Millennials: Their Impact On Workplace Culture And Leadership Dynamics Free Essay

Introduction

Millennials are people who were born between 1981 and 1996. They go by the name Generation Y as well. They are frequently characterized as entitled, unreliable, and careless workers. These caricatures, however, frequently rest on inaccurate presumptions and misconceptions. This essay will discuss the arguments made in Widdicombe’s (2016) and Lastoe’s (2020) writings. According to Widdicombe (2016, par 5), as more millennials take on leadership positions, they bring new standards and values to the workplace. It could result in improvements. On the other hand, Lastoe (2020, par 4) suggests that the media and older generations who fail to understand their unique circumstances and perspectives perpetuate the negative perceptions of millennials.

Background and Research

Defining “millennial” is crucial to comprehend the points presented in these articles. Millennials are the first to grow up with the internet, social media, and cell phones. The generation they represent is also the most diverse and well-educated in history. But they have had to overcome obstacles. Along with a challenging job market and the Great Recession of 2008, they experienced high levels of student debt.

According to Widdicombe (2016, par 7), the workplace culture is shifting as millennials take on leadership positions. Inclusion, flexibility, and a healthy work-life balance are essential to them. He says this might promote outstanding teamwork, creativity, and worker happiness. For example, he cites the example of a startup called Mic that was founded and led by millennials who prioritized social justice and diversity in their hiring and content creation.

In contrast, Lastoe (2020, par 5) suggests that the media perpetuate the negative perceptions of millennials. It is also triggered by older generations who fail to understand their unique circumstances and perspectives. She argues that millennials are often criticized for being job-hoppers. However, this is because they have been forced to adapt to a changing job market. They are also compelled to prioritize their career growth. She also notes that millennials are often accused of being entitled. However, this is because they were raised in a culture that emphasized self-esteem and individualism.

Writer’s Argument

As millennials advance in leadership positions, they bring new standards of behavior to the workplace. According to Widdicombe (2016, par 9), this might result in improvements. It could inspire more collaboration, innovation, and employee satisfaction. Being a millennial means valuing work-life balance and personal growth. It also entails prioritizing open communication and inclusivity in the workplace.

In my workplace, I have seen the positive effects of millennial leadership first-hand. My manager, who is a millennial, prioritizes employee well-being. Additionally, he promotes a collaborative and encouraging work environment. Consequently, my co-workers and I feel appreciated, inspiring us to produce our best work. It contrasts previous workplaces where older, more traditional leaders focused solely on productivity and often created a toxic work environment.

Another example of how millennial leadership can positively impact the workplace is the startup I previously worked for. The founders were all millennials. They prioritized social justice and diversity in their hiring and content creation. It not only created a more inclusive work environment but also resonated with the company’s audience and led to increased success and recognition.

Possible Responses to Writer’s Argument

One possible argument against my argument is that millennials prioritize personal growth and self-care over productivity, which could lead to a lack of work ethic and discipline in the workplace (Nabawanuka & Ekmekcioglu, 2022, p.124). This argument could be made by someone who values traditional notions of productivity and work ethic over personal growth and work-life balance.

Response to Possible Responses

While it is true that millennials place a high value on personal development and work-life balance, this does not imply that they lack discipline or work ethic. Millennial leaders may boost output and staff happiness by prioritizing employee well-being and creating a positive work environment (Nabawanuka & Ekmekcioglu, 2022, p.125). The idea that productivity and personal development are mutually exclusive is also untrue. Increased productivity and a more engaged staff can result from personal growth. It is essential to consider one hypothetical scenario to handle the potential answer. An example can be working in an environment where production is the only priority. Also, employees must put in long hours and sacrifice their personal lives for the benefit of the business (Nabawanuka & Ekmekcioglu, 2022, p.132). Employees in this situation are likely to burn out and lose motivation. It will lower production and employee happiness. On the other hand, a company placing a high priority on employee well-being and work-life balance is likely to have a more motivated and effective team.

Conclusion

In conclusion, the stereotypes and misconceptions about millennials in the workplace are often unfounded. Furthermore, they are founded on misunderstandings. As more millennials assume leadership positions, they bring new standards of behavior and morals to the workplace. These might result in improvements. A more supportive and collaborative environment at work can result from personal development, work-life balance, and inclusivity. They will ultimately lead to greater productivity and worker satisfaction.

