Children learn and grow at an amazing rate during middle childhood. They grow physically, emotionally, and mentally. With all these changes, remember that each child is unique and will accomplish milestones at their rate. However, there are certain common concerns to look out for during middle childhood. Children of this age, for example, will begin to establish their distinct interests and hobbies. However, the Middle Childhood Milestones demonstrate a child’s social, emotional, cognitive, and physical progress. They are designed to help parents and caregivers determine if a child is developing normally or if there is a developmental delay. They are also used to guide treatments and aid children not meeting developmental milestones. Notably, the paper explains three views of intelligence: Psychometric theory, Gardner’s theory, and Sternberg’s Triarchic theory, in correlation to the facts on physical and cognitive development.
The psychometric theory of intelligence holds that intelligence assesses an individual’s mental powers and potential. This theory claims that intelligence results from genetics and the environment (Warne et al., 2018). Based on the factual ideas, the theory suggests that;
- Intelligence is a single skill that can be tested and genetically determined. According to Glowiak et al. (2016), intelligence is a single capacity determined by one’s genes; hence, intelligence is inherited and cannot be modified.
- According to this theory, intelligence is a fixed attribute, meaning a person can either have it or not. Intelligence cannot be raised or lowered.
- One’s cognitive abilities largely determine intelligence, including memory, reasoning, and problem-solving. Glowiak et al. (2016) suggest that intelligence is largely determined by one’s cognitive abilities, which means that an individual’s memory, reasoning, and problem-solving skills play a large role in intelligence.
- Intelligence is largely heritable; thus, it is passed down from parents.
People differ in their intelligence based on their capabilities. Garhdner’s hypothesis states that different forms of intelligence may be classified into distinct categories. Linguistic, logical, musical, geographical, physical, and interpersonal groupings are among them (Yücelyiğit, 2020). Each intellect has its own set of skills and talents. According to the facts;
- Gardner’s theory states that intelligence is a collection of abilities that can be develold ped, implying that there is more than one way to be intelligent.
- According to Warne et al. (2018), Gardner’s theory claims that intelligence is a collection of abilities that can be developed, implying that there is more than one way to be intelligent.
- Gardner also demonstrates that intelligence is determined by a wide range of talents, including verbal, logical, spatial, physical, musical, and interpersonal capacities (Yücelyiğit, 2020). There are many distinct forms of intelligence, and each person possesses unique skills.
- Furthermore, Yücelyiğit (2020) believes that intellect is heavily impacted by the environment in which a person is raised. Thus, intelligence is defined and valued differently in different cultures.
Sternberg’s Triarchic theory of intelligence is divided into three parts: componential, experiential, and practical. The componential sub-theory is concerned with the mental processes that underpin intelligent behavior, the experiential sub-theory is concerned with the function of experience in intelligence, and the practical sub-theory is concerned with the role of intelligence in real-world situations (Glowiak et al., 2016). In correlation with the facts;
- Sternberg’s Triarchic Theory argues that intelligence is a cultured talent rather than a single ability.
- The theory also claims that intellect is not fixed but improved through practice.
- Furthermore, Sternberg believed that intelligence comprises three parts: analytical, creative, and practical.
- Lastly, He also believed that intelligence is largely determined by your experiences- meaning it is influenced by the environment you are raised in.
In conclusion, each intelligence concept addressed has a distinctive relevance in middle childhood milestones. The psychometric theory of intelligence may assess a child’s strengths and shortcomings and provide a score on an intelligence test. Sternberg’s Triarchic concept assesses a child’s learning style and problem-solving approach. Gardner’s theory is utilized to determine a child’s many bits of intelligence and how they might be applied in various aspects of their life. All of these theories are utilized to assist a child in understanding their strengths and limitations and help them realize their maximum potential.
Glowiak, M., & Mayfield, M. A. (2016). Middle childhood: Physical and cognitive development. Human growth and development across the lifespan: Applications for counselors, 251-275.
Warne, R. T., Astle, M. C., & Hill, J. C. (2018). What do undergraduates learn about human intelligence? An analysis of introductory psychology textbooks. Archives of Scientific Psychology, 6(1), 32.
Yücelyiğit, S. (2020). Middle Childhood Development. In Handbook of Research on Prenatal, Postnatal, and Early Childhood Development (pp. 197-213). IGI Global.
