Modern Approaches To Science Education Sample Assignment


Modern approaches to science education mean using innovative teaching strategies with the help of advanced technology to help the students understand the nature of science and enhance meaningful learning. Modern approaches to science education, such as inquiry-based instruction, mobile applications, augmented reality (AR) game-based learning methodology, and computer-based instruction (CBI) technology, help to develop critical thinking and a deeper understanding of scientific concepts among school students. Traditional ways of teaching, which focus more on rote learning, have led to a decline in interest in learning science among school students. Students need to understand scientific concepts to apply their theoretical knowledge to the practical reality of scientific innovations and discoveries. Students are more disengaged from learning science because of the rote-memory-based education system. Therefore, modern approaches to science education may motivate students to learn scientific concepts.

The new student-centered teaching methodologies, such as inquiry-based instruction, the use of mobile applications, computer-based technology, and playing digital games related to education, can help the students at the school to build interest in the science subject. Modern approaches involving the use of technology will help improve students’ problem-solving and logical-thinking skills and motivate them to learn science by providing them with a better learning environment. Thus, modern approaches to science education should be available to school students because integrating modern approaches in classroom activities will be helpful to engage students to learn and understand science. Aiming to clearly understand how new techniques to science education help students to improve science learning, this literature review focuses on the benefits of modern approaches to science education from three aspects:

Literature Review

Development of Scientific Research Skills

Science inquiry, according to Areepattamannil (2012), “covers a wide range of diverse activities—student-centered interactions, student investigations, and hands-on activities, and focus on models or applications in science—to foster students’ interest in learning science and to improve their scientific literacy.” (p. 135). Therefore, through inquiry-based science instruction, students can improve their performance and enthusiasm.

More theoretically and methodologically diverse empirical research is required to build a comprehensive understanding of the impact of classroom instructional practices on scientific literacy and interest in scientific subjects for adolescent students in a school context. Thus, to encourage students’ interest in learning science and improve their scientific literacy, scientific inquiry encompasses a wide range of diverse activities, including student-centered interactions, student investigations, hands-on activities, and a focus on models or applications in science.

The growing body of research on inquiry-based science teaching and learning emphasizes the advantages of such education for students’ achievement in science and interest in the subject. Indeed, in a learner-centered, constructivist learning environment where knowledge building is interactive, inductive, and collaborative, students achieve academic success. Areepattamannil suggests that it is imperative to increase literacy levels, generally and science literacy in particular, to meet the demands of global competition and the twenty-first century’s problems (Areepattamannil, 2012). To this purpose, a more thorough and critical analysis of the environment in which kids are educated is urgently required.

Additionally, the results of the current study offer empirical proof that interactive science teaching and learning, as well as science teaching and learning with an emphasis on models or applications, can support adolescents’ development of scientific literacy and increase their interest in Learning science. Making individuals who are scientifically literate and capable of understanding scientific reasoning would be greatly aided by involving pupils in complex cognitive tasks like inquiry, discussion, and explanation.

M-Learning in Secondary Mathematics and Science.

Burke recommends using mobile devices to improve science learning among senior secondary school students through personalization, cooperation, and authenticity (Burke et al., 2022). Students can, therefore, more efficiently and creatively learn scientific subjects using numerous mobile applications. Their learning experiences are enhanced, and critical thinking is encouraged through the use of mobile devices.

Studies on mobile learning frequently concentrate on teachers’ viewpoints. Students agree that personalization is an aspect of their mobile learning. Authentic and collaborative learning are less prominent. The most effective m-learning activities are those that promote personalization. It includes authenticity and collaboration, although there are no differences in improving perceived learning based on location. According to Burke, science disciplines have much greater levels of authentic m-learning than mathematics and reported improvements in learning with mobile devices (Burke et al., 2022).

Students are expected to notice advances in their learning when professors provide m-learning assignments that foster personalization, cooperation, and authenticity. Burke recommends that for the most significant improvements in how well students perceive their learning, teachers should think about creating technology-enhanced assignments that boost students’ experiences of collaborative and authentic learning.

