Mental Illness And Physical Health Sample Essay

The agenda of the Equally Well campaign is to enhance monitoring of the physical health of the mentally ill people through measuring care accessibility and their experiences in the healthcare services. The mentally ill Australians experience various barriers when accessing healthcare services compared to those with psychological health problems. According to Roberts et al. (2018), although the Equally Well campaign has greatly tried to address some of these factors, more work should be done to address numerous determinants of health and change the societal perception about people living with mental illnesses.

Care Accessibility

Barriers to quality care among people with mental health problems can be divided into system-level factors, provider factors, and patient-related issues (Lawrence & Kisely, 2010). Systemic factors contributing to inequality in care access among the mentally ill people include geographic issues, resource and managerial and resource separation of mental and physical healthcare facilities, unavailability of clarity on who is responsible for the mentally ill people’s health, lack of integration between psychiatry and medicine, inadequate community care and fragmentation of care among providers. The provider-related factors include limited care access among this population, including stigmatization, resource and time challenges, and the potential to treat physical complaints as psychosomatic symptoms. Patient-related issues involve cognitive impairment, social isolation, limited support from family, minimal pain sensitivity, difficulties in expressing health needs, and fear.

Australians with psychological health problems have more difficulty receiving the crucial care services they need. People with mental conditions are 10% more unlikely to access healthcare services compared to those without mental health issues (Lawrence & Kisely, 2010). Affordability is the greatest barrier to care access. Due to limited ability to negotiate for the care cost, this group is likely to pay more for care services. There is a disparity in the respect demonstrated by the nursing staff toward patients living with psychological conditions. The fear of the disrespect acts as a barrier to seeking care services among patients with psychological health conditions. Compared to the general population, Australians with mental problems face extra problems when negotiating with the healthcare system, affecting their access to health services.

Kilbourne et al. (2018) reveal stigmatization of people with mental health conditions as common in the health sector. Nobody likes being stigmatized, and people would always avoid going to places where others may feel uncomfortable while in their midst. This is what happens with most patients with mental health conditions, especially those who have experienced the medical staff’s stigmatization in their previous hospital visits. Healthcare professionals tend to see them being disruptive or difficult as individual characteristics rather than a symptom of mental illness and therefore perceive such patients to be difficult. Patients with mental illnesses are not given full attention during care, encouraging hopelessness and low expectation from the care services, which affects an individual’s willingness to disclose symptoms of a certain health problem.

People with mental illness are unlikely to have an existing good relationship with a regular care professional at a local community facility. Psychological problems impair the patients’ cognitive ability to recognize symptoms of a particular physical health problem, limiting their motivation to seek health advice. People with problems like agitation and anxiety may have some challenges dealing with busy care professionals, as one is supposed to wait for their appointments during care, which sometimes may be challenging for such patients who may decide to leave before the appointment as a way to cope with their condition, however, healthcare professionals may translate it as being uncooperative, and disrespecting, leading to the poor patient-physician relationship, therefore lack of motivation to establish long term contact and friendship.

Studies demonstrate that healthcare professionals are poor at determining and treating physical health symptoms in people with psychological health diseases (Brämberg et al., 2018). This happens because physical health complaints may happen as part of a psychiatric condition, and some care professionals would neglect the physical assessment of mentally ill patients, assuming the complained about symptom is psychological. Moreover, mental health illness may render psychiatric patients unlikely to communicate their physical needs, therefore making it hard to receive the deserving quality care.

Until the Equally Well campaign is able to address these barriers causing barriers among the mentally ill when accessing care services, the campaign is not enough. The campaign needs to get into the root of these barriers to identify the underlying factors behind each determiner of health and find a permanent solution to the causes. Some of the issues causing limiting the access of care among the population members are complex, and to have them fully resolved, the campaign should focus on such factors separately, for instance, systemic, provider-related, and patient-related barriers to developing suitable interventions for each.

Factors for Poor Physical Health

According to Firth et al. (2019), psychological health and physical health are significantly related; for instance, those with severe mental problems are vulnerable to experiencing a broad range of chronic physical health problems. Co-existing physical and mental problems may reduce the quality of life and result in prolonged sickness with worse health outcomes. People living with mental health problems experience a wide range of physical symptoms that come from both the problem itself and the effect of treatment. Psychological disorders can alter sleep cycles and hormonal balances, while various psychiatric drugs have side effects, including weight gains and irregular heart rhythms that are key risk factors for different chronic physical diseases, therefore exposing this population to serious physical health problems. Moreover, the way individuals experience mental illnesses can increase their risk of developing poor physical health. Mental diseases affect the cognitive and social function and reduce energy levels, which negatively affects health behaviors. The mentally ill are less motivated to take care of their own health and likely to adopt unhealthy sleeping and eating habit, abuse substances, or smoke as a way of responding to symptoms of their mental conditions, therefore leading to poor health outcomes.