Modern Challenges Facing Shipping Companies Sample Assignment
Technology is a double-edged sword with various advantages and disadvantages in the marine sector. The marine sector is old as fine wine and has been used from time immemorial to transport goods. The impact of technology on the marine sector has been profound and a critical strategic business tool, reducing the cost of doing business. A review of the literature points out that modern technologies have made it difficult for ships navigation. Recent marine accidents support the argument that modern technology has made navigation difficult. Some technological advancements have been ineffective in the prevention of maritime accidents. A comprehensive investigation was done to determine how mariners use technology to comprehend why technology alone is not productive. Human-technology integration is crucial in the marine sector. Humans have to coordinate, work with devices and make important navigation decisions. Mariners are big-time integration partakers since machines cannot communicate. Replacing human labor with technology does not mean excluding humans from the operation but building a cooperative human-technology system. Humans are vital in navigation; even in integrated systems, they must perform integration duties. Technology created many problems and in itself cannot solve them. Fixing human errors through various technological advancements has been ineffective since it completely alienates the human mind from navigation. The research aims to provide an overview and impact of different marine technologies on the shipping sector.
KEYWORDS: Technology, Machines, Humans, Mariners, Marine, Shipping, Human-Technology Integration, Ship, Navigation
The marine industry has developed technologically, just as every other human industry. The shipping sector has evolved, and various technological advancements have emerged that enhance ship operations management. Technology is essential for advancing the maritime industry. Technology is posing problems for ship operation management, though. It is believed that to comprehend their goal, one must first understand their origin. Therefore, before analyzing the challenges facing technology in the shipping sector, the global trends in technology will be examined first.
Artificial intelligence (A.I.) has been a significant trend in the shipping industry. It can end repetitive tasks and improve the quality of ship operations. A.I. helps with safety management and automation and enhances decision-making and route optimization. Sensor technology is advanced and well-developed technology in the shipping industry. It has reduced manual reliance on ship operations, saving time and resources. Marines and ship technicians use wireless technology to access the functionality status of the boats and other machines. Maintenance is easy and may be done regularly with sensor technology, hence suitable vessels’ operability.
Robotics have improved the industries in security, inspections, and maintenance of vessels. Some robotics are used to identify and record data in the ship and analyze it. Drones have a significant advantage to the shipping industry; they can survey, deliver goods and do remote inspections. Data analytics are essential in checking information from other ships and ports. It analyzes data about containers, ships’ data, weight, and place of destination. The use of data analytics makes ship operations efficient and increases the ship’s overall performance.
Autonomous control technology help in route decision-making (Davidson et al., 2009). It helps in the delivery of products with minimal interference. Autonomous systems increase shipping efficiency and eliminate possible human errors. Ship propulsion systems have been improved to control better and protect the ecosystem. The system is an intelligent technology that enables decision-making, hence higher accuracy. Due to environmental damage caused by ships to the environment, there has been massive investment in alternative energy management solutions to reduce pollution. Technology has been at the forefront in fighting environmental damage and corruption caused by sea vessels.
The trends discussed above are examples of technological influence in the maritime sector. The naval sector influences business activities globally. They rely on the industry for goods, expansion, and development of the global economy. The upshot is that technology provides a safe business environment and helps businesses to develop and increase their functionality.
Challenges with Technological Advancements in Ship Operation Management
Technology is like a sword; you can cut it both ways, and it has two sharp blades. It could not be accessible in a variety of ways. The operators of the ship are burdened by inefficient technological integration. They are governed, worn out, and under-resourced. This outcome was not intended, but the shipping industry and businesses worldwide have been affected due to poor regulatory practices, interim capital outlooks, and poor labor practices.
The Royal Majesty ran aground in 1995 with 1509 passengers on board; it is a classic example of an automation accident. The incident highlights the challenges of technological advancements in ship operation and management. The U.S. National Transport Safety Board (NTSB, 1997) investigated the accident, concluding that proper automation design and the right personnel could improve shipping efficiency and safety. However, untrained personnel’s poor design or misuse of automation systems can cause accidents.
According to Lützhöft and Dekker (2002), automation promises shipping efficiency by reducing human error and workload. However, the Royal Majesty demonstrated that automation does not entirely substitute human input with machine input. They resolved that technology only alters the nature of human mistakes. It generates new human weaknesses and intensifies existing inadequacies. Therefore, proper guidance is necessary to support human and technology integration in both foreseeable and unexpected situations. The goal is to always have technology as a team player and not an individual star in the shipping industry.
