Military Spending And The US Foreign Policy Sample Essay

Introduction

Military spending has become an issue of debate in recent years as a section of the United States population believes it may be affecting other sectors. The Department of Defense is awarded yearly federal funding to spend on the military from the congressional budget office (Dizaji & Farzanegan, 2021). Before approval of the budget request by the federal government, the latter must gather money from various sources, including personal income tax, social security tax, and corporate income tax (Dizaji & Farzanegan, 2021). In 2022, the request was projected to rise to seven hundred and twenty-two billion dollars, an increase of seventeen billion dollars from the last year (Dizaji & Farzanegan, 2021). The Biden administration requested seven hundred and thirty-seven billion dollars for the Defense Department in the financial year 2023 (Marginson, 2022). Nevertheless, for the financial year 2022, the budget request will be divided among the Army, Navy, and Air Force, $173 billion, $212 billion, and $213 billion, respectively (Marginson, 2022). Most citizens have sought to understand how the money spent is used.

The money issued to the United States Defense mainly helps in military research and development. Recently, there has been a discussion concerning the role of the United States in the world or the grand strategy. The latter directs choices about ways to manage relations with adversaries and allies, where to deploy forces, and what amount to spend on the department. Some analysts claim that the nation remains powerful and geographically far from its enemies, which allows it to be safe (Marginson, 2022). This comes in the wake of social media poll targeting American citizens to check on how they feel about the spending on the United States military forces (Marginson, 2022). Since some of the money used is spent on activities outside the country, most people believe that it is unfair for them to pay for the problems of other countries (Marginson, 2022). This might be true since deploying the military in many other nations while using the money collected from the Americans is not right.

The United States has been accused many times by its citizens and other countries as well of wrongful or unnecessary engagement with other nations’ problems. Individuals have publicly rebuked the government and asked to stop their military activities overseas, especially in some Arab nations (Dizaji & Farzanegan, 2021). Despite this, there is a group of political analysts who believe that the government should continue spending more on the military and sending the forces to external assignments (Dizaji & Farzanegan, 2021). They claim that the threats to the nation are plenty and must be handled with policies that need current or much higher spending (Dizaji & Farzanegan, 2021). Those responsible for deciding the grand strategy and spending level must consider numerous security and economic trade-offs. The paper aims to discuss the issue of military spending, its relation to the United States’ foreign policy, and its impact on the economy.

Analysis

A foreign policy can be described as the goals that a nation or government’s officials seek to obtain internationally, the values that enable those aims, and the instruments utilized to pursue them. Whereas the objectives of a state’s foreign policy are usually open to discussion and revision, there are four key ones in the United States (Desli & Gkoulgkoutsika, 2021). The first objective is the protection of the country and the lives of Americans while in the U.S. and abroad. Associated with this security aim is the goal of ensuring the safety of the nation’s allies or those countries that are friendly with the United States or mutually support each other. In the global sphere, dangers and threats can appear in various forms. For instance, military intimidation from other places or terrorist enterprises and economic fears from high tariffs on trade.

In an economic boycott, the U.S. ceases to trade with another nation unless or until it alters a policy that the United States does not appreciate. This means that goods from the country cannot be sold in the other nation, and goods from the latter cannot be exported to the U.S. For instance, the U.S. was among the group of countries that declared an economic boycott of Iran as it stepped up its nuclear energy program development (Desli & Gkoulgkoutsika, 2021). The recent deal by Iran dictates it has agreed to stop the process, whereas the United States and six other nations lifted the economic sanctions to permit commerce with the country (Desli & Gkoulgkoutsika, 2021). Another hindrance to business consists of fees charged for exporting items. Protectionist trade policies raise tariffs such that it is harder for imported items to compete with domestic goods in terms of price. The main aim of the free trade treaties is to protect countries from such experiences.

The second objective of the United States’ foreign policy is to guarantee that the country maintains access to important resources and markets worldwide. These comprise natural resources, for example, oil, and economic resources, such as infusion of foreign capital investment for United States domestic infrastructure projects. Accessing international marketplaces means the ability to reach items that American citizens might desire, for instance, Australian wine (Desli & Gkoulgkoutsika, 2021). The policy seeks to improve the interests of the country’s trade, sell local products in the global markets and support general economic development throughout the world.