According to Daniel et al. (2018), individuals living with mental health problems experience higher poverty and unemployment rates, social isolation, and lack of stable housing. These social determiners of health increase their vulnerability to developing chronic physical problems. For instance, poor people cannot afford healthier food alternatives and often go for the cheaper, unhealthy food options, which expose them to nutritional deficiencies. Additionally, it can be hard to engage in physical activity when living in unsafe housing or neighborhoods due to a lack of income to afford safe housing.

Psychological and physical diseases share various symptoms, including decreased energy levels and food cravings, increasing consumption of food, reducing physical activity, and resulting in weight gains. Such factors enhance the vulnerability of developing chronic physical problems. Excessive eating with reduced physical activity leads to obesity, which is a critical risk factor for many chronic diseases, including cardiovascular, diabetes, cancer, and stroke. Mentally ill people are likely to develop some physical problems, including heart disease, diabetes, and respiratory problems. Firth et al. (2019) reveal that symptoms of most mental illnesses like anxiety and depression are key risk factors for most chronic diseases.

Compared to the general population, individuals with mental disorders, including schizophrenia, are likely to have lifestyle risk factors for mortality and cardiovascular diseases (Daniel et al., 2018). This population is more likely to smoke compared to the general public. Tobacco cost renders most of the mentally ill poorer economically, worsening their physical health outcomes. Depressed people tend to smoke more than the general population, therefore exposing them to different tobacco-related complications, including cancer. Because of an unhealthy lifestyle, people with mental health conditions are likely to have increased intake of fat-rich diets and lower fiber intake compared to the general population.

Psychotropic medication is linked with numerous side effects and physical complications. Antipsychotic medication can particularly induce neurologic effects, such as tardive dyskinesia, endocrinologic effects like galactorrhea, and cardiovascular effects such as lengthening of the QT interval side effects. Although new antipsychotic agents are not toxic, they can worsen physical health outcomes (Daniel et al., 2018). Using such medication increases the vulnerability of mentally ill people for poor physical health status compared to those not taking such medications.

Although the Equally Well recognizes the role of social determinants of health on equal health outcomes for all, the campaign cannot guarantee fair care access to all without extra commitment to solve various underlying social disparities and promote healthy living environments on societal dimensions. Prioritizing factors like employment, education, and safe housing among the mentally ill population can be key to equal health outcomes among populations. The Equally Well campaigns need to be grounded on addressing the identified problems using evidence-based interventions; without that, achieving a recognizable positive change would be difficult.

Nutrition, Exercise-Based Interventions, and Pharmacological Treatments

People living with mental conditions have poor nutrition than those without such conditions, which may contribute to dyslipidemia, obesity, and impaired glucose regulation, increasing the risk for heart diseases. Studies demonstrate that nutrition interventions improve weight management among people living with a mental condition reduce blood glucose levels and waist circumference (Ilyas et al., 2017). Physical exercise among individuals with psychological health diseases like schizophrenia improves their physical fitness, which is associated with a decrease in psychiatric symptoms. However, reduced motivation to participate in physical activity programs makes it hard for mentally ill people to participate in physical activity programs.

Providing people living with mental conditions with lifestyle guidance is key to empowering them to address various challenges associated with the illness to increase their adherence to the right diet and physical activity. The Equally Well campaign should invest in physical exercise interventions, coaching, and educational sessions to enhance the uptake of people living with psychological problems in such programs. Studies suggest that advice on the physical activity programs is not solely enough to encourage more participation, and a more assertive approach is required. Pharmaceutical treatments are necessary to reduce psychological health symptoms among people with mental illnesses. Mental illness symptoms result from chemical imbalances in the brain. The pharmaceutical medication regulates these chemical imbalances and reduces the symptoms or relieves the pain completely.

Conclusively, the Equally Well initiative is critical to improving people’s well-being and physical health with psychological health conditions in Australia. However, the initiative needs to increase its effort to address numerous health determinants that limit care access and result in general health disparity. The initiative should increase its commitment to change the societal perception about the mentally ill and encourage equal treatment in the care setting by addressing provider and associated systemic factors.


Brämberg, E. B., Torgerson, J., Kjellström, A. N., Welin, P., & Rusner, M. (2018). Access to primary and specialized somatic health care for persons with severe mental illness: a qualitative study of perceived barriers and facilitators in Swedish health care. BMC family practice, 19(1), 1-11.

