philosophical questions that abound from our very existence. Existential psychiatry and psychology arose in Europe in the 1940’s and 1950’s as a direct response to the dissatisfaction with prevailing efforts to gain scientific understanding in psychiatry (Binswanger 1963). Existentialism is the title of a set of philosophical ideas that emphasise the existence of the human being, the lack of meaning and purpose in life and the solitude of human existence. Existentialism stresses the jeopardy of life, the voidness of human reality and admits that the human being thrown into the world, a world in which pain, frustration, sickness, contempt, malaise and death dominates (Barnes 1962). How one positions oneself in that world becomes the focus for existential notions of pathology, a responsibility that is present forevery human being, not one confined to the ‘mentally ill’. In this sense the human being is ‘response-able’ to the existential predicament that is life and the necessary struggles that arise through negotiating these conditions in every lived moment. In this essay I will give a brief outline of the history of existential thinkers, then discuss how the existential challenge emphasises one’s freedom of choice of being-in-the-world and how ultimately one must take responsibility for how one reacts to the givens of existence. I will outline how these predicaments of life can precipitate anxiety, guilt, inertia and the loss of will; that facing the responsibilities to the ‘givens’ and choices in existence can cause ontological anxiety, a natural reaction to living authentically, and the problems incurred when one avoids tackling these predicaments and contradictions, thus living inauthentically or choosing to withdraw into a solitary world. The existential notion of pathology will be contrasted with thatof the positivist approach.

During the Second World War existentialism found it’s zenith of popularity, a time when Europe was in crisis, faced with mass death and destruction. Existentialism provides a moving account of the agony of being thrown into the world, perhaps appealing the times of intense confusion, despair and rootlesssness caused by the War and it’s aftermath. In the 19th century existential thought is found in the writings of Soren Kierkegaard (1813-1855), Friederich Neitzche (1844-1900), Fyodor Dostoyevoski (1821-1881) and later Jean-Paul Satre (1905-1980), all of whom were opposed to the predominant philosophies, and scientific dogmas, of their time and committed to exploring the experience of reality in a passionate and personal manner. The birth of modern existentialism can be attributed to Martin Heidegger (1889-1976), who’s thinking was applied to psychiatry, psychotherapy and psychoanalysis by Karl Jaspers (1883-1969), Ludwig Binswanger (1881-1966) and Medard Boss (1903- 1990). The movement attempted to gain a sense of the subjective phenomena of mental illness using existential concepts (Owen 1994). In America psychotherapists May and Yalom (1984) formulated their unique type of existential psychotherapy, as did Frankl (1963) in Austria th logotherapy, and also Laing (1960), working with schizophrenics, in the anti-psychiatry movement in Britain. Ironically many of the writers celebrated as existentialists deny to be grouped together as one school of thought, agreeing wholly on all concepts, thus a diverse collection of tenets are represented under the umbrella of existentialism. Arising from a deeply philosophical root of ideas existentialism explores the experience of existence, asking what does it mean to be in this world. Concerned with ontology, rather than aetiology, existential theorists avoid models that categorise individuals, seeking to uncover that which is universal in the human dilemma (Deurzen-Smith 1996). Scientific enquiry fails to procure a complete worldview of ‘human-being’ by pertaining to unexamined assumptions (Jaspers 1963). Human-being is revealed in the workings of guilt, conflict, psychosis, suffering and death. Only by facing up to these contingencies can humanity be accomplished. Bugental (1978) defines identity as a process, not a fixidity, and when one realises this one is faced with the nothingness of being. This nothingness, the non-existence of an essence of being, is the primary source of freedom that one must face in each and every moment. Kierkegaard (1944) theorises that such freedom brings about existential anxiety through the contemplation of choice and the realisation that one’s destiny is not fixed but open to an infinitude of possibilities.

Existential anxiety differs fundamentally from psychological anxiety such that it may have no immediately perceivable cause, it seems irrational, pervades one’s whole being, may manifest as an unexplainable dread and arise only in moments when normal insecurities disappear. Yalom (1989) describes it as that which ‘whirrs continuously just beneath the membrane of life’, coming to light perhaps through personal crisis, a work of art, or a sermon. May & Yalom (1984) define this anxiety as pertaining to the threat to one’s very existence or to values that are identified with existence. Thus there is no ‘cure’ for such angst, it is argued, for it is an intrinsic component of the human predicament. Both the Freudian and the existential paradigm position anxiety as the central dynamic for psychopathology. Conscious and unconscious ways of dealing with this anxiety are formed, the important distinction is that whereas Freudian anxiety is ‘drive’ based existential anxiety arises through awareness (May and Yalom 1984).