Works Cited

Lastoe, Stacey. “New York Times Article Gives Millennials a Bad Name.” The Muse, The Muse, 19 June 2020, https://www.themuse.com/advice/and-this-is-why-millennials-get-such-a-bad-rap

Nabawanuka, H., & Ekmekcioglu, E. B. (2022). Millennials in the workplace: perceived supervisor support, work–life balance and employee well–being. Industrial and Commercial Training54(1), 123-144.

Widdicombe, Ben. “What Happens When Millennials Run the Workplace?” The New York Times, The New York Times, 19 Mar. 2016, https://www.nytimes.com/2016/03/20/fashion/millennials-mic-workplace.html

My Major And Career Exploration Free Sample

Introduction

Navigating the major and career exploration process can be a daunting task. It involves discovering one’s interests and skills, inquiring about different majors and careers, and deciding on a major and career path. Through taking the CliftonStrengths assessment, I gained insight into my strengths and weaknesses and discovered jobs that would suit my strengths well. Speaking to peers and advisors allowed me to gain further insight into potential majors and careers. Researching potential careers provided me with valuable information to make an educated decision. With the help of the resources available to me at UNLV, I made confident choices that will help me better understand my interests and the career paths that are best suited for me. I created an action plan and timeline to help me advance in my major and career exploration journey. Through discovering, inquiring, deciding, and reflecting, I am confident that I have chosen a major and career path that best fits me and will help me move forward.

Discover

At the beginning of my major and career exploration process, I took the necessary time to carefully and thoughtfully discover my interests and talents. To do this, I took the CliftonStrengths assessment, which gave me insight into my top five strengths and abilities. After this, I devoted much effort to researching the various majors at UNLV to identify fascinating topics (Song & Kim, 2022). I examined every detail of each major and conducted deep dives into the academic requirements for completion. I also read about current students and alumni’s experiences and stories to further inform my decision. After thoroughly exploring each of the majors I had been considering, I narrowed my selection down to only a few that I felt would be the most suitable for me. I conducted further research to understand better the potential careers that would be available to pursue with each of these majors. This included reading job descriptions, interviewing professionals, and reading about their experiences in the field. This gave me a clearer picture of what I can expect from each career path. I gained a deeper insight into what I was looking for and what I would need to do to reach my goals. As I worked to solidify my choices, I understood which options would benefit me most in the long run. The whole process of significant and career exploration was made much smoother by carefully investigating my interests and skills. This gave me the necessary information to make a well-informed decision. By doing so, I could look at my options more objectively and weigh the pros and cons of each one. Additionally, I better understood the educational requirements, job duties, and the potential salary of each potential career path. With this knowledge, I made an educated decision that will set me up for success in the future.

Inquire

After discovering my interests and skills, I became increasingly intrigued by the numerous majors and career paths I could pursue. To better understand, I consulted with my peers and advisors, attended career-related events, and researched various professions online. My conversations with others opened my eyes to the different majors and careers I was considering, providing me with information I had never heard before. After researching further, I better understood the qualifications and requirements needed to pursue each career path. Furthermore, I gained a deeper insight into the different work environments, company cultures, and job obligations associated with each profession (Ma et al., 2020). This immensely invaluable experience enabled me to make a more informed and educated decision when selecting the career path that best fits my interests and abilities. It gave me a clear insight into the numerous job opportunities and the ones that would be better avoided. Ultimately, my research and conversations were incredibly beneficial as they allowed me to make a more educated decision and pick a career that I was genuinely passionate about.

The experience enabled me to understand better the different roles I could pursue and those not well suited to me. I learned about the unique aspects of each job role, such as the hours, wages and the typical tasks that would be expected of me. With this knowledge, I could select a career I was passionate about based on the information I had gathered and discussed. In addition, I was given an opportunity to discuss the various career paths with professionals and industry experts, which gave me a better insight into the roles and the industry as a whole. Being able to talk to people with experience in the industry was extremely valuable. They provided information about the career path I was interested in and other roles I may have yet to consider. This allowed me to better understand the different job paths and the ones most suitable for my interests and abilities.