Daniel, H., Bornstein, S. S., & Kane, G. C. (2018). Addressing social determinants to improve patient care and promote health equity: an American College of Physicians position paper. Annals of internal medicine, 168(8), 577-578.

Firth, J., Siddiqi, N., Koyanagi, A., Siskind, D., Rosenbaum, S., Galletly, C., … & Stubbs, B. (2019). The Lancet Psychiatry Commission: a blueprint for protecting physical health in people with mental illness. The Lancet Psychiatry, 6(8), 675-712.

Ilyas, A., Chesney, E., & Patel, R. (2017). Improving life expectancy in people with serious mental illness: should we place more emphasis on primary prevention?. The British journal of psychiatry, 211(4), 194-197.

Kilbourne, A. M., Beck, K., Spaeth‐Rublee, B., Ramanuj, P., O’Brien, R. W., Tomoyasu, N., & Pincus, H. A. (2018). Measuring and improving the quality of mental health care: a global perspective. World psychiatry, 17(1), 30-38.

Lawrence, D., & Kisely, S. (2010). Inequalities in healthcare provision for people with severe mental illness. Journal of psychopharmacology, 24(4_suppl), 61-68.

Roberts, R., Lockett, H., Bagnall, C., Maylea, C., & Hopwood, M. (2018). Improving the physical health of people living with mental illness in Australia and New Zealand. Australian Journal of Rural Health, 26(5), 354-362.

Montana Mountain Biking Essay Example For College

MMB five phases of Customer Loyalty

We will learn that customer loyalty results from personal interactions between the customer and the firm as we examine the five stages of customer loyalty. The first of the five phases, awareness, is considered the most fragile. At this stage, the consumer has not had a chance to know the firm or acquaint himself with its offerings. Learn more about the company’s products and services at this stage. Customer interest may have been indicated, but they have not yet purchased the company’s products or services.

This is the third level of relationships: the customer has done business with the company, maybe more than once, but they still prefer to do business with rivals. The fourth stage is called engagement. You will find your customers here, so they will keep coming back. These customers’ testimonials make for the finest advertising for any business. Unfortunately, many firms require separation at this point. As a result, your customers may no longer need your products or services (Aaker, 2009). Bad customer service, poor product quality, product performance issues, and even new competitors in the market may all contribute to this. In my opinion, about 5% of prospective clients are thinking about the MMB case study. The MMB logo is well-known in the mountain biking community, so it does not need a lot of promotion to spread the word. A further ten percent of prospective clients are likely to be familiar with MMB based on the massive rise in email requests for information that they have received from their website. About 80% of MMB customers are repeat customers, suggesting that 80% of MMB’s consumers are actively involved. At least 5% of MMB’s clients will be lost once their demands are satisfied and the services supplied by MMB are no longer considered, with 95% of consumers in the first four stages of customer loyalty.

The suggestion of MMB Email Marketing methodology

Though they have worked out how to maintain a high level of customer service, Montana Mountain Biking has to be more attentive to their organization to attract new customers. Before, the group used print advertising in publications like Outside and Sports Illustrated to burn through $80,000 in print promotion costs. The company is now working with an advertising professional to obtain a list of locations and send out limited-time mailings.

The cost for each name rental is $0.10, while the cost per mailer is $4. A total overhaul will cost roughly $246,000, which is astronomical. There are 60,000 names on the list. Email showcasing is a more cost-effective option for MMB than sending limited-time letters and traditional magazine advertising. Email marketing is a powerful e-business tool that can help MMB build brand awareness and keep in touch with current customers. Sending out promotional emails through email should be available as irregular advertising and authorized promotion. Randomly sending emails to a large number of different email addresses will likely have less impact on the effectiveness of irregularly showing your email. However, unexpected messages may be deemed spam, and recipients may block or delete them, nullifying MMB’s goal of promoting organization awareness; hence, it is not the ideal option to pursue.

How MMB could use social media

Consequently, I would suggest Permission Marketing, which is more successful since messages are sent to prospective consumers who desire the firm’s goods and services. Even if the posting list is obtained from a corporation, it will be less expensive. Because an MMB employee can handle the email, the corporation will not have to pay $4 for every letter because it will cost $0.10 per name. Displaying consent emails will save MMB money while also aiding the organization in meeting its awareness and marketing objectives. Viral Marketing may recruit new clients and build relationships with existing ones. Viral Marketing enlists existing consumers to spread the word about a company’s goods and services to potential customers.