The third objective is preserving a balance of power in the world. This means that no particular country or area is more prominent in terms of the military than the others. The attainment of a perfect balance is almost impossible, but predictability in the governments’ operations or other institutions and lack of violence within and amongst nations is possible (Desli & Gkoulgkoutsika, 2021). For much of the United States history, leaders perceived the world stability phenomenon through the eyes of Europe. In the event the European continent was stable, so was the rest of the world (Desli & Gkoulgkoutsika, 2021). During the Cold War period after World War II, stability was accomplished by the existence of dual superpowers, the Soviet Union and the United States (Desli & Gkoulgkoutsika, 2021). In addition to that, there was a real threat of nuclear annihilation, of which both states had the capability. Until the 1990s, the advanced industrial nations placed themselves behind either one.

The fourth objective of the United States’ foreign policy is the protection of human rights as well as democracy. The payoff of stability that arises from other policy goals is tranquility and peace. Whereas checking for its strategic interests in considering policy strategy, the U.S. tries to support global peace via multiple aspects, including foreign aid and participation in the United Nations. With the above information, it becomes easier to understand the need for more spending on the military. However, there are valid claims concerning how overspending on the military has impacted other areas of the country’s economy.

Military spending is among the primary concerns of nations irrespective of development status. Based on common logic, military formulation is an economic burden (Ortiz et al., 2019). Whereas comparatively more resources are committed to military formulations, a lesser proportion to investment in the technology and education sectors. The latter two play an important role in economic growth and offer a broader foundation for socio-economic development (Ortiz et al., 2019). It is generally believed that in the unsafe region, every nation deliberately assigns an uneven share of its meager economic resources to ineffective military expenses.

In the absence of international cooperation to reduce the political threat, military expenses can be driven more across a region as all countries go beyond their neighbors to ensure security. Additionally, the expenditure can raise the level of regional military costs and cause a small rise or drop in the safety of everyone. Nevertheless, two direct and linked methods exist by which higher military expenditure may unfavorably impact long-term economic growth. The spending upsurge may diminish the total accumulation of available resources for other domestic uses. For example, investment in education, prolific capital, or market-centric technological advancement. Moreover, immense spending can intensify falsifications that condense the effectiveness of resource distribution, thus weakening the total yield factor.

Military expenses tend to reduce productivity due to more financial diversion to military costs, resulting in the government increasing the taxes or acquiring loans from the foreign capital market to balance the budget. The second option is disadvantageous to economic prosperity as it escalates the interest rate, minimizes investment and consumer demand, and slowly drives economic growth. A study revealed that military expenses have the potential to impact the economy of any country (Ortiz et al., 2019). The researcher insisted that the military spending encumbrance has no particular benefit on economic growth (Ortiz et al., 2019). The implication is that disarmament provides the probability for augmented economic performance.

Relate to Course

Focusing on local politics and its impact on military spending shows pathways for countering limitless increases in the budget allocated to the Department of Defense. This can be achieved by either questioning the importance of the current level of expenditure to address outside security dangers or by highlighting its adverse effects. Through evaluating data from the 112th United States House of Representatives, one discovers that a legislator’s party affiliation and the demographics of their districts dictate their vote on the matter (Ortiz et al., 2019). The former correlated more with differences in legislators’ votes on the issue. For instance, Democrats opposed spending more than their Republican counterparts (Ortiz et al., 2019). Furthermore, the demographics of legislators’ districts greatly affected the voting record.

Districts with more veterans and less unemployment were more likely to support military spending. However, those with higher rates of education had a better chance of supporting cuts in costs (Ortiz et al., 2019). Interest group contributions as well increased the probability that a legislator would support military spending but did not seem as influential as party affiliation or district demographics (Ortiz et al., 2019). The presence of arms manufacturers or military installations in a district did not have any influence.

The United States’ foreign policy is a huge as well as complex endeavor established mainly for the purpose of national security. In the world, no actual world-level authority dictates how countries should associate with each other. In the event one of them lies or negotiates in bad faith, there does not exist a central government to sanction it (Scholvin & Wigell, 2018). This makes diplomacy and global coordination a continuous bargain as problems change and governmental leaders and countries evolve. Foreign relations are particularly made better by the availability of cross-national voluntary associations such as the Organization of American States, the United Nations, the European Union, and the African Union (Scholvin & Wigell, 2018). Nevertheless, these groups do not possess strict enforcement power over certain nations unless various nations together decide to act in a specific manner.