Decide

After thoroughly inquiring about different majors and careers, I made an informed decision about which major and career path to pursue. I considered various factors, including my interests and skills, as well as the pros and cons of each option. After careful consideration, a psychology major and mental health career would best fit me. This decision was based on the information I had gathered throughout my inquiry process, which gave me a broader understanding of the different majors and careers available. Moreover, I could weigh the advantages and disadvantages of each major and career path and evaluate the most beneficial and enjoyable for me in the long run (Sawitri & Perdhana, 2020). Considering the breadth of options, I was required to think critically and decide which course of action would best fit my lifestyle and goals. To do this, I had to consider various aspects such as the job market, salary, educational prerequisites, and availability of resources. I had to consider my values, interests, skills, and strengths. After considering all of these factors, my decision to pursue a major in psychology and a career in the mental health field was appropriate for me. It is a decision that I am committed to, as it will provide me with a fulfilling and meaningful career path and the opportunity to make a positive impact on the lives of others.

Moving Forward

At this point in my major and career exploration, I have decided on a major and career path that will best suit me. Choosing this career path has been difficult for me, as I have had to weigh the pros and cons of each potential career and ensure that I am taking the proper steps to make the best decision for myself. However, there are still some decisions that I need to make in order to make a confident choice. For instance, I need to decide which type of mental health career I should pursue and which program I should apply to in order to pursue that career. Further research into potential employers and job opportunities in my chosen field is also necessary for me to make a confident decision. To complete this research, I plan to utilize various resources such as career counsellors, online job postings, and informational interviews. I will also attend the final Success Series Workshop, which will give me the additional information I need to make an educated and confident decision about my career path. The workshop will allow me to learn more about the mental health field and tips to finish the semester strong and gain insights into potential job opportunities (Sheldon et al., 2020). Through this workshop, I will better understand the mental health career I am interested in and the resources available to me to make sure that I am making an informed decision.

In addition to the Success Series Workshop, I plan to reach out to professionals in the mental health field and ask them questions to understand the industry better. This will allow me to become more familiar with the different types of mental health careers, the potential and available job opportunities, and the qualifications needed to pursue them (Chauhan, 2019). Additionally, I will ask them for advice on the best resources to keep my exploration going and make sure I am making the best choice for myself. I can confidently advance in my chosen field by doing an in-depth investigation of the mental health career and its opportunities. I understand that this is an important decision for my future, so I am taking the necessary steps to make sure that I am making an educated decision. With all the available information and resources, I am confident that I will make the best decision for myself and stick to the career path that is the most suitable for me. I plan to research the mental health field more thoroughly by reading professional journals and articles, attending seminars, and talking to other mental health professionals. I will also take the time to network with professionals in the field to gain insight into the industry and learn more about the career path I am considering. I am also considering attending conferences and workshops related to the mental health field to gain more knowledge and better equip myself for a successful career. By doing all of this, I am confident I can make an informed decision and move forward confidently.

Final Reflection

As I continue my exploration to find a major and career path, I must be open to new experiences and opportunities. I must take my time and be patient when deciding my future, as this could immensely impact where I end up. I understand the importance of researching and being informed about my decisions, which will ultimately shape my future. I am eager to see where this journey will lead me and excited to discover what lies ahead. I recognize that to succeed; I must be willing to take risks and step outside of my comfort zone. Doing so will lead to different perspectives, more excellent knowledge and a better understanding of my career path. I have been encouraged to research and utilize different resources, such as websites, articles, and books to help guide my decision-making. I have also been informed that talking to professionals, former students, and mentors is essential to gain insight into different career paths. By doing this, I will gain knowledge and better understand my career paths. I have been reminded that, above all, I should be sure to trust my instincts and listen to my heart. This journey is all about personal discovery, and I am confident I will make the right decision.

Looking back, I am incredibly thankful for the opportunity to explore a range of majors and careers and for the resources available to me at UNLV. I am deeply grateful for the skills and knowledge I have acquired from this process, which will prove invaluable as I move forward. I am confident that I can make a well-informed choice and begin the next chapter of my major and career story. I am excited about what the future holds, and I am eager to take on the challenges and opportunities. I have access to vast information and am committed to using it best. I am grateful for the many resources at my disposal, from the library to the career centre, and for the support of the faculty, staff, and advisors who have helped me along my journey.