Since one of the project directors started publishing images of trails from the previous year on the sites, the number of email inquiries from MMB customers has increased dramatically in the last month. Many of these emails asked about MMB projects, but a handful asked for permission to use the photos or whether the photos could be bought directly from the photographer. I believe that using photos is a great way to go viral with your marketing. MMB might provide a free discretionary advanced snapshot of its customers on their campaigns as an element of their package Griffin & Herres, 2002). For example, these images may be placed on the website and provided to customers. As a result, customers may now invite their loved ones to see their images on MMB sites, which is a huge step forward for the company! There may also be a link to greetings and information about upcoming campaigns and trails on the picture page. Potential customers will be drawn in by the quality of the images and trails. Current clienteles will also be satisfied since they have been provided an additional “free” package. They also have a different way of passing on their knowledge to loved ones and friends.

MMB Affiliate Marketing Strategy

To make money from click-through purchases, an affiliate website promotes another company’s product(s). Because Mountain Biking Expeditions is the primary product MMB sells, it might serve as an affiliate site for other products of a similar kind. Products associated with MMB include mountain bike gear, apparel, and accessories.

To start an affiliate program with MMB, you must first sign up for their program and submit product images to MMB’s website. MMB might potentially include goods that have earned favorable assessments to promote click-through sales (Griffin & Herres, 2002). An MMB mail with a monthly product selection would be a good idea, in my view. Consequently, in addition to the usual website traffic, MMB may market directly to prospective customers.

My top five affiliates are REI, Sports Authority, Dick’s Sporting Goods, Jenson USA, and Great Outdoors. These firms sell similar goods, and many of them encourage outdoor events where their goods might be used. While the organization can make money via affiliate sales, they also establish a partnership advertising approach, which is beneficial to MMB.

I extremely acclaim that MMB links up with either REI or Great Outdoors with the affiliate options. In my opinion, collaborating with a well-known outdoor products company such as REI can help MMB grow in popularity (Griffin & Herres,2002). Aside from that, REI’s extensive cycling-related product line gives customers various options.

Due to The Great Outdoors’ television program, they benefit from promoting MMB to their audience, even if they are not as well-known as REI. Aside from being a supplier of outdoor goods, Great Outdoors is still a supplier of outdoor information and news. In addition, they provide a central hub for information about bike tours, including calendars of events, photos, and suggestions for where to go and what to see. Finally, great Outdoors might help promote MMB by allowing us to link back to their site with photographs and tales from our upcoming trips.


Aaker, D. A. (2009). Managing brand equity. Simon and Schuster.

Griffin, J., & Herres, R. T. (2002). Customer loyalty: How to earn it and keep it (p. 18). San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass.

Schneider, G. (2011). Electronic Commerce (pp. 197-199) Ohio: Cengage Learning

Schneider, G. P. (2002). New perspectives on e-commerce: Comprehensive. Course Technology.

Multicultural Empires And The New World University Essay Example

Section A: The role of religion in the crusades

A1: Origin of the Crusades

Religion was a significant motivation in all aspects of everyday life during the Middle Ages. From Judaism to Christianity, religion impacted and established civilizations in every way, from administration to education, and it was accountable for the Crusades, a chain of holy battles. The Crusades commenced in 1095 CE when the brave Muslim Turks assumed charge of Jerusalem’s Holy Land and outlawed Christianity. Byzantine Emperor Alexius predicted the Turks’ aggressive expansion and realized that the Byzantine Empire, in its weakened position, would be unable to defend itself. As a result, he appealed to the church for assistance, pleading with Pope Urban II to reclaim the Holy Land and end the Turks’ occupation in the context of Christianity. Although Emperor Alexius and Pope Urban II were not friends, the Pope revered the Holy Land and addressed a religious conference in France with a call to action. Many prominent members heard his petition of society, but it connected most strongly with many pastors who considered it was a spiritual call to defend the Holy Land. The Crusades were launched once an army was recruited (Acrobatiq, 2017).

A2: Methods used by Roman Emperors to Promote the Crusades

The reasons for entering the army of the Roman Catholic Church differed from team to team. The promise of admission to eternity by the Pope and the notion that they were battling for God at the end of times provided the impetus for the priests and their ordinary folk supporters. The Pope himself had hidden motivations, hoping to convert different Christians to Roman Catholicism and consolidate his control in the West and East (Angold, 2015). Nobles and princes sought to acquire their land and acquire more authority, but the Pope and preachers with the fervent following were the main rallying points. Commoners created the first army, unprepared for the brutal reality of travel and conflict. They failed miserably as the desert unleashed its fury, and many died due to the conditions and a lack of food. Those who managed to escape were killed or enslaved by the Turks. The second army, made up of trained military troops, was a collaborative effort between Germany, France, and Italy. The frightening army successfully brought down the Turks in Constantinople and then killed and tortured everyone in Jerusalem who stopped in their way, even Christians (Acrobatiq, 2017).