Existential anxiety manifests differently depending upon the individual’s stance toward living; work that is commonly undertaken in the process of existential psychotherapy. It can be utilised as a source of great creativity and energy (May 1969) or reveal itself as neurotic anxiety (May & Yalom 1984), paralysing the individual. The common notion of mental health being an existence free from anxiety is thus considered absurd. Mental health is attributed to those who are able to live, as much as possible without neurotic, inhibitory anxieties but with the openness and understanding to suffer the inescapable existential anxiety of living. Psychological disturbance, it is argued, comes about when one fails to acknowledge such inherent anxiety, striving to avoid such ‘truth’, the consequence of which is inauthentic living (Laing 1960).

The gift of existential freedom, is not only the source of anxiety, but brings the burden of profound responsibility. If it is true that our being is actually nothing and that we are in a constant flux, then one is faced with a terrible emptiness and at the same time a miraculous freedom (Bugental 1978). May (1989) observes that freedom is how we relate to our destiny and destiny is significant only because we have freedom. One must take this ‘freedom of being’ and the responsibility that goes with it, including the guilt of one’s actions. Each action negates the other possible course of actions and their consequences, so that one must be accountable without excuse. As human beings are not fixed in this world, such as ‘things’ are, one is free to realise one’s aims, to materialise one’s dreams and forge one’s own destiny (Owen 1994). The person who lives in this manner is living authentically, or in Satre’s (1951) terminoly ‘good faith’. Consequently psychological disturbance, or pathology, is the negation of this process of authenticity – inauthentic living or bad faith, in which one moves away from the burden of responsibility, through belief in dogmas, regarding oneseas subject to outside influences, conforming to standards or roles and assuming that actions are predetermined. Kierkergaard (1954) argues that society constantly denies the reality of nothingness and it’s inherent implications for living. Such inauthentic living is a world of self deception, for one has refused to take the challenge of responsibility and confront the anxiety that comes with such freedom.May (1969) addresses the issue of ‘will’, arguing against Freudian notions of determinism, as the point where one acts on one’s freedom. He highlights the crisis of will in the modern Western world. May (1969) presents a vignette, of a catatonic episode in a patient who had experienced a ‘crisis of will and values’, whereby he had become so acutely aware of his responsibility and actions that no movement was possible for fear of negative omnipotent consequences. In his pathological world he was caught an inner dead-lock. This case is likened to the general stupor of an apathetic society in which individuals have chosen to allow others to make their decisions, relinquishing the responsibility for their destinies, unable to make the decisions that migcarry out their wishes, leading to the paralysis of will. As Laing (1960) puts it ‘in a hell of frenetic passivity’. We inhabit a modern world which promotes personal power and independence and yet our predicament is that the majority of human beings renounce their responsibility to will and choice, choosing to live in a culture of blame and discontent. We have the choice to choose, or not to choose, in Shakespeare’s words, “To be or not to be”.

Laing (1960) observes that some individuals do actually make the choice of withdrawing from the world of relatedness completely into their own self-made worlds. This he observed with schizophrenics when the environment, often the family, was experienced as too hostile and destructive, causing the individual to retreat into a safer inner world. Schizophrenia, he posits, is a strategy invented in order to live in an unliveable world. Frankl (1963) observed this in the Nazi concentration camps – those who had schizoid tendencies were able to survive the harsh conditions better than those in touch with an inner reality and the outer world. May (1969) has pointed towards this notion too in observing that those astronaughts best suited for space travel were ae to withdraw partially into their own ‘schizoid worlds’. In this sense the existential approach to such phenomena as schizophrenia emphasises the importance of the subjectivity of experience for the patient, breaking away from stigmatising labels and objectifying forms of therapy and allowing the individual to journey through their authentic experience of madness (Deurzen-Smith 1984).