I am also thankful for the support of my family and friends throughout this process, who have always been there for me and have given me the confidence to make my own decisions. I look forward to utilizing the knowledge, skills, and resources I have acquired to make the most of this next step. I know the importance of staying current with the ever-changing job market, and I am committed to keeping myself up to date on the latest trends and developments. I also know the importance of networking and developing relationships with professionals in my field. I am eager to engage in meaningful conversations and collaborations to gain new insights and experiences. By doing so, I can make more informed decisions and further my career. I am excited about the possibilities that await me. I am prepared to take on the challenges and opportunities that come with the next chapter of my major and career story.

References

Chauhan, R. S. (2019). Occupation exploration: Using O* NET in the management classroom. Management Teaching Review, 4(1), 79-88.

Ma, Y., Chen, S. C., & Ruangkanjanases, A. (2020). Perceived Organizational Support and Career Adaptability as Predictors of Self and Environmental-career Exploration: An Empirical Investigation in China.

Sawitri, D. R., & Perdhana, M. S. (2020). Career-related predictors of life satisfaction of Indonesian youth.

Sheldon, K. M., Holliday, G., Titova, L., & Benson, C. (2020). Comparing Holland and Self-Determination Theory measures of career preference as predictors of career choice. Journal of Career Assessment, 28(1), 28–42.

Song, K. Y., & Kim, H. (2022). Measuring Perceived Influences of Immigration Rules on Career Exploration Among International Students. Journal of College Student Development, 63(5), 572-587.

Nature Vs. Nurture In Human Psychological Development Free Sample

Abstract.

The nature versus nurture contention is based on the impacts of genetics and environment on human psychology. Nature advocates argue that genetic characteristics are passed from parents to offspring and have an impact on people’s unique characteristics. A person’s behaviour and cognitive development largely depend on their genes. However, nurture proponents argue that one’s environment has more impact on their psychological development. Several biological and behavioural theories support the nature and nurture effects on human psychological development. According to the theory, people’s experiences influence their behaviours and actions. The theory suggests that people can be programmed to become anything notwithstanding their genetic compositions. According to social learning theory, children learn violent behaviours from the environment through stimulation and observation (Akers & Jennings, 2015). A child’s behaviour can be shaped by what they see and hear from the people around them. The nature vs. nurture debate is supported by various research and evidence. Therefore, the paper addresses the role of nature and nurture in human psychology focusing on various dimensions including child development, intelligence quotient, personality development and development of mental illnesses.

Introduction.

People have diverse personalities depending on where they were brought up and family genetics. As a result it is important to know how nature and nurture influences a person’s development. Nature refers to how genetics influences a person’s personality while nurture refers to how the environment influences one’s development. Environment refers to an individual’s immediate surrounding including home and school. Peoples’ experiences in the environment have a massive influence on their cognitive development. The philosophical debate about whether nature or nurture influences human development has been an issue of contention. Therefore, the primary purpose of this essay is to explore the relationship between nature and nurture in human psychology development and identify their pros and cons.

Nurture vs. Nature.

The nature versus nurture contention is based on the impacts of genetics and environment on human psychology. According to various philosophers and researchers particular factors that affect human development are in-born and therefore, do not have environmental triggers. According to the supporters of this viewpoint, people’s personality traits and behaviours are as due to evolution (Harold et al., 2013). The argument presented by proponents of nature such as Plato and Descartes is that genetic characteristics are passed from parents to offspring and have an impact on people’s unique characteristics. Therefore, a person’s behaviour and cognitive development largely depends on their genes. This implies that parents with undesired behaviours are likely to pass the trait to their children and vice versa.

On the other hand, nurture proponents such as John Locke base his arguments on the tabula rasa concept. According to this concept the mind begins as a blank state and everything that a person does is as a result of their experiences. One of the theories that support this argument is behaviourism theory. According to the theory people’s experiences influence their behaviours and actions. The theory suggests that people can be programmed to become anything, notwithstanding their genetic compositions (Yassin et a., 2018). One’s experiences massively impact their development. For instance, a child who grew up in an abusive environment tends to avoid people as a result of the traumatic experiences. Moreover, a lady who has been heartbroken tends to avoid courtship due to the fear of getting heartbroken again. This, therefore, implies that one’s experiences have a massive impact on their behaviour and overall development.