Section B: Umayyad and Abbasid Dynasties

B1: Different Methods used for expansion

The Umayyad and Abbasid dynasties expanded their empires in quite different ways. The Umayyad dynasty expanded its kingdom quickly by combining diplomatic and political talents with a powerful military. Mu’awiya, the founding father of the Umayyad caliphate, preferred to build the empire through his diplomatic and political skills rather than through costly and intricate wars. When the political plan backfired, he was reinforced by a loyal Arab army, and the skilled army serviced him well in battle (Acrobatiq, 2017). The Abbasid dynasty, on the other hand, relied on robust trade lines, traders, and the intelligence that trade offered. After the headquarters was shifted to Bagdad, the powerful commerce system and channel control were solidified. The Abbasids were also adept at bringing disparate civilizations together, which bolstered their kingdom and enabled development, combined with an open interchange of information and cultural ideas.

B2: Religious policies and political administration

The Umayyad dynasty’s religious traditions were radically different from the Abbasids. In its rule, the Umayyad dynasty established a religious caste system. Only authentic Arabs were recognized or promoted to higher posts in the army or state, and this poorly disguised tolerance persisted throughout Umayyad culture. The mawali (non-Arab Muslims) were at the bottom of society, facing social injustice and prejudice daily. Even if the mawalis desired to switch, the Umayyads did not want followers who would have to split their grandeur and prosperity with them (Acrobatiq, 2017). Dhimmi, who were members of other acknowledged religions, were at the bottom of society, followed by enslaved people. This mindset pervaded the state’s structure, substantially fashioned after the Byzantines.

The Abbasid dynasty, in contrast to the Umayyad’s theological doctrines and bureaucracies, was one of tolerance and inclusion. Their theological policies governed their faith in the supernatural authority bestowed through their prophets and leaders. They established a government that emphasized social fairness and diversity of religion and culture. Non-Muslims were not discriminated against in their nominations to government posts, which reflected such policies. Unlike the Umayyads, they had a Persian-style administration with a prime minister who assisted in the appointment and oversight of other government leaders (Acrobatiq, 2017). The Abbasid administration was much more efficient than the Umayyads’, and the wealth gap between rich and poor was much narrower. Islam was enriched and grew due to its various cultures and religions.

Section C: Significance of the Silk Road

The Silk Road was a critical commerce route that passed through India, Eastern Europe, China and Persia. It was necessary to develop international commerce and exchange ideas and culture, but there were drawbacks to connecting many countries. China was isolated from the rest of the world before the Silk Road. It was a secret treasure tucked between the Himalayan Mountains, deserts, and the Pacific Ocean. The Silk Road exposed China’s magnificence to the rest of the world and produced prosperity, but it also transmitted illness from China to Europe (Acrobatiq, 2017). The bubonic plague, which wiped over half of Europe’s population by the time it was eradicated, is maybe the most precise illustration of pandemic disease spreading down the Silk Road. Although no definitive evidence exists as to where the disease originated, it is thought to have originated in China and spread westward along the Silk Road. It was spread by fleas that preyed on rats, which were plentiful. The Bubonic Plague hampered European trade and mobility while influencing the continent’s future. The aftermath of “The Black Death” necessitated reform in every European society and government sector. Although the famous Silk Road enables trade and disseminating knowledge, it was not without cost.

The Silk Road was notable for various products that benefited various civilizations. It allowed for increased trades and increased understanding of science, medicine, and geography in specific locations. The propagation of disease, on the other hand, was unknown. The bubonic plague was the most deadly, killing 35-40% of the European demographics (Andrea, 2014). Although the source of the disease is uncertain, it is thought to have originated in Southern Asia and is spread through flea bites. It then made it is way up to northern Asia, where it expanded thanks to the Silk Road and marine trade routes. Many Europeans abandoned their possessions and attempted to leave to safety, while others attempted to prevent it by locking themselves in their homes. Schools and churches were shut down, and all construction stopped (Acrobatiq, 2017). People attempted to relocate and abandoned their businesses. Others placed notices on doors informing passers-by that those afflicted inhabited the area. The bodies of the deceased were frequently dumped on the streets and subsequently buried in mass graves with no absolute rights granted to them. It barely lasted a few years, but it occasionally reappeared in urban centers.


Acrobatiq. (2017). Survey of world history. Retrieved from

Andrea, A. J. (2014). The silk road in world history: a review essay. Asian Review of World Histories2(1), 105-127.

Angold, M. J. (2015). The Fourth Crusade: event and context. Routledge.