Deurzen-Smith (1996) defines psychological disturbance not as that which is confined to the traditionally perceived ‘mentally ill’ but a natural occurrence of the struggle, that each one of us must engage in, with the disturbing givens in life. Problems are therefore, are not seen as obstructions to psychological health but as challenges that must be risen to. In life it is certain that we will be confronted with new situations that challenge and undermine our evasions of the human paradox. Unexpected even, such as the death of a loved one, may expose one’s vulnerability and sense of false security in a self-deceived world. Boredom also might precipitate such an existential crisis. Critics of the existential approach site that it is too academic and intellectual, having no practical application in the clinical setting It is often downplayed as not being empirical enough, lacking a psychotherapeutic modality that is set with techniques and interventions (Davison & Neale 1998). Craib (1992) argues that diagnostic categories are needed in order to approach the necessary level of working knowledge of a client’s world. Pilgrim (1992) responds that the positivist categories of ‘pathology’ are inherently power-laden, demeaning and stigmatising. As C. S. Lewis (1943) noted, “ We reduce things to mere Nature in order that we may conquer them”. When the ‘things’ are people and their existential status is reduced to a natural category of illness, the same logic of domination applies. Existentialism may not offer a ‘how to’ approach to the problems of living but rather a lens through which to consider each person in their world. Existential views on pathology may not give evidence of a scientific paradigm but it can offer the science of psychopathlogy roots much deeper and more significant to the human dilemma than other paradigms that seek mere quantification of mental illnesses. It offers a phenomenological approach to pathology, not a separation of id and ego, a reduction to pharmacological origins or recognition of maladaptive behaviours, but a holistic view of the entire being in the here and now. ReferencesBarnes, H. E. (1962). Humanistic Existentialism and Contemporary Psychoanalysis, in Kern, E. (ed.) A Collection of Critical Essays. Englewood Cliffs, N. J:Prentice-HallBinswanger, L. (1963). Being-in-the-World: Selected papers of Ludwig Binswanger. (trans. J. Needam). New York: Basic BooksBugental, J. F. T. (1978). Psychotherapy and Process: The Fundamentals of an Existential-Humanistic Approach. Massachusetts: Addison-WesleyCraib, I. (1992). A response to, Psychotherapy and Political Evasions. In Dryden, W. & Feltham, C. (Eds.) Psychotherapy and It’s Discontents. Buckingham: Open University PressDavison, G. C. & Neale, J. M. (1998). Abnormal Psychology (7th Edition). New York: WileyDeurzen-Smith, E. (1984). Existential Therapy. In Dryden, W. (ed.), Individual Therapy in Britain. Harper & Row: LondonDeurzen-Smith, E. (1996). Existential Therapy. In Dryden, W. (ed.), Handbook of Individual Therapy. London: SageFrankl, V. E. (1963). Man’s Search for Meaning. London: Hodder & StoughtonJaspers, K. (1963). General Psychopathology. (Trans. Heonig, J. & Hamilton M. W.Hamilton). Manchester: Manchester University PressKierkegaard, S. (1944). The Concept of Dread (Trans. W. Lowrie). Princeton: Princeton University PressKierkergaard, S. (1954). Fear and Trembling and Sickness unto Death. (Trans. W. Lowrie). Princeton: Princton University PressLaing, R. D. (1960). The Divided Self. Harmondsworth: PenguinLewis, C. S. (1943). The Abolition of Man. Oxford: Oxford University PressMay, R. (1969). Love and Will. New York: Norton.

May, R. & Yalom, I. (1984). Existential Psychotherapy. In Corsini, R. J. (ed.), CurrentPsychotherapies. Itasca Illinois: PeacockOwen, I. R. (1994). Introducing an existential-phenomenological approach: basic phenomenological theory and research- Part 1. Counselling Psychology Quarterly, 7, (3) 261-273Pilgrim, D. (1992). Psychotherapy and Political Evasions. In Dryden, W. & Feltham,C. (Eds.) Psychotherapy and It’s Discontents. Buckingham: Open University PressSatre, J. P. (1951). Being and Nothingness. (Trans. H. Barnes) Methuen: LondonSchwartz, M. A. & Wiggins, O. P. (1999). The Crisis of Present-Day Psychiatry: Regaining the Personal. Psychiatric Times, 16, 9.