The Maritime and Coastguard Agency of the U.K. reported (MCA, 2006) on mitigating human error in automated maritime systems. It pointed out human-related issues such as over-reliance on computerized systems, poor maintenance, and lack of situational awareness as contributory factors to marine-related incidents.
Challenges in the Management of Information
The evolution of information systems over the years has adversely impacted ship management’s function. Shore management monitors what occurs on the ship through technological interconnectedness and automated reporting. Shore management is responsible for managing the ship even after it leaves the port. The application of technology management neglects the human element of information management systems. Abuse of the information system may be detrimental to the ultimate goal of the ship management system. It can alter the safe conduct of the ship, timely delivery of goods, and security concerns. Provision of data requires all parties on board. Shipboard staff may wonder why they are asked to provide their information. Where the communication is opaque, seafarers may be frustrated and resent the management operations of the ship (Knudsen, 2009). They may also be burdened by the overwhelming paperwork, reporting forms, and information requests from maritime parties. Using mobile phones in information communication between the shore and ships has positively impacted business. Still, it has occasioned unwarranted demands on the master and his officers. They have to answer various organizations and business people.
Challenges in the Operations with Automation
Reliability of equipment and technology has impacted the ship’s staff’s demand. Technology use leads to a decline in maintenance and repair work, reducing crew members. The sea-going team is less exposed to learning experiences, reducing their effectiveness in dealing with emergencies (Davidson et al., 2009). Reduced and inexperienced crew leads to a stressful working environment in a modern complex vessel that leads to fatigue and long work hours. Despite improvement in the physical conditions of the ship and means of communication, crew levels are on the decline, and the workload has increased significantly over the years. Therefore, the seafarer has little benefit from the positive side of globalization and technological advancements.
Automation relies too much on a few highly trained persons in senior positions. Operational safety necessitates involvement from all persons who are part of the ship’s crew, no exception. The seafarers’ contract may allow them to move from one vessel to another in the same company, with different equipment and technicalities. It makes it difficult for the personnel to be trained efficiently.
Technical Limitations of Automation
New technologies have improved efficiency and productivity in the shipping sector, yet they are prone to technical errors. Technological development poses security risk factors, including ICT failures, information leakage, and unauthorized access. Machines cannot work alone; they require human input. Humans make decisions and calculated risks, especially in emergencies. Automation needs to be used to support human-based choices rather than dictating situations.
Technological advancements have dramatically impacted the marine sector. The industry is also facing significant pressures, such as strict regulations, environmental restrictions, and cyber-attacks. The risks involved are many. Below are recommendations to counter the adverse effects of technological advancements in the marine sector.
Un-crewed ships are prone to cyber-attacks, but they can be efficiently managed to ensure that business is not disrupted. The biggest threat is human interference on un-crewed ships. Responding to emergencies is complex, and there is a lack of clarity regarding collision regulation. The transition to uncrewed ships leads to long-term erosion of navigational skills. Therefore, to avoid all these challenges, marine actors should ensure that human labor in crewless vessels should be increased. Training should also be offered to the ship operators to ensure they are in line with technological advancements.
Businesses are expected to be impacted by intelligent shipping since it will track worker and fleet performance. The monitoring helps in the prevention of future failures and business interruption.
Energy management is a crucial issue, and stakeholders in the marine sector have supported cheaper energy options. The advantage of having an energy management solution is to reduce fuel consumption, enhance efficiency, and improve corporate reputation. The existing regulations favor energy management changes. Hence ship operators should adopt alternative and sustainable fuel sources.
Green technologies. Regional and international regulations have addressed green technology issues. Therefore, vessel operators should ensure that they comply with environmental regulations. They should also keep an eye on innovations and consider renewable energy sources.
Leadership and human cognition are principal factors of the modern shipping industry. Human involvement and expertise are crucial for technology to impact the shipping industry substantially. Over-reliance on technology seriously impairs situational awareness. Ship operators should emphasize team interactions rather than sole machine-based reliance. It minimizes individual human error as co-workers monitor each other and intervene where there is a challenge. The perfect combination is machine-human as both will try to avert the mistakes and supplement each other.
There will be many technological challenges shortly. Likewise, there are a lot of new opportunities for the shipping industry. Technology can help in solving environmental issues and better operational efficiency in the maritime sector. However, predicting marine technologies’ positive or negative impact is challenging. Despite the challenges facing technological advancements, the marine industry should embrace innovations and transformative technologies.
Lützhöft, M.H. and Dekker, S.W., 2002. On your watch: automation on the bridge. The Journal of Navigation, 55(1), pp.83-96.