The European Union is one supranational group with actual and significant power over its member states. Adoption of its common currency results in concessions from nations on various matters, and the EU’s environmental and economic regulations are the harshest worldwide. In spite of all this, the EU still has enforcement problems, as proven by the dispute within its ranks, to force Greece to decrease its national debt (Ortiz et al., 2019). International relations occur in a relatively open venue where it is hardly apparent how to accomplish collective action between the U.S. and others. Even analysts struggle to understand when agreeing to a multinational pact should make sense (Scholvin & Wigell, 2018). With all the above information, it becomes more sensible for the United States to spend more on the military to ensure its protection and that of its allies, as stated in the United States’ foreign policy.

Conclusion

The paper has discussed the matter of military spending, its association with U.S. foreign policy, and its effect on the economy. It has shown that foreign policy refers to the goals that a state seeks to attain internationally and the instruments it utilizes to pursue the aims. The main objectives of the U.S. foreign policy include protecting the country, its citizens, and allies and assuring access to resources and markets. Additionally, it aims to preserve the balance of power on the global scene and safeguard human rights and democracy. In the wake of this, the government has dedicated much of its financial resources to the military. This has resulted in spending becoming an issue of discussion in recent years.

Some analysts believe that the country remains powerful and geographically suited, far from enemies, which allows it to be secure. Thus, they advise that the nation should not be spending as much as it has done in recent years. They seem to have the support from the citizens who have expressed on social media their desire to understand how the money allocated is spent. The paper shows that spending on the military should be a primary concern despite development status. Common logic dictates that military formulation is an economic burden. In comparison, more resources are assigned to military formulations and less for investment in key sectors such as education and technology. These two are integral to economic growth and capable of providing a broader base for socio-economic development. Whereas it is undeniable that military spending is targeted mainly at ensuring the safety of the nation and its citizens, it is important to consider other areas that can influence the economy.

References

Dizaji, S. F., & Farzanegan, M. R. (2021). Do sanctions constrain the military spending of Iran? Defense and Peace Economics, 32(2), 125-150.

Desli, E., & Gkoulgkoutsika, A. (2021). Military spending and economic growth: a panel data investigation. Economic Change and Restructuring, 54(3), 781-806.

Marginson, S. (2022). Research on international and global higher education: Six different perspectives. Oxford Review of Education, 48(4), 421-438.

Ortiz, C., Alvarado, R., & Salinas, A. (2019). The effect of military spending on output: new evidence at the global and country group levels using panel data cointegration techniques. Economic analysis and policy, 62, 402-414.

Scholvin, S., & Wigell, M. (2018). Power politics by economic means: Geoeconomics as an analytical approach and foreign policy practice. Comparative Strategy, 37(1), 73-84.

Is Google Making Us Stupid?

Carr argues in this article that typical Internet usage habits cause people to have shorter attention spans, have altered thought processes, and have lesser levels of culture and intellect. Carr’s original stance on technology is a solid argument in favor of his thesis. Carr has committed most of his working life to writing and editing periodicals connected to business and technology while being a dedicated outdoorsman from a small Connecticut town who values introspection (Carr, 2008). Carr made his point by combining a robust emotive argument with literary-style metaphors with claims to logic and authority that are common in reasoning in engineering and business journals.

Carr investigates how the Internet affects culture after presenting his thesis and demonstrating that it does affect human cognition. Carr believes that the Internet is obstructing the typically calm and intellectual process of viewing or reacting to media, leading to a shallower, unpleasant experience overall (Carr, 2008). He does this by using solid and startling phrases like “injects” and “digital gewgaws.” As a result, the tone of Carr’s writing appears to change from reflective to intensely worried in this part, in keeping with the argument Carr is attempting to convey. My reaction to this article was emotional and exciting since I tried to feel the author’s feelings about what happened.