Impacts of Augmented Reality (AR) and a Digital Game on Students’ Science Learning with Refection Prompts in Multimedia Learning

The effects of good instructional design on multimedia learning have been extensively studied, but most of the studies have concentrated on the cognitive components of learning, giving little attention to the role of affective-motivational states in multimedia learning. In his study, Chen expresses that there is no interaction between the AR and gaming approaches, significantly enhancing students’ learning. Only the game technique, however, significantly improves the student’s learning outcomes and emotional states. Chen suggests the flow state’s immense significance in a reflective multimedia learning setting. Such a finding highlights the crucial role that online games play in fostering effective and motivating moods during multimedia learning.

The flow state’s qualities make it clear that game-based learning can make it easier for students to participate in context-aware mobile learning activities with reflection prompts. It supports an assertion that a digital game can significantly increase students’ learning engagement. Chen also emphasizes the significance of including students in learning to achieve deeper concept understanding (Chen, 2020). He further demonstrates the significance of the flow state in a reflective setting in multimedia learning, which has been suggested in several other studies to be highly beneficial to students’ learning. This study further highlights the importance of affective-motivational states in multimedia learning.

Mobile Inquiry-based Science Learning (m-IBSL)

Inquiry-based learning on smartphones, according to Kousloglou et al. (2022), uses the phyphox application to foster students’ interest in physics and their ability to do a scientific investigation. As a result, the students may use their smartphones to connect their knowledge to practical applications, which inspires an interest in physics. It makes students willing to pick up their enthusiasm and want to do experiments more.

The discovery of the physical world is at the core of the natural sciences, and digital mobile devices are appropriate to promote this exploration. These devices provide the instruments that make this investigation more accessible and pervasive (Kousloglou et al.,2022). Students submit questions or find causal relationships, create hypotheses, research, and test experiments or observations during the inquiry-based learning process.

With the help of mobile technology, mobile inquiry-based learning (m-IBL) intends to support the inquiry process and inspire students to expand and share their knowledge. Numerous scholars investigated the use of mobile IBL in the sciences (m-IBSL), for instance, by utilizing smartphone sensors and pertinent software in a lab setting without necessarily incorporating their interventions within a particular theoretical framework.

Enhancing 5th Graders’ Science Content Knowledge and Self-Efficacy Through Game-Based Learning

Many contend that video games can enhance learning by giving students access to an environment that is innately interesting and inspiring in a manner that regular classrooms cannot. Recent studies show that games can influence students’ Learning in STEM subjects and that cooperative gameplay may be especially crucial for learning benefits (Meluso et al., (2012).

According to Meluso et al. (2012), game-based learning and teamwork improve emotional learning and self-efficacy among science students. Playing educational video games in the classroom drastically improves the students’ learning results and ability to participate in discussions. So, pupils’ capacity to comprehend scientific ideas inspires them to pursue employment in science in the future.

Studies examining how learning science knowledge and scientific self-efficacy were affected by cooperative and solo game player circumstances revealed no differences between the two playing scenarios; however, when the scenarios collapsed, learning and self-efficacy related to science content considerably increased. For instance, the outcomes might have been different if each player had been told to take on a specific task (such as operating the controls). While collaboration may be successful in some situations, it is highly reliant on the model and tactics employed. Students appreciate having conversations with their friends when playing video games. This finding suggests that more research is needed to understand the impacts of cooperative gameplay fully.

The Effects of the Computer-Based Instruction on the Achievement and Problem-Solving Skills of the Science and Technology Students

According to Serin (2011), using computers in teaching and learning can help improve the learning environment and the academic performance and problem-solving abilities of students studying science. As a result, CBI technology encourages students to learn and sparks their interest in science through audio-visual elements, including animations, pictures, and movies. Also, using computer-based technology enhances student participation in class activities and improves the enjoyment, effectiveness, and efficiency of the educational process.