Yalom, I. (1989). Love’s Executioner: And Other Tales of Psychotherapy. New York: Harper Collins

One Flew Over The Cuckoo’s Nest One Flew Over The

one cuckoo’s nest One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest For as long as time could tell, whenever and wherever there is a corrupt ruling system in place, there will always be an opposing force trying to over throw it. This ruling system can be a variety of things. In some cases it is the government, a boss, or basically anything or anyone that has some type of control or authority over something else or someone else. In some cases the opposition can successfully take over control of these corrupt systems, while in other incidents the opposition is pitifully pounded back to silence.

In other cases, the opposing force will be beaten, but in their shadowy remains lye a path for future generations to follow. In the case of Mc Murphy and the Big nurses a power struggle, the opposition (Mc Murphy) gets beaten silent, yet his words will continue to ring throughout the halls of the ward. Mc Murphy has been made a martyr, and has ultimately stripped Big Nurse of her abused powers and paved the way for fellowmen to escape her entrapment. Based on the novel One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest by Ken Kesey, it seems that the authors’ perspective on this issue is that the system in place during this time period is in need of change. Ken seems to like the revolutionist characteristics found in his main character, and emphasizes the idea of questioning the authority power.

His belief seems to be that even if you are not successful in changing the system in entire, the effects of a person trying can still be very effective. In fact, if all you manage to accomplish is changing a small aspect of the system, it was still all well worth the fight. For as seen, the effects of a minor victory, ripple into much larger victories in the battles to come. As a revolutionist, you set an example for others to follow and in essence pave the way for others to follow. In One Flew Over the Cuckoo’s Nest, the main character, Randle Patrick McMurphy, fights to change the system in a mental hospital. McMurphy is very outgoing, loud, rugged, manly, a leader and a rebel.

From the first couple scenes of the book, there is a constant power struggle between the patient’s new found savior McMurphy, and the evil Nurse Ratchet who rules their wing of the hospital with an iron fist. McMurphy fights to change the system to try to win back the patients’ rights and in the process gain more privileges for the patients and himself. McMurphy also seems to get pleasure out of fighting the system. His motives seem simple, he wants to help out his fellow patients, his friends, and make their lives better. This is very similar to the real life rebellion against the “Tyranny of the Majority” which was occurring during this time period.

McMurphy was successful in changing many of the rules and regulations that were imposed upon them by Nurse Ratchet. McMurphy was a very inspirational speaker and during the regularly occurring meetings between the patients and the doctors he would rally the patients to fight against Nurse Ratchet. Thus he was able to win back some of their rights. This type of action was also witnessed during Ken Kessleys time, and quite similarly, revolutionists also won many rights from the state that had once been taken from them during their life time.

In the novel, McMurphy also uses his cunning wit and his skills as a con man to persuade the doctors into giving the patients more rights and activities. An example of this is when McMurphy is able to con Dr. Spivey to get a room where he and a bunch of other patients can go to play cards without the loud music coming over the intercom. This type of persuading the political leaders of the system was also seen and very helpful during the time this novel was published. In real life many fights against the system are lost. Even though McMurphy loses some of his fights, he keeps on fighting, trying to change the system.

In this novel McMurphy uses many tools to try to change the system, among them are his voice and his power to rally the patients, brute force, and violence. In the end McMurphy loses his life in the fight to change the system, but he left a substantial impact on the hospital and the policies of Nurse Ratchet. His fight to change the system was well worth it because of the positive change it brought to so many patients. Before his ultimate death, McMurphy does win some major battles at the ward. From battle to battle against the system, McMurphy leads his lost chronic soldiers beyond enemy lines and toward safety. Even after being smothered from his command position, it was as if he had never left their side.

For the path he paved was much to large to be coverup with the leaves left by Big Nurse. By following McMurphys footsteps, the squad finally found the light within society, and stepped into it with open arms and wishful smiles. No longer were they under the control of the system and its rules. he had broken free from the routine, and in the end, changed the world as they knew it. It is evident that it’s very difficult to change the system, but it is possible. The right type of character and personality is a big help when you are trying to achieve success in fighting the system.

In order to make a true difference you have to keep on trying and fighting. Even if you just change a small area of the system, the majority of the time it is well worth the fight. In this novel the main character was successful in changing some aspect of the system. To him, the corruption unfair practices, and indecencies were enough.

Something had to be done, and he did it. Word Count: 1003

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