Moto, Inc’s Client Management Software System

A summary of the mini case study organisation and the background of the situation

The mini case study examines MOTO Inc., a human resources management company. The company was forced to adopt a new client management software system four years ago due to significant growth. Initially, the software worked well. However, fundamental adjustments need to be made to align the procedures with the package. With time, the MOTO company witnessed significant client base expansion, acquiring smaller employment-associated businesses. As a result, the firm’s support staff and services grew, including developing a strong and innovative information systems (IS) department. Therefore, the IS department played a pivotal role in the company’s success, recruiting competent people and using partnerships with local institutions to attract talent.

Furthermore, the IS department exploited new opportunities, including leveraging the internet to explore untapped market segments. Due to the growth of the company and the limitation of its current client management system, the PresidentPresident of MOTO Inc. (Susan) acknowledged the need to change the company’s software system. Therefore, she is considering several options, such as adopting products from other vendors or upgrading from the current vendor. Susan’s objective is to ensure the company acquires a high-quality system that meets the firm’s changing needs.

A summary of the problem, opportunity, or situation in the mini-case study

The problem in this mini case study is that the current client management system can no longer sustain MOTO company’s needs caused of its significant growth and diversification. Thus, the current system needs to meet the organisation’s evolving needs. The combination of the manual and automated procedures used to manage clients’ accounts is now unwieldy, preventing effective and efficient operations. Thus, Susan, the PresidentPresident of the company, has identified the need to upgrade the software system to effectively support the growing support staff and the organisation’s expanding services.

The current situation, however, presents an incredible opportunity for MOTO company to seek alternative software solutions that can effectively meet the firm’s evolving needs. According to Susa, several alternatives are in consideration, including upgrading the current software and developing a custom software application with the company’s IS system, among others, to resolve this challenge. MOTO Inc. desires to achieve a quality client management software system to support and streamline its operations and enhance its continued growth.

Responses to the questions and tasks:

Outline the issues that Susan should consider which would support the development of a custom software application in-house.

There are several issues that Susan may need to consider to develop a custom software application in-house. These considerations are critical and help establish if developing the custom solution is the best strategy for the company to succeed. Some of the key considerations include; the business requirements. Susan may need to evaluate whether the firm’s unique business needs align with the capabilities of the current software solutions (Petter et al., 2008). Therefore, if the current solutions cannot meet the needs of MOTO Inc, then developing a new custom software application would be the most viable solution. Also, Susan should conduct a comprehensive cost analysis to assess the financial impact of developing the custom software application (O’Brien & Marakas, 2006). The analysis should focus on factors such as the initial cost of developing the software, continuous maintenance and support expenses, and the opportunity cost of using internal resources for software development (Sinard & Gershkovich, 2012).

Outline the issues that Susan should consider which would support the purchase of a software package.

Similarly, various factors should be considered when considering purchasing the software package. These factors will help Susan to establish if buying a pre-built software solution is the best approach to addressing the company’s needs. Thus, Susan should first consider the fit for purpose. She needs to assess whether the software packages available in the market align with the unique requirements and needs of MOTO Inc. Generally, the software should be able to provide functionalities and features that effectively support and enhance the firm’s client management and human resource management needs (Peppard & Ward, 2004). Furthermore, there is a need to consider vendor reliability and reputation. Susan must research and assess the reliability and reputation of the vendors providing these packages. This would include assessing the vendor’s track record, customer feedback and reviews, and financial stability (Tadavarthi et al., 2020). A reliable and reputable vendor will likely offer quality software and continuous support.

When should the decision of “make‐versus‐buy” be made within a systems development project? How should Susan proceed? Explain your answer.

Ideally, the decision to “make versus buy” should be made at the early stage of the software systems development project. Specifically, this decision should be made during the need assessment and analysis phase. At this stage, the organisation identifies its unique goals, needs, and challenges for the system under development (Mantel et al., 2006). Therefore, making the “make-versus-buy” decision early is crucial in allowing the project team to adopt a clear direction and make an informed decision about the project approach. Susan and MOTO, Inc. can proceed by making a deliberate and informed decision on the “make-versus-buy” issue. This decision should consider critical factors such as the organisation’s unique requirements, resources and expertise, cost considerations, strategic alignment, and stakeholder feedback (O’Brien & Marakas, 2006).

Your thoughtful and informative responses to these additional questions regarding the mini case study:

What is the purpose of this case study?

This mini case study presents a real-life situation where a business organisation, such as MOTO, Inc., faces serious challenges concerning its client management software system. It also provides an opportunity to understand the decision-making process on the software solutions selection, specifically assessing whether buying a pre-built package or developing an in-house customer software is the best solution.

What are the learning objectives?

There are several learning objectives of this case study. However, the notable ones include:

  1. To understand the benefits of aligning software systems with changing evolving business needs.
  2. To assess or evaluate the benefits and drawbacks of purchasing pre-built software packages against developing custom solutions.

How does the mini case help understand systems analysis, design principles, and techniques discussed in the chapter?

The mini case study helps us understand the systems design and analysis principles and the strategies addressed in the chapter by offering a deliberate and practical context