The accomplishment levels and problem-solving abilities of the pupils in the experimental group who take the computer-based science and technology teaching also increase statistically and significantly. Serin suggests that an interactive lesson in the science and technology course is possible thanks to the computer and the teaching package, which includes materials like movies, slides, CDs, sounds, and animations. Also, concepts are presented using rich visual elements, which raises student achievement levels (Serin, 2011). The usage of CBI enhances students’ ability to solve problems. Using interactive learning software helps students in the fifth-year science and technology course get higher grades and improve their problem-solving abilities.


Areepattamannil, S. (2012). Effects of inquiry-based science instruction on science achievement and interest in science: Evidence from Qatar. The journal of educational research, 105(2), 134-146.

Burke, P. F., Kearney, M., Schuck, S., & Aubusson, P. (2022). Improving mobile learning in secondary mathematics and science: Listening to students. Journal of computer assisted learning, 38(1), 137-151.

Chen, C. H. (2020). Impacts of augmented reality and a digital game on students’ science learning with reflection prompts in multimedia learning. Educational Technology Research and Development, 68(6), 3057-3076.

Kousloglou, M., Molohidis, A., Nikolopoulou, K., & Hatzikraniotis, E. (2022). Mobile Inquiry-based Science Learning (m-IBSL): Employment of the Phyphox application for an experimental study of friction. Teaching Science, 68(2), 14-18.

Meluso, A., Zheng, M., Spires, H. A., & Lester, J. (2012). Enhancing 5th graders’ science content knowledge and self-efficacy through game-based learning. Computers & Education, 59(2), 497-504.

Serin, O. (2011). The effects of the computer-based instruction on the achievement and problem-solving skills of the science and technology students. Turkish Online Journal of Educational Technology-TOJET, 10(1), 183-201.

Management In A Pharmaceutical Company Writing Sample


If you are a regional sales manager for a big pharmaceutical company, you should expect to deal occasionally with some sticky situations. Three candidates have been submitted to you for consideration for the position of district sales manager at your company. The hiring manager’s discrimination against two applicants based on age and looks drew ethical and legal concerns. I designed a worker training and development program to address these concerns and keep hiring parity. I will compare two employee development program proposals using an ethical decision-making model and strategies to mitigate legal and ethical issues like workplace discrimination, disability accommodations, and alternative work schedules.

I will research and use logic and evidence to prove my point. Establishing a road map for ethical action is essential to attracting workers. It simplifies ethical and legal issues. The recruitment process raises workplace discrimination issues, the ADA, flexible work plans, and other legal and moral issues (Rebbis et al., 2019). This piece suggests two ethical decision-making training programs to help employees deal with these issues. These ideas are built on teaching employees how to make moral decisions.

Make Hiring More Diverse and Inclusive

Ethical and regulatory considerations should be made in advance of any hiring decisions. When ensuring a transparent recruiting process, it is important to consider various factors and offer a wide range of solutions (Pekdemir &Arikan, 2021). However, to retain a diverse workforce, the method must create appealing work environments for all types of employees. The following steps may be taken to help achieve the desired employment outcome:

First and foremost, ensure the hiring procedure is objective and fair. Discrimination at the workplace may result from discriminatory character, which may have been influenced by unconscious bias during the hiring process. Educating recruiters to recognize and steer clear of perpetuating discriminatory practices in the recruiting process can be done (Robbins et al., 2019). One approach that can be taken to achieve this goal is to educate individuals on the part that their prejudices and preconceptions play in decision-making.

Secondly, creating advertisements and job postings that are accessible to people with disabilities. Inclusion and variety can be actively fostered by crafting job postings and descriptions. All people should feel welcome, so any words used must not perpetuate negative stereotypes about certain groups. For instance, “fully mobile” can be used instead of “able-bodied” to describe someone who can walk, run, and otherwise get around without assistance (Lauring et al., 2019, pp. 523-543). Equally as essential as the third point is encouraging diverse people to submit job applications. Businesses interested in increasing the diversity of their employee populations can use alternative sourcing techniques to contact individuals and members of underrepresented groups.

