Mental Health And Constitutional Considerations For Prisoners Sample Assignment

California prisons contain a record number of prisoners, which continues to grow steadily every year. From 2012 to 2016, the number of prisoners in California receiving psychotropic drugs tripled and reached 77 percent (“Confronting California’s Continuing Prison Crisis” 1). The budget allocated for such medicines is growing even faster, increasing to 22 thousand dollars a year.

There are a significant number of stated reforms on the detention of prisoners with mental illness; among them is AB 109 (Coleman Plata). The reform planned to reduce the number of state prisons and the number of persons serving criminal sentences under a court sentence. At the same time, the reduction in the rate of persons held in institutions of the penal enforcement system will also be carried out by moving them to psychological dispensaries. Proposition 36 concerns life imprisonment, which is the most severe punishment after the death penalty. During the strikes, it was required at the legislative level to make it possible to sentence to life imprisonment only those who committed a violent crime. Criminals whose actions did not have a high degree of public danger were offered to eliminate the risk of life imprisonment.

In Proposition 47, it was decided to release minor repeat offenders from life imprisonment. In addition, according to this document, they were conditionally liberated from punishment for serious criminal offenses. A large number of prisoners were released without having fully served the term appointed by the court. Senate Bill 260 established conditional early release from serving the sentence of minors. The court recognized that for their correction, the minors did not need to perform their sentence fully. The termination of the further punishment imposed by the convicted person occurred if the prisoner was a minor at the time of the commission of the crime.

Proposition 57 proposed the early release of nonviolent criminals with the condition that they pass a rehabilitation program. Participation in this program involves not only serving a sentence but also restoring professional skills and motivation to work. Thus, the quota of jobs for former convicts would be regulated by law. Many mental health reforms were also proposed, among which the most significant is the program under the general name “Justice and Mental Health”. It aims to release offenders with mental illnesses from prison. During sentencing in the program’s framework, the lawyer and the prosecutor work closely with the doctor and health and social services representatives.

The issue of people with mental illnesses who were held in penitentiary institutions is certainly constitutional. It is necessary to amend that prisoners who receive medical care in a prison institution have the right to adequate medical care (Haney 321). It is necessary to establish at the State level the obligation to conduct an annual systematic collection of data on the level of mental illness in prisons.

These amendments are necessary because seriously ill people are sent to medical institutions when entering the prison system. And to identify a narrower sample of patients with mental illnesses but who did not get into a mental dispensary, specialized tests are needed (Leutwyler et al. 456). This will help to identify psychotic offenders who, as insane, will be sent to compulsory treatment or will receive assistance in another form.

In the future, it will be necessary to focus on draft laws related to crisis states that arise as a reaction to the hardships of imprisonment. So, it may be necessary to introduce work with a psychiatrist in prisons at the legislative level. He will help the prisoners to overcome the difficulties of adapting to the environment and isolation from previous ties. This makes it necessary to improve the organizational and legal framework for providing psychiatric care to convicts.

Works Cited

“Confronting California’s Continuing Prison Crisis: The Prevalence and Severity of Mental Illness Among California Prisoners on The Rise.” Stanford Justice Advocacy Project, 2020, pp. 1-10.

Haney, Craig. “Madness’’ And Penal Confinement: Some Observations on Mental Illness and Prison Pain.” Punishment & Society, vol. 19, no. 3, 2017, pp. 310-362.

Leutwyler, Heather, et al. “Case Management Helps Prevent Criminal Justice Recidivism for People with Serious Mental Illness.” International Journal of Prisoner Health, vol. 14, no. 5, 2017, pp. 169-173.

Key Features Of Mesoamerica, A Cultural And Historical Unity

Mesoamerica is a cultural and historical unity. This term refers to a large historical and cultural region that unites a significant part of the territory of modern Mexico, modern Guatemala, modern Belize (former British Honduras), as well as such small countries as El Salvador, Honduras and part of the territory of Nicaragua. Mesoamerica is an area and a civilization that is geographically diverse. Mesoamerica combines both mountainous territories, where there are a large number of mountain ranges of different sizes, mountain valleys, and lowland zones that are overgrown with tropical or subtropical forest. In general, Mesoamerica can be divided into two parts: mountainous and flat.