Finally, Carr addresses the disquieting possibility that Google might one day create technology that augments or perhaps wholly replaces the human brain with machine learning. By doing this, Carr joins a broader discussion, one that has long been the subject of science fiction novels, about the potential for artificial intelligence and its implications for humans (Carr, 2008). Carr’s core insight, in my opinion, is that the underpinnings of human intellect will deteriorate as Internet impacts change and reprogram people’s cognitive patterns. I clearly understand what the author is talking about because if people think about the information that the author tells, they can understand that a modern person encounters this every day.

Reference

Carr, N. (2008). Is Google making us stupid? Teachers College Record, 110(14), 89-94.

Project Management Lifecycle Stages

Introduction

A project is a collaborative or individual enterprise carefully planned, designed, and implemented to achieve the desired aim. Managing a project enables organizations to understand their strengths and add value to the organization, contributing to its success. Project management is achieved through five processes: initiating, planning, executing, monitoring/control, and closure. The critical constraints to consider in each of the five phases are time, budget, and scope. Startups can also leverage project management concepts to conduct market research and introduce new goods within the desired quantity, quality, and timelines (Ma et al., 2018). It is prudent to note that the completion of a project takes place through five distinct processes in its lifecycle. The paper covers managing a startup business that produces and sells international dishes to international students in American colleges and universities and makes international cuisines available.

A project manager must understand how to break down the project into small actions that can be achieved. Further, all the stakeholders must understand the bigger picture of the project and what tasks need to be undertaken to succeed in the project. The advancement in technology has introduced essential tools to be used in project management to document and monitor the process. The ProjectLibre software is the primary tool to document the work breakdown structure and other essential project elements such as the Gantt chart and cost allocation to achieve the project goals. The project manager’s role is to provide overall leadership and control to complete all tasks within the timeframes.

Initiating

The pre-planning stage of the project management lifecycle involves conceptualizing the business idea and gathering knowledge to facilitate the implementation. The project of producing and selling foreign dishes is a new entrant into the American food market and must be pre-planned to identify all hurdles and overcome them before starting the project. The initiation phase involves obtaining sufficient strategic project information, which can be used to make essential decisions on the risks before committing to work on the project.

Terms for the Phase

The most important terms in the project phase include strategic information, ideas, dependencies, and sprint. Strategic information results from research, while ideas refer to suggestions that can be used to close the business gap identified in the research. Dependencies are a relationship between events and how they must be arranged for the project to be completed. A sprint is a unit of time allocated for a task to be completed in project management.

Tools for the Phase

The project management tool necessary for the pre-planning stage is the force field analysis, which helps an entrepreneur analyze the decision. The project intends to initiate a food outlet for international students, force a field analysis views of the decision from the context of strategic planning, and ensure that there are numerous forces in favor of the decision (Ma et al., 2018). If the existing forces do not favor the decision, the decision needs to be changed. Trello is another project management tool suitable for the project phase because it offers a platform to collaborate, share ideas, and adjust the project goals whenever needed.

Techniques for the Phase

Brainstorming is an essential technique in the pre-planning phase of project management. It ensures that all key stakeholders understand the project’s scope and what is expected of them to perform better. The result of the brainstorming meeting results in the formation of the project title and what needs to be done to meet the needs of the people (Ma et al., 2018). Developing key deliverables is another valuable technique for the stage as it determines the scope and the expectations. Interviews are another technique used to collect views from prospective customers and what is expected of the final product.

Project selection form from week 1
Figure 1: Project selection form from week 1

The elements in the project selection form play a significant role in the project’s overall implementation. The purpose of the project selection form is to help describe the problem and its solution. The first element is the business detail which contains the project’s name, the project manager, and the date when the project was initiated. The second element is the problem statement that led to the conception of the project ideas. The problem statement describes the number of international students in the USA and the shortage of hotels to serve foreign foods at affordable prices. The project charter statement is the last part of the project selection form, which documents the steps that would be followed to ensure that all the necessary steps are conducted to make the project successful. Project managers must ensure that the problem statement is clear and succinct to generate achievable goals and that the charter statement offers an easy-to-understand procedure that can be used to ensure that the planning and implementation phases are completed without challenges.

