Misinformation And Fake News Study By Scheufele & Krause Writing Sample

The problem of public misinformation has become surprisingly common in the U.S. setting, causing numerous clashes between citizens. The study by Scheufele and Krause (2019) seeks to analyze the process of becoming misinformed about basic scientific knowledge, which seems to have become an issue in the American social environment. Specifically, the perception of the scientific reality of the contemporary world seems to have been skewed among a range of American citizens (Scheufele & Krause, 2019).

The goal of the research is to show the effects of misinformation on the lives of ordinary people, namely, the ability and motivation to locate falsehoods, as well as the general probability of receiving the correct information. Due to multiple roots of misinformation, eradicating it does not completely seem to be possible. Yet, there is a chance to reduce the effects of falsehoods on individuals by introducing critical thinking and training the skills of discerning between questionable data and verified one.

For modern citizens, being misinformed about the basic facts of science means several implications, most of which concern the ability to develop critical thinking. The loss of understanding of science is one of the major and the most devastating outcomes.

Entailing the loss of the ability to question new information, the specified change suggests that people are no longer capable of assessing risks related to the use of innovative technologies, which increases their exposure to risks and cyber threats (Scheufele & Krause, 2019). In addition, the presence of conspiratorial beliefs complicates the process of obtaining knowledge and dispersing it among general audiences. Moreover, if an individual’s beliefs are inconsistent with the ones supported by science, further misinformation becomes highly probable.

Using a systematic review of the existing studies concerning the nature of misinformation and the factors that cause people to absorb the data that is inconsistent with objective reality, the authors of the study have made it possible to encompass every major factor causing misinformation to occur. The key themes concerning the nature of misinformation, its persistence, and the methods of managing it have been identified in the process.

The causes of misinformation are numerous and diverse, ranging from personal inability to acquire and perceive correct data to the use of motivated reasoning against the logical one. Furthermore, Scheufele and Krause (2019) explain that misinformation in groups is much harder to address due to the constant reiteration of facts and the group support received by its members. Thus, inaccurate and even false assumptions continue to thrive.

The results of the study also indicate that there are several ways of addressing the outlined problem on multiple levels. Since the issue is composed of numerous components, the systems approach is the most effective tool for addressing misinformation at local and global levels. Scheufele and Krause (2019) recommend analyzing the belief systems sustained within communities as the method of approaching misinformation and reducing it.

In addition, the ability to read social cues and apply the specified knowledge to identify misinformation in media is Scheufele and Krause’s (2019) key suggestion. Although the described strategies will not shield people from any falsehood, they will teach them to differentiate between deliberate misinformation and possible truth. As a result, a community where pursuing progress and promoting shared knowledge and continuous progress will be built.


Scheufele, D. A., & Krause, N. M. (2019). Science audiences, misinformation, and fake news. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 116(16), 7662-7669. Web.

Multinational Companies’ Marketing In Vietnam

Expansion Opportunity

Entering the Vietnam market was a rather controversial decision due to the presence of the factors such as corruption and bureaucracy. However, the opportunities that an educated workforce and comparatively low production costs opened for MNC in the economic setting of the Vietnam market made the specified endeavor worthwhile (Arnold and Quelch 1-2). With a well-developed resource management strategy and a proper understanding of the political, cultural, socioeconomic, and technological forces that defined its success in Vietnam, MNC had a standing chance to expand into the specified market (Arnold and Quelch 2-3).

MNC Entering Vietnam

For each MNC, the conditions of entering the Vietnam market are different. As a rule, several modes of entry are considered, including exporting, franchising, licensing, joint venture, and direct investment (Mehta et al. 638). Exporting implies the need to maintain communication between a range of stakeholders, which makes it suitable for sports-related businesses. Licensing requires a comparatively small number of investments (Arnold and Quelch 6). Therefore, the specified type of expansion also seems legitimate for sports. Franchising suggests branching out to semi-independent businesses, thus giving them more independence in decision-making. Consequently, franchising can be used as a tool for expanding the children-related business. As for the chemical business, direct investment, which allows for higher control over key processes, is advised (Arnold and Quelch 7).

MNC’s Success Factors in Vietnam

The success of MNC in Vietnam is determined by several factors. Political circumstances will define whether the organization will be allowed to implement essential business-related transactions (Robbins and Judge 71; Levitt 98). For example, the issue of bureaucracy will need to be addressed for the corporation to function in the identified setting (Arnold and Quelch 1) Socioeconomic issues will provide an insight into the lives of the target population and help to create an appealing brand image. Technological aspects of the firm’s functioning will give MNC a chance to make its products and services recognizable and well-known. Finally, an analysis of financial factors will make MNC design a comprehensive risk management strategy (Arnold and Quelch 5).

Works Cited

Arnold, David J., and John A. Quelch. “Vietnam: Market Entry Decisions.” Harvard Business Review, 1996, pp. 2-14.

Levitt, Theodore. “Globalization of Markets.” Harvard Business Review, 1983, pp. 92-102.

Mehta, Rajiv, et al. “Leadership and Cooperation in Marketing Channels: A Comparative Empirical Analysis of the U.S., Finland, and Poland.” International Marketing Review, vol. 18, no. 6, 2001, pp. 633-666.

Robbins, Stephen P., and Timothy A. Judge. Organizational Behavior. 16th ed. Pearson Higher Education AU, 2014. VitalSource Bookshelf E-book, Web.

Veil Of Ignorance In Social Contract Theory

In the highly diverse world in which people have different biases associated with their situations, it is complicated to reach a social contract that would govern the way in which the global society should work. Therefore, John Rawls offered a suggestion of imagining that each person lives behind a ‘veil of ignorance’ that prevents them from knowing who they are and how they can identify with their personal circumstances and characteristics (Miele 5).

Through being ignorant of one’s circumstances, people can be more effective and objective in considering how societies should interact. The two primary principles support the ‘veil of ignorance’; they include liberty and the difference in directions. The liberty principle implies that the social contract ensures that each person can enjoy maximum freedom without intruding upon the liberty of others. The difference principle is intended to guarantee that every individual has an equal opportunity of prospering.

The fair distribution of wealth as applied to the ‘veil of ignorance’ principle is based on the premise that any social or economic differences in a social contract should help those who are ‘the worst off.’ Any advantages in the social contract should be available to everyone, thus facilitating the equal distribution of wealth across society. Therefore, the ‘veil of ignorance’ makes it easier to approach complex subjects by allowing people to decide pretty on how the rules should be structured.

However, despite the positive intentions behind the ‘veil of ignorance,’ one percent of the wealthiest people on the planet hold the most financial resources on the earth than the rest ninety-nine. Thus, the question one might ask is the following: Regardless of the ethicality behind the ‘veil of ignorance,’ does the principle really work to ensure the fair wealth distribution in the world that is saturated with inequality, poverty, competitiveness, and excessive consumption?

Work Cited

Miele, Alex. “An Explanation of John Rawls’s Theory of Justice with a Defense of the Veil of Ignorance.” CMC Senior Theses, 2017. Web.

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