Despite the fact that this is one civilization, there are different economic and social features in the mountains and on the plains. First of all, this is due to the structure of cities. Cities in mountainous Mesoamerica tend to be more concentrated, because there is little space. Cities in lowland Mesoamerica are scattered. They are always larger and resemble urban agglomerations. But at the same time, they are settlement, economically, economically, politically, administratively representing a single whole. In mountainous Mesoamerica, there have always been problems with water. Therefore, irrigation — artificial irrigation — and various types of systems related to water storage play a much greater role there. In Mesoamerica, the plains do not have such problems with water: there is a large amount of precipitation, rivers flow there, there are a large number of lakes. In this regard, in lowland Mesoamerica, the problem was often not irrigation, but drainage.

Due to the special role of water in the mountains and on the valleys, the deities of water and rain play an important role in Mesoamerican religion. There are rain deities all over the world, but there are somehow too many of them in Mesoamerica. In each pantheon there are several deities associated with rain and water. For example, in the Aztec pantheon there are deities associated with salt water, associated with flowing water and with calm water. The fact that religious views and the pantheon have many common features may be explained by constant contacts among different populations of Mesoamerica.

Mayan Culture In “Apocalypto” Film Discussion

Apocalypto is a 2006 historical adventure film, written and directed by Mel Gibson. The film depicts Native Mayan culture before the first contact with Spanish Conquistadors. The director has proclaimed that the movie accurately portrays typical Mayan societies. However, its plot, has been harshly criticized. Native communities and researchers focusing on Maya culture, especially, felt that the film’s portrayal did not do its subject justice. Analyzing the piece from the adaptation’s point of view, I would classify it both authentic and inauthentic at the same time. While the filmmakers went out of their way to shoot at historically Mayan locations, and hire actors of Native American descent, the representation of ancient cultures is inaccurate. As highlighted by anthropologists, it works in reinforcing pre-existing stereotypes about Mayan tribes. Savagery and violence are made the central point of the film, which neglects the technological and social developments of these peoples. The inability to properly adapt the history and culture of Maya may have a connection with the fact that the writer and director of the film is not especially connected to Mayan culture of informed about its peculiarities. As discussed in the book “A Grizzly in the Mail and Other Adventures in American History”, adaptations of Native American history often require connection and consultation with peoples from these communities, as well as extensive research. Texts like Popol Vuh, in comparison, can tell the reader much more about what Native Cultures considered important. Understanding of the world, social relationships and daily life are all much more easily translated through historically significant texts, rather than movies.

Discussing the Sacred Book of the Maya, interesting conversation regarding the nature of translation can also be had. When reading translated text, the input of the translator is often not apparent, however, it is the driving force behind potential interpretations of the source material. As seen on pages 66 and 67 with lines such as “Then all the tribes were sad because they couldn’t understand one another”, translation can be used to give character to writing. A translator interprets the mood and emotions of the people they write about according to their own perceptions and knowledge. However, this also means that the general reliability of meanings within translation comes into question. Within other religious or cultural texts, such as the Quran and the Bible, translation can also often change, adapt or distort original meanings of the text. During translation, the initial work inevitably comes through the lens of human perception, coming out as a changed material.


“Fatawa – the Accuracy of the Different Translations of the Quran.” Dar Al-Ifta Al Misriyyah. Web.

Grove, Tim. A Grizzly in the Mail and Other Adventures in American History. Lincoln: Univ. of Nebraska Press, 2014.

Montejo Víctor, and Luis Garay. Popol Vuh: A Sacred Book of the Maya. Toronto: Goundwood Books/House of Anansi Press, 2009.

Strauss, Mark L. “Bible Translation and the Myth of ‘Literal Accuracy.’” Review & Expositor 108, no. 2 (2011): 169–93.

Weismantel, Mary, and Cynthia Robin. “’Apocalypto’ a Distorted View of Maya History.” Northwestern University News, Last modified 2007. Web.

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