Nurture plays an essential role in child development. Experience and learning are the foundation of cognitive characteristics and behavioural variations that develop during childhood and adolescence. A child’s upbringing influences how they interact with the rest and influences their psychological development from childhood to adulthood. For instance, a child grows up as a caring individual if the parents are caring. Moreover, a child becomes lazy if the parents are lazy. Most children learn through visualization and hearing. They tend to emulate the things people around them do and that influences their behavioural and cognitive development (Montag et al., 2016). A child that grows up in a noisy environment is likely to emulate the noisy trait. The nurture proponents argue that a child’s environment affects their development. Children learn from people around them and a result their behaviours is dependent on what they learn and not on genetic compositions.

There are numerous theories that support the nurture concept. One of the theories is the social learning theory. According to this theory children learn violent behaviours from the environment through stimulation and observation (Fox, 2017). A child’s behaviour can be shaped by what they see and hear from the people around them. This has a significant impact on their development as adults since the experiences continue to shape their conducts and relationships. A child that is exposed to an environment that fosters learning is more likely to learn quickly compared to the ones in non-learning environment. Consequently, a child that grows up seeing the parents fighting has higher chances of becoming violent as an adult. Indeed nurture has profound impacts on one’s development.

Several Nature advocates argue that it influences one’s intelligence quotient. A person’s intelligence is majorly inherited and the tendency for brilliant siblings to be produced in the same household is the result of natural supremacy. This implies that a person is more likely to have higher intelligence quotient if they parents have the same and vice versa. According to studies 85% of intelligence is hereditary (Glausiusz, 2016). Intelligence assessment studies have shown that the average intelligence quotient of the whites is higher than that of the African-Americans. However, the influence of behavioural genetics on the environment is a hotly debated topic among most environmentalists.

The nurture proponents argue that the bias evident in the assessment methods is responsible for the differences in IQ scores between different racial groups (Tammen et al., 2013). The variation in the IQ of the whites and African-Americans is a result of the minimal education and opportunities open for the blacks. Most individuals living in shanty areas are the blacks and this leads to a lack of exposure making their IQ to be lower compared to the whites. Therefore, it means that one’s environment influences their cognitive development. The contentious debate as to whether one’s intelligence quotient is hereditary or is influenced by the environment continues to fascinate many. It is clear that nature and nurture both influence people’s cognitive development based on the arguments.

Nature advocates argue that it has massive impact on people’s personality development. Through the biological theories of personality genetics play a key role in influencing one’s personality. Several hereditability researches suggest that there is an association between genetics and personality traits. Biological theorists such as Eysenck provide that cortisol stress hormone influences one’s personality and that the stress hormone is hereditary (McNaughton, 2020). According to the theorists individuals with higher cortisol hormone are introverts while those with lower levels of the hormone are extroverts. This implies that one’s personality can be influenced by genes and passed down from parents to children. Even though the biological theorists make it clear using the cortisol hormones, people’s personality is also influenced by their environment. Trait theories also support nature and its impacts on one’s personality. Trait theories such as the five-factor theory argue that numerous fundamental characteristics make up personality. A trait is a reasonably constant personality trait that influences a person’s behaviour. It serves as the basis of a person’s behaviour.

Nurture proponents have developed behavioural theories of personality. According to the theories, a person’s personality is influenced by their interaction with the environment. Theorists such as Skinner and Watson argue that one’s environment influences their behaviour patterns (Tammen et al., 2013). For example children growing up with disciplined parents are more likely to be disciplined in the future. On the contrary a child who lives in abusive environment is more likely to be abusive in the future. The behavioural therapists assert that as one interacts with their environment they tend to learn about various things that shape their behaviour and personalities (Glausiusz, 2016). The impact of nurture on human psychological development is also supported by the psychodynamic theory. According to these theories childhood experiences influences ones behaviour and personality. Children experiences can be traumatic making an individual to develop some personalities and behaviours such hatred towards a specific person or group of people. Therefore, it is essential to have healthy environments that promote effective children’s personality development.

Nature and nurture also play a key role in the development of mental illnesses. According to nature proponents, numerous mental illnesses are hereditary. Some instance a father with schizophrenia is more likely to have schizophrenic offspring. Changes or imbalances of chemicals in one’s brain leads to mental illnesses (Tistarelli et al., 2020). For instance some mental illnesses such as autism spectrum disorder occur as a result of lack of specific chemicals in the brain. Therefore, the nature proponents argue that mental illnesses that affecting one’s mental health majorly occurs as a result of nature. Genetics play an essential role in the development of mental illnesses. Most mental health illnesses occur as a result of the alteration in ones genes. Therefore, nature is key to the development of mental health illnesses.