Planning

Project planning is essential because it boosts project performance, improves team communication, and makes it easy to track project goals. The phase is prefaced with the outline of the project, and the reason for each action carried out in the project. The project manager must incorporate a technique for reporting on the status of the activities for a smooth transition from one project phase to another.

Tools for the Phase

The planning phase of project management requires specialized tools to align the activities in the required order. ProjectLibre is an essential tool in the planning stage because it prepares the roles and assigns each person to the project. The work breakdown structure and Gantt chart are essential tools to understand the project details by breaking them down into milestones and assigning time frames for each task, respectively.

Terms for the Phase

Project dependency is an important term because it shows the relationship between project activities and how they can be broken down to achieve success in the long run. Scheduling is a necessary term for organizing tasks concerning the given time. Resource planning refers to the critical stage of organizing resources and allocating them to the given role. Delay is a term used to express lateness in the execution of a project and must be defined at the planning stage to overcome it during the execution phase.

Techniques for the Phase

Risk identification is an important technique that enables a project team to understand the impending risks in a project and offer strategic solutions to solve the challenges when they arise. The development of success criteria is a crucial technique that allows the project management team to state their expectations for the project. It eventually serves as the blueprint during the project’s execution phase. Issuing roles and responsibilities to encourage specialization and division of labor is a technique that ensures all stakeholders in the project are assigned roles aligned to their expertise.

Project Scope developed at the planning stage
Figure 2: Project Scope developed at the planning stage

The purpose of the project scope statement is to outline the project goals and how the goals will be achieved in the long run. The statement further offers a simplified way to implement the project. A project manager uses the scope statement to share the project highlight with other relevant stakeholders and financiers.

Project Basics

The purpose of the project basics, such as name, project manager, and financiers, enables the team dealing with the project to understand what is expected of them. Some of the project basics for the selected project are:

  • Project name: Mobile eatery to provide international cuisines in American colleges and universities
  • Project manager: Brian Tolentino
  • Sponsors: Self-sponsored through partners’ contributions (classmates)

Project Scope Statement

The project scope statement introduces the stakeholders to the business gap and proposes techniques that can be used to close the gap. In the specified project, the scope statement introduces the international students in the USA and the social challenges affecting them. Shortages of international cuisines on the college menu make students miss their home-made food. Introducing foods to cover the students’ needs is likely to be a profitable business in the long term.

Project Scope

Project scope is a vital outline showing all the projects’ components and what needs to be completed to cover the business gap. Scope includes getting information and gathering the necessary stakeholders to start the project.

Assumptions

An assumption in project management is any factor considered fundamental without empirical demonstration. The basic assumptions for the selected project include favorable custom duties, professional project implementers, and controlled inflation.

Project Milestones

Milestones are smaller, manageable tasks that are used to assist a project management team in moving toward a project’s success. The selected project is divided into five main milestones that depend on each other for successful completion. The five milestones selected for the project completion include research, logistics, production, packaging, and distribution.

Out of Scope (Exclusions)

Out-of-scope activities involve those that are crucial to ensure the project succeeds but are not included in the project planning. An example of an out-of-scope activity is marketing and advertisement because eateries already exist in the USA, and the new eatery must advertise itself to attract customers. However, it was secluded in the project plan, and the project manager must make local arrangements to ensure it is performed before the distribution phase begins.

Project Scope developed at the planning stage
Figure 3: Project Scope developed at the planning stage

Project Execution

Project execution is an important stage in the project management cycle which empowers all the relevant stakeholders to act and make the required goods and services available. A project manager uses a checklist to ensure that all the necessary steps are covered.

Stakeholders

Stakeholders are all people who have an interest in the project objective. In the case of the selected project, some critical stakeholders include the customers, the project team comprised of five people, the financiers, and the final users of the products and services.

Project Time Estimates

The project time estimate refers to the total time slated for the project to be completed and the time for each milestone to be completed. The time estimates help the project manager to deliver the product within the required time constraint. The entire project is expected to run within three weeks and three days. The first three days are meant for research, one week for logistics, another week for preparation, and the final week for the packaging and supply of the finished product.

Cost Estimates

Cost estimates in a project include all the financial resources required. A budget is an essential tool in estimating costs and is used for a follow-up to ensure the project is delivered within the said budget. The selected project has a total cost estimate of $8000, broken down into research, licenses, logistics, and salaries.