Third, encouraging diverse applicant pools when selecting candidates for open positions. When looking to increase diversity in the workplace, businesses can use alternative sourcing methods to reach out to underrepresented groups and individuals. Last but not least, you can avoid potential legal and ethical issues resulting from discrimination in the workplace by strictly adhering to job laws. The company must guarantee that all applicable employment laws, such as the Americans with Disabilities Act, are followed. (ADA) (Lai & Lam, 2019). All qualified alternative applicants should be considered equally, regardless of age, ethnicity, sexuality, or disability.

Adopt Alternative Work Schedules

Companies can adopt flexible work arrangements for employees and employers to manage legal and ethical issues related to employment-related Federal Acts and arrangements. In this section, the process to a flexible working environment is discussed here with examples:

Make the necessary adjustments and redesign the existing work as a first step. Assistive technologies, practical tools, and flexible scheduling are just some of the accommodations that businesses can make available to workers with disabilities so that they can do their jobs successfully (Chun & Rainey, 2019). The work itself may need to be redesigned to match the employee’s abilities to the assignment given to each one.

Secondly, we must improve our assistance for activities that can occur anywhere. It would be done by making work remote and embracing technology. To improve employee encouragement and productivity, the organization might adopt policies such as enabling telecommuting, alternative work hours, or job sharing among employees (Robbins et al., 2019). Disabled individuals who require additional accommodations and flexibility at work can also profit from this.

Thirdly, by creating an accessible work environment. Businesses can conduct accessibility audits and implement the required changes to their workrooms to make them more welcoming to employees with disabilities. Creating accessibility would be made by making accessible parking at work, entrances, and restrooms should be provided (Solis-Rodriguez et al., 2021). Any obstacles to movement in the workplace should be removed, and a comfortable environment should be made for all types of individuals. Accept every skill by making all the required tools available.

The US government has passed legislation to avoid age and disability discrimination and to safeguard the fundamental freedoms of individuals with problems with mobility. Some of the most important federal acts that have added to these efforts are the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA), the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADA), and Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. In 1990, Congress passed the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) to guarantee that people with disabilities are not discriminated against in jobs, public services, and accommodations (Westeragrd, 2020). It is against the law for a company to treat an applicant or employee differently because of their inability. A 47-year-old paraplegic woman should be given the same consideration as any other applicant.

The employing person’s prejudices against her because of her disability must be the hiring decision’s outcome. The Prevention of Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) provides the same protections to workers aged 40 and up from bias in the workplace. The 62-year-old male applicant is not automatically excluded from consideration. The Age Discrimination in Employment Act guards his ability to be evaluated based on his skills and expertise rather than his age (Robbins et al., 2021). Racial discrimination against color, racial or ethnic background, creed, sex, or national origin is illegal under Title VII of the Civil Rights Act of 1964. The hiring manager may have broken the law by prioritizing the 22-year-old woman because of her looks and years of age.

Each staff member engaged in the recruitment procedure should be educated through a training program for staff members on these the national government acts alongside the significance of avoiding discrimination based on age, disability, or appearance (Chun et al., 2019). The program should also outline standards for fairly assessing someone’s abilities and expertise in the selection procedure.

The ADA, ADEA, and Title VII help avoid age and appearance discrimination. Businesses should be aware of these laws and follow them throughout hiring to avoid legal issues. Employers can help everyone with a training and development program. Government laws protecting workers’ rights and promoting workplace variety, tolerance, and adaptability are essential. Age, disability, or gender-based discrimination during employment is wrong and illegal (Pekdemir & Arikan, 2021). The hiring manager’s decision to disqualify two otherwise eligible applicants because of their age and disability is an obvious violation of the Age Discrimination in Employment Act (ADEA) and the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA).