On the other hand nurture advocates argue that one’s environment influences their mental health. For instance women who drink and smoke while pregnant create an enabling environment for their unborn babies to have mental illnesses (Bartelt, 2014). Moreover, exposure to drugs such cannabis, heroin and cocaine impairs one’s mental functioning leading to illnesses. Children who grow up in abusive environments are more likely to develop depressive symptoms compared to those in conducive environments. As a result nurture also plays a major role in the development of mental illnesses. A person’s environment determines their mental health status. People living in shanty areas have higher chances of becoming depressed compared to those with good living conditions. This is a result of the availability of numerous stressors in the shanties.

The final section and conclusion.

Both nature and nurture plays an essential in an individual’s psychological development. The two concepts are backed by adequate research and evidence to show how they impact human development. However, nurture stands out in this case. One’s environment has more impact on human development than internal factors such as genetics. Scientists have conducted numerous researches for many years to ascertain the impacts of genetics on human development. According to the behavioural studies genetics shapes a person’s behaviour compared to influence from the parents (Bartelt, 2014). Consequently, molecular studies have identified the specific genes that affect one’s behaviour and personality making people to assume that genes are more crucial in human psychological development. However, this assumption is ambiguous and misleading. There have been several critiques of the research about the impact of nature in human psychological development suggesting that it is only the genes responsible for a person’s personality and behaviour.

Even though genetics is important in psychological development it is essential to emphasize that it is does not determine everything as many people try to make it look. There is a need to acknowledge that environmental factors, which involve all the events that occur to people and give them particular identities and have a significant impact on personality. The environment has more influences on psychological development compared to genetics. The environmental factors may cause genetic variations that already exist at birth to become more or less predominant over time (Fox, 2017). For instance in the case of identical twins they personalities varies overtime as they grow from childhood to adulthood. If genetics was the primary influencer of their personality, then it means that identical twins would have similar personalities. However, the continuous variation in their personality is mainly attributed to their environment.

Non-shared environmental effects have more influences on one’s personality compared to genetics. As a result is it is essential to create an environment that fosters positive mental development (Fox, 2017). Children should not be exposed to any form of abuse due to its detrimental impact on their mental health and personality. Mental health experts need to utilize their knowledge of nature and nurture while caring for patients with mental health disorders. For example some mental health disorders requires the professionals to understand whether they have nature or nurture causes and deduce an effective treatment plan. The nature vs. nurture debate continues to be contentious; however, it is good to understand that both impacts human psychology and overall wellness. None is superior to the other; but they both have equal chances of influencing one’s psychology.

References.

Akers, R. L., & Jennings, W. G. (2015). Social learning theory. The handbook of criminological theory, 230-240.

Bartelt, V. L., & Dennis, A. R. (2014). Nature and nurture: The impact of automaticity. MIS Quarterly, 38(2), 521-53.

Fox, B. (2017). It is nature and nurture: Integrating biology and genetics into the social learning theory of criminal behavior. Journal of Criminal Justice, 49, 22-31.

Glausiusz, J. (2016). Child development: A cognitive case for un‑parenting. Nature, 536(7614), 27-28.

McNaughton, N. (2020). Personality neuroscience and psychopathology: should we start with biology and look for neural-level factors?. Personality Neuroscience, 3, e4.

Montag, C., Hahn, E., Reuter, M., Spinath, F. M., Davis, K., & Panksepp, J. (2016). The role of nature and nurture for individual differences in primary emotional systems: Evidence from a twin study. PloS One, 11(6), 21-30.

Tammen, S. A., Friso, S., & Choi, S. W. (2013). Epigenetics: The link between nature and nurture. Molecular Aspects of Medicine, 34(4), 753-764.

Tistarelli, N., Fagnani, C., Troianiello, M., Stazi, M. A., & Adriani, W. (2020). The nature and nurture of ADHD and its comorbidities: A narrative review on twin studies. Neuroscience & Bio-behavioral Reviews, 109, 63-77.

Yassin, A. A., Razak, N. A., & Maasum, T. N. R. T. M. (2018). Cooperative learning: General and theoretical background. Advances in Social Sciences Research Journal, 5(8).