Project Acceptance Criteria

A project acceptance criteria is a list of performance requirements and conditions that must be met before the deliverables can be accepted. An acceptance criterion is important because it ensures that all client expectations are met.

Work Breakdown Structure
Figure 4: Work Breakdown Structure

Work Breakdown Structure (WBS)

Work breakdown structure (WBS) is an essential tool in project management that breaks down a complex project into smaller tasks that can be quickly completed and supervised. The project status depends on the small tasks as indicated in the WBS. The breakdown is done in five specific milestones, which makes it easy for the project manager to follow up on the project. An alternative for the WBS is the critical path method which documents all the processes in the given path as the implementation begins. In a work breakdown structure, each of the small tasks for the project is allocated some time and assigned a person responsible for it.

The WBS provides an overview of the project steps, and the project manager can use it to follow up on the project and ensure that the deliverables have been completed by the stated date. The breakdown structure comprises all the project phases and how each phase is integrated into the final phase of the project (Schwalbe, 2017). As stated in the project scope, the work breakdown is structured into fourteen tasks that must be completed before the project can be termed as complete.

Gantt chart and assigned workers
Figure 5: Gantt chart and assigned workers

Gant Chart

The Gantt is a pictorial diagram that shows a schedule and offers a timeline through which the project manager can follow up for success. The Gantt chart shows the project details and the date each task will be performed. For example, the length of each activity and the person assigned to perform the task. In case of task delays, the Gantt chant makes it easy to follow up. The dependency arrows show how each activity relates and their respective dependencies (Tereso et al., 2019). The arrows in the improvised Gantt chart show the dependencies and how a project task cannot begin without completing another part of the project. One or more tasks can depend on one parameter, and its delay is likely to cause subsequent delays in the project tasks that depend on it.

Executing

The execution phase of project management turns plans into actions that propel the team towards success. During the implementation or execution phase of the project, a project manager’s central role is to keep the work on track and avoid delays. Further, the project manager organizes and issues tasks to the team members and ensures that the project implementation timeframes do not affect the original plan. The essential technique used in the project implementation is the seven-step strategy. The seven steps in the execution include the creation of tasks as done by the WBS and Gantt chart. Secondly, the project manager assigns tasks to the team, tracks the progress, communicates effectively, and manages change.

During the project execution phase, the team must work in tandem with each other, and communication is critical. The team leader or project manager must therefore ensure that the team members have a communication platform where members are updated periodically and have an opportunity to share their concerns. Failure to have positive communication may jeopardize project success (Hair, & Sarstedt, 2021). A daily status report is given in a communication channel where every member can access it. As the progress is communicated, any matters arising may be corrected before they have a massive impact on the project.

Change Control Process

Change control is an essential process in project management that helps individuals, teams, or organizations visualize and prepare to change without affecting the project’s initial plan. Change management is critical because the business domain is dynamic, and changes are experienced daily. The project team must ensure that they perform all their roles concerning the expected standards and incorporate any changes into their project design (Cha, & Maytorena-Sanchez, 2019). Change management can be cascaded with procurement management to ascertain that all the resources are obtained at the right time. Time and budget constraints require constant management and follow-up to avoid any looming loss.

A successful project manager must incorporate a risk management tool to ensure that all probable risks are identified and worked on to prevent loss or delays. Since each risk has a potential impact on the project, the team must clearly outline how to handle the risks whenever they are witnessed in the execution phase. Some strategies to be used include risk acceptance, risk avoidance, risk reduction, and risk transfer, as long as it does not affect the project’s overall outcome. In the discourse, an effective risk management tool helps an organization identify a risk, evaluate the impact of the risk, and eliminate or remove the threat to allow the project to run as expected (Schwalbe, 2017). Failure to control risks puts the project in danger and may fail to deliver the expected result. Finally, acceptance management is critical in ensuring that all the partners involved take ownership of the project. Acceptance management may be implemented by collecting views from international students on how they want the products to be.

Monitoring and Control

The monitoring and control occur in tandem with the project’s execution phase. The stage ensures constant evaluation of all the actions and offers real-time feedback on improvements and changes required in the project. In case of implementation obstacles, the project phase ensures that all the changes and improvements are managed without affecting the outcome of the project and its progress (Tereso et al., 2019). The monitoring reports show how the project’s current events are likely to affect the project’s overall outcome.

Terms for the Phase

Work in progress limit is a term used in the project management phase to ensure that the staff are not overworked or given tasks that are not beyond their capacity. Bottlenecks in project control is a processes where the assigned workload is beyond the capacity. Bottlenecks must be avoided for a project to be performed well. Daily scrums are daily meetings to brainstorm the challenges affecting the project for them to be solved without affecting the project.

Techniques for the Phase

Risk monitoring and control is an important technique that ensures that all the possible challenges likely to affect the project are analyzed and worked on to avoid failure. Quality assurance is an important technique to ensure that all the prepared foods are aligned to the required standards, such as ingredients and nutrition level. Issue tracking is an important technique that ensures that all the concerns raised during the daily scrums are resolved.

Tools for the Phase

A budget is an essential tool during the phase because it helps the project manager to ensure that all the expenditures are aligned with the project’s initial plan. Another essential tool is Cloudmonix which offers solutions by providing an avenue through which the team members offer automated reports and updates on the project’s status. The tool contains a performance dashboard, status dashboard, alert dashboards, and root cause analysis (Cha & Maytorena-Sanchez, 2019). The tools are paramount for the project to succeed.

Closing

The closing phase of a project management lifecycle confirms to all stakeholders and interested parties that the goals and deliverables have been achieved. In the case of the mobile eatery, the project closure occurs after all the desired foodstuffs have been packaged and ready for supply. During the closure, the stakeholders confirm that the project deliverables have been completed satisfactorily (Hair, & Sarstedt, 2021). In some cases, the documentation is archived for references in the future, and an official handing over is conducted.

Tools for the Phase

During the closure phase, specific tools are used to ensure all the lessons are recorded for improvement in a subsequent project. A checklist is a vital tool to ensure all the deliverables or the project are achieved and can be ticked accordingly. A rating scale is used on the customers to measure their satisfaction levels. At the same time, the inventories are tools filled by the project implementers to share their experiences on the project as lessons learned. A lesson learned report includes all the issues and how they were challenged so that the mistakes conducted in the previous project will not be repeated in subsequent projects.

Techniques for the Phase

As the project closes, special techniques are used to generate adequate feedback on how the project was managed and the success rate. An interview is a technique for collecting feedback from the workers and the clients to note specific areas of improvement. Summative evaluation is also essential to check whether all the project goals were achieved.

Terms for the Phase

Some essential terms commonly used during project closures include poster-mortem, handing over, and the completion of paperwork. A post-mortem is a process of determining what went wrong during the project and what mistakes should be avoided in subsequent projects. Completion of paperwork ensures all documentation and legal requirements for the project are handled before handing over.

Conclusion

Project management is an essential process that empowers organizations to introduce new products and services to the market. It improves the organization’s success by identifying a gap and mobilizing resources to cover it for more profits. The introduction of the mobile eatery in American colleges and universities is an opportunity to leverage project management principles to create new goods and services at a relatively lower price and expand the business. Force field analysis determined that the forces favored the idea during the initiation. The planning stage used ProjectLibre to organize the project into smaller tasks. Execution and monitoring go hand in hand to ensure the project succeeds. The closure is an essential step because it shares all the lessons learned. It is paramount to follow all five phases of project management for success.

References

Cha, J., & Maytorena-Sanchez, E. (2019). Prioritizing project management competencies across the software project life cycle. International Journal of Managing Projects in Business.

Hair, J. F., & Sarstedt, M. (2021). Explanation plus prediction—The logical focus of project management research. Project Management Journal, 52(4), 319-322.

Ma, X., Xiong, F., Olawumi, T. O., Dong, N., & Chan, A. P. (2018). Conceptual framework and roadmap approach for integrating BIM into lifecycle project management. Journal of Management in Engineering, 34(6), 05018011.

Schwalbe, K. (2017). Introduction to project management. Boston: Course Technology Cengage Learning.

Tereso, A., Ribeiro, P., Fernandes, G., Loureiro, I., & Ferreira, M. (2019). Project management practices in private organizations. Project Management Journal, 50(1), 6-22.

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