Knudsen, F., 2009. Paperwork at the safety service? The concept of ‘seamanship exemplifies workers’ reluctance against written procedures.’ Safety Science, 47(2), pp.295-303.
Davidson, F.J., Allen, A., Brassington, G.B., Breivik, Ø., Daniel, P., Kamachi, M., Sato, S., King, B., Lefevre, F., Sutton, M. and Kaneko, H., 2009. Applications of GODAE ocean current forecasts to search and rescue and ship routing. Oceanography, 22(3), pp.176-181.
Modernity At Large Essay Example For College
The book Modernity at Large examines various elements that lead to cultural and societal developments worldwide. These factors are crucial in ensuring that the world develops in various ways to improve the quality of living among people. Anthropologist Arjun Appadurai explains five critical flows that lead to globalization and development across various cultures. Three of these factors include ethnoscapes, ideoscapes, and technoscapes. These factors are drivers of globalization, including improving automation and technology in various fields. The book explains that migration and sharing ideologies among people lead to improvement in several aspects of life (Appadurai, 1996). Besides, it also explains the traveling of ideas without the movement of people, leading to developments, is part of the flow of Arjun Appadurai.
Therefore, Arjun provides various flows, including ethnoscapes, technoscapes, and ideoscapes, to describe the increasing pace of globalization.
Ethnoscape is one of the flows presented in the book Modernity at Large. This factor entails the movement of people across international borders to interact with individuals of various cultures and ethnicities. Migration is essential to these individuals because they move in search of opportunities to better their lives, activities for leisure and growth, business development, and growth of personal ambitions. The author explains that the World Tourism industry is growing rapidly due to these factors, thus contributing significantly to globalization and cultural developments. The originality of the matter is that people move from developed regions to underdeveloped areas, thus creating growth opportunities. It also creates challenges that ensure the development and sharing of ideologies to tackle these (Oosterveer, 2018). For instance, people moving from developed areas like the United States to countries within Africa creates a power dynamic among these individuals. People from wealthier backgrounds gain an advantage over people from poor backgrounds. Also, in some instances, the power dynamic can create job opportunities for the locals through the tourism industry and solve the challenges facing the tourists.
Technoscape is another crucial flow presented in the book. The element entails the improvement of innovations and technologies across the globe. The element is critical because technology makes work and operations easier through automation and reduces service waiting periods. For instance, the development of telephone gadgets such as the iPhone and Samsung helps people communicate and connect globally regardless of location. These brands serve not only the American people but also individuals from different continents, including Africa and Asia. The demand for tech products has increased over time, leading to technology’s smooth and rapid glow worldwide (Jelly-Schapiroo, 2021). Besides, some countries, such as China, have adopted the technology and knowledge to innovate, create and develop these gadgets. The author also explains that the growth of innovation among people leads to a flow of technology because the element fosters the human experience.
Ideoscape entails the flow of ideas across people globally. The ideologies are vital in improving one’s approach to various factors in human life. The element entails health, entertainment, career growth, cooking, and family, among other factors. For instance, someone in the United States can post a video describing various techniques to prepare a meal. Another person in Africa can emulate the idea of making the same meal. The flow of ideas in this context leads to better cooking standards globally. These ideologies are critical in improving the human experience and creating innovative results. The author also explains that the flow of religious ideologies has grown over time (Drayton, 2020). However, the significant limiting factor includes the language barrier and translations. The flow of ideas is critical because it elevates the quality of services and human activities.
Arjun Appadurai provides various flows of concepts and factor that improves the human experience. These elements include technoscapes which describe the flow of technology among people. Another factor includes ethnoscapes which entail the flow of people across international borders in search of leisure and opportunities. Also, ideoscapes are the flow of ideas to improve the quality of service and activities among people. These elements contribute significantly toward globalization and development among people of various communities.
Appadurai, A. (1996). Modernity at large: Cultural dimensions of globalization (Vol. 1). U of Minnesota Press.
Drayton, R. (2020). Response to Arjun Appadurai’s “Globalization and the Rush to History.” Global Perspectives, 1(1).
Jelly-Schapiroo, E. (2021). Extractive Modernity at Large: The Contemporary Novel of Primitive Accumulation. Interventions, 1-19.
Oosterveer, P. (2018). Global environmental networks and flows are addressing global environmental change. In Environment and Society (pp. 95-118). Palgrave Macmillan, Cham.