It is also discrimination against older people and women for the hiring boss to favor a 22-year-old woman based on her looks and age. According to the Equal Employment Opportunity Commission (EEOC), discrimination in employment based on age or gender is also illegal. Training employees can prevent litigation and foster an open workplace culture. Managers and other workers should be able to attend training on creating a welcoming and equal workplace (Solis-Redriguez et al., 2021). The program should ensure that job candidates are assessed purely on their skills and expertise, regardless of age, disability, or gender.

The Americans with Disabilities Act requires the program to accommodate and modify job requirements for employees with disabilities or other special needs. (ADA). Promoting a remote and inclusive workplace and avoiding disability discrimination. In order to avoid legal issues and support a diverse and inclusive workplace, employee development must emphasize embracing, comprehending, and flexibility (Westergard, 2021). Compliance with federal laws protecting workers’ rights is moral and necessary for a company’s survival.


Pekdemir, I., & Arıkan, F. (2021). Effects of Ethical Leadership on Employee Performance: An Empirical Study. European Journal of Management and Business Economics, 30(2), 258-274.

Solís-Rodríguez, V., Gómez-Miranda, M. E., & Sánchez-Gardey, G. (2021). Management Practices and Employee Performance: The Mediating Role of Ethical Climate. Journal of Business Ethics, 169(4), 607-623.

Chun, J. S., & Rainey, H. G. (2019). Public service motivation: A systematic literature review and future research agenda. Public Administration Review, 79(3), 375–387.

Lauring, J., Stensaker, I. G., & Selmer, J. (2019). Culture and informal workplace practices in multinational corporations. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 30(4), 523-543.

Lai, J. Y. M., & Lam, E. T. C. (2019). The effects of corporate social responsibility on employee job satisfaction: Evidence from the Chinese context. Corporate Social Responsibility and Environmental Management, 26(6), 1417-1429.

Robbins, S. P., Coulter, M., & DeCenzo, D. A. (2019). Fundamentals of management. Pearson.

Westergard, C. (2020). Unfit to be seen: customer preferences and the Americans with Disabilities Act. BYU J. Pub. L.34, 179.

A Journey Through Métis Nationhood: Its Origins And Evolution Free Writing Sample

Metis Nationhood

Metis nationhood refers to the Metis people, a distinctive and distinct cultural group with a rich history that the intermarriage and cooperation between Indigenous peoples and European settlers in Canada has fashioned. The Metis have a unique identity that combines Indigenous and European cultural traditions, including their language, food, music, clothing, and way of life. The history of the Metis people is one of resilience, survival, and adaptation in the face of colonialism and oppression. The Metis have a long and satisfying account of working together with European settlers to shape communities and economies in what is now Canada. Their contributions to the fur trade, agriculture, and transportation industries aided in forming the early history of the nation.

Today, the Metis are still working to uphold their cultural identity and traditional practices while adapting to the modern world. The government must distinguish and respects the distinctive cultural identity of the Metis people (Manitoba Métis Federation). This comprises recognizing their traditions, history, and values and supporting, preserving and promoting their cultural practices. The government can work with Metis communities to provide resources for language revitalization, cultural education, and community progress. Additionally, the government can provide support for Metis people to get access to education and employment opportunities and support for the economic development of Metis communities. This will aid in guaranteeing that the Metis people can maintain their cultural identity and way of life while also backing the broader Canadian society. In the pre-1900 period, the Metis had a distinctive identity, culture, worldview, and role in supporting Louis Riel’s challenge on Canadian expansion, relationship with the Constitution, and early nationalism and Red River resistance.

Metis Identity

Metis history may be old in many people’s eyes, but very young compared to the history of the rest of the world. However, its history could have been taught better in school and was even hidden in some parts of the country (Canadian Geographic, 2018). Métis identity is complex and multi-layered, with distinctive cultural practices and traditions that have progressed over generations. Métis people are descendants of European fur traders and Indigenous women, mainly Ojibwe, Cree, and Saulteaux, who inhabited Manitoba’s Red River region. The Métis community prolonged as fur traders moved westward, forming communities throughout Ontario, Prairies, and British Columbia. Notwithstanding their mixed ancestry, Métis people have a distinctive identity that parts them from other Indigenous peoples and Europeans. The Métis culture and traditions have been fashioned by their remarkable history, entrenched in the fur trade era. Métis people have advanced their own language, Michif, which is a combination of French and Cree or Ojibwe. Michif is an indispensable part of Métis identity and is still vocalized today.

However, it is believed that its practice is declining. Métis people also have a distinctive cuisine, which is a blend of Indigenous and European food traditions. Métis cuisine includes dishes like bannock, pemmican, and wild game. Métis people have a rich artistic tradition, with distinctive needlework, beadwork, and quillwork styles. Métis art repeatedly features floral and animal motifs and is branded by its lively colours and complex designs. Also, Métis’ identity is self-defined and not exclusively founded on ancestry. Métis people have a shared history and cultural practices passed down through generations. Métis identity is also designed by the experiences of discrimination and oppression that Métis people have faced throughout history. Consequently, Métis individuals have advanced a strong sense of resilience and pride in their identity. Currently, the Manitoba Métis Federation defines Métis identity as “a person who self-identifies as Métis, is of historic Métis Nation ancestry, is different from other Indigenous peoples, and is accepted by the Métis Nation” (Manitoba Métis Federation). This description recognizes the composite and multifaceted nature of Métis identity and distinguishes that Métis individuals have the right to self-identify.

Métis Culture

Métis culture is inimitable and distinctive that blends Indigenous and European traditions. Métis culture arose during the fur trade era when Scottish, French, and English traders married Indigenous women, resulting in the birth of Métis children. As a result, Métis culture is a yield of both European and Indigenous ways, resulting in a rich and diverse cultural heritage. One of the most important facets of Métis culture is its language. Michif, the language spoken by the Métis people, is a mixture of French and Cree, as stated earlier. It is a distinctive and complex language reflecting the Métis people’s mixed ancestry and history. Métis language is a crucial part of Métis culture and heritage and is fundamental to the Métis distinctiveness (Gaudry, 2013). Métis music and dance also mirror the amalgamation of Indigenous and European cultures. The jig is a traditional Métis dance that conglomerates rudiments of Irish, Scottish, and French dance forms with Indigenous dance traditions.

Métis music is often branded by using accordions, fiddles, and other instruments that mirror the European sway of Métis culture. Métis people have a deep link to the land and have traditionally been fishers, hunters, and farmers. Moreover, Métis people have a strong sense of respect and stewardship for the land, mirrored in their traditional practices. The buffalo hunt, for instance, was a crucial part of Métis culture, and Métis people played an indispensable part in working as hunters, fur trade, traders, and translators. Métis culture additionally places a vital importance on community and kinship. Extended family networks, known as “clans,” form a significant role in daily life, offering assistance and direction to each other. Moreover, Métis culture prices elders and their understanding, and the Métis people have a rich spoken history passed down through age groups.

Métis Worldview

When it comes to the Métis worldview, it is profoundly entrenched in their experiences as a distinct Indigenous group within a settler-colonial society. Métis individuals have a robust connection to their land and the surroundings, which is evident in the practice of their culture and traditions. Métis worldview places more value on the interconnectedness between humans and the natural world, and they have a profound respect for the water, land, and animals. Métis people consider the surroundings a sacred gift that must be cared for and protected for future generations. Moreover, the community is an essential facet of the Métis worldview. Métis culture values relations and interdependence, with lengthy family networks playing a substantial part in daily life. The Métis are known for their hospitality, welcoming strangers into their homes and sharing what they have with others. Métis individuals have a robust sense of belonging and community, mirrored in their traditions, such as the Red River Cart, utilized for conveyance and trade between communities.

Additionally, the Métis worldview accentuates social impartiality and involvement. Métis individuals have a history of political struggle and activism dating back to the Red River Resistance. Métis individuals have had to fight for their rights and acknowledgement as a distinct Indigenous group within a settler-colonial society (Canadian Geographic, 2018). They have had a distinctive standpoint on the tensions between Indigenous and non-Indigenous peoples in the country, as they have been caught between these two worlds. Métis people have archaeologically been tangled in political and social movements, such as the Métis Women’s Circle and the Métis National Council. Moreover, the Métis worldview has been fashioned by their experiences of colonization and assimilation. Métis individuals have had to circumnavigate the difficulties of their mixed ancestry and the tensions arising from being Indigenous and non-Indigenous. Métis individuals have had to fight for their rights to their culture, land, and identity. They have resisted efforts to integrate them into settler society while upholding their distinct culture and traditions. Métis people have a distinctive standpoint on Indigenous issues in Canada, fashioned by their history and experiences.

Métis Support of Louis Riel Challenging Canadian Expansion into Rupert’s Land

The support of Louis Riel by the Métis individuals mirrored a larger pattern of struggle and political activism against the Canadian government’s strategies towards Indigenous peoples. Riel’s leadership stirred Métis people to rally and fight for their rights and interests. Métis individuals saw Riel as a voice for their apprehensions, and his activities were seen as necessary to protect their land and way of life. Riel’s leadership during the Red River resistance was pivotal in negotiating the creation of the Province of Manitoba, which recognized the rights of Métis people (Gaudry, 2013). Riel played a fundamental part in drafting the Manitoba Act, which recognized a bilingual and bicultural province and recognized Métis land assertions. The creation of Manitoba was a substantial victory for Métis people, as it recognized their distinct culture and offered them political representation.

Conversely, the botch of the Canadian government to address Métis complaints after the creation of Manitoba led to the North-West struggle, where Métis people once again mobilized against the Canadian government. Riel and Gabriel Dumont led the struggle, and it was powered by various grievances, including the government’s rejection of honouring land agreements and the imposition of Canadian laws on Indigenous people (Jennifer, 1993). The resistance was eventually unsuccessful, and Riel was apprehended and executed. His execution was perceived as a betrayal by many Métis people and sparked a deep sense of bitterness towards the Canadian administration. The legacy of Louis Riel as a defender of Métis rights and interests has sustained to motivate Métis activism and resistance. Additionally, the Métis individuals have continued to fight for recognition of their distinct culture and land rights and have been tangled in various political and legal battles. The Canadian government formally acknowledged the Métis Nation of Canada in 1982, and Métis people continue to sponsor for their rights and interests within the broader Canadian political landscape.

Nationalism and Red River Resistance

The Red River Resistance, also referred to as the Red River Rebellion, was an actual event in the history of early Canadian nationalism. It was an era marked by conflict between the Métis people and the Canadian administration, trying to increase its control over the Red River area, a region where the Métis had been living for generations. The resistance was steered by Louis Riel, a Métis leader who arose as a conspicuous figure in the struggle for Métis rights and recognition (Gaudry, 2013). At the heart of the resistance was the question grounded on the subject of land ownership. The Canadian government had procured Rupert’s Land from the Hudson’s Bay Company in 1869 without checking in with the Métis, who had lived there for generations. This instigated great concern among the Métis, who feared they would be exiled from their homes and lose access to the land and resources they depend on for their livelihoods. Riel and the Métis started organizing resistance against the Canadian government, which they observed as illegal and hostile to their interests.

They recognized a provisional government intended to represent the interests of the Métis people and negotiate with the Canadian government on their behalf. However, the Canadian government observed this as a direct challenge to their authority and sent troops to the area to suppress the rebellion. The Métis and their associates, including some Indigenous nations, successfully defended themselves against the Canadian forces (Gaudry, 2013). They fashioned a strong resistance movement, which was competent to deter the Canadian troops and avert the government from imposing its will on the Métis people. Through a sequence of negotiations, Riel was ultimately able to discuss a deal with the Canadian government that acknowledged the rights of the Métis. The Manitoba Act, approved in 1870, acknowledged the rights of the Métis and fashioned the province of Manitoba. The act also guaranteed the fortification of the French language and Catholic religion in the province, which were imperative to the Métis people. This was a substantial victory for the Métis, as it acknowledged their rights and gave them a voice in the Canadian political system.

Métis and the Constitution

The Métis played a substantial part in the advance of the Canadian Constitution, which was created through a series of conferences between 1864 and 1867. The Métis were tangled in the negotiations that led to the formation of Canada, and they made numerous significant contributions to the document that would become the Canadian Constitution (Jennifer, 1993). One of the most important contributions made by the Métis was the inclusion of section 35 of the Constitution Act, 1982, which distinguishes and upholds the rights of Indigenous peoples in Canada. This section indicates that “the prevailing aboriginal and treaty rights of the aboriginal peoples of Canada are hereby recognized and affirmed.” Additionally, it states that “in this Act, ‘aboriginal peoples of Canada’ includes the Indian, Inuit, and Métis peoples of Canada.” The Métis and other Indigenous groups have utilized this segment to assert their rights and interests in diverse settings. For instance, section 35 has been utilized in land assertions cases to contend that the Métis have a right to their traditional lands and resources. It has also been applied in cases related to resource development, such as mining and pipelines, to argue that the Métis have a right to be consulted and accommodated in conclusions that affect their lands and communities.

In addition to the enclosure of section 35, the Métis also played a part in developing other sections of the Constitution. For instance, the Métis were tangled in the negotiations that led to the Canadian Bill of Rights formation in 1960 (Jennifer, 1993). This article was the first federal law to identify the rights of Indigenous peoples in Canada, and it aided set the stage for the inclusion of section 35 in the Constitution Act 1982. Moreover, the Métis also played a part in advance of the Charter of Rights and Freedoms, which was added to the Constitution in 1982. The Charter defends the rights of all Canadians, including the rights of Indigenous populates. It embraces provisions related to equality, freedom of religion, and freedom of expression. Conversely, notwithstanding the recognition of Indigenous rights in the Canadian Constitution, the Métis and other Indigenous groups continue to face challenges in declaring their rights and attaining parity in Canada. Many Métis societies linger to face issues linked to poverty, access to healthcare and education, and the acknowledgement of their rights and title to their traditional lands.

In conclusion, Métis identity is entrenched in a mixture of Indigenous and European ancestry but not solely founded on ancestry. Additionally, their culture is a mixture of Indigenous and European traditions, resulting in a distinctive and distinctive cultural heritage. Métis’ worldview is profoundly associated with their experiences as a distinctive Indigenous collection within a settler-colonial society. Moreover, the Métis individuals have a long and rich history of political involvement and confrontation against the Canadian government’s policies towards Indigenous populates. The Red River Resistance was a fundamental moment in the history of early Canadian nationalism. It defied the authority of the Canadian government and forced it to identify the rights of Indigenous populates in the nation. The Métis also played a significant part in developing the Canadian Constitution. Their contributions aided in shaping the document that recognizes and upholds the rights of Indigenous peoples in the country.


Canadian Geographic. (2018, June 15). Early nationalism. Indigenous Peoples Atlas of Canada. Retrieved February 9, 2023, from

Gaudry, A. (2013). the Métis-ization of Canada: the Process of Claiming Louis Riel, Métissage, and the Métis People as Canada’s Mythical Origin1.

Jennifer S. H. Brown. (1993). Métis, Halfbreeds, and Other Real People: Challenging Cultures and Categories. The History Teacher, 27(1), 19–26.

Manitoba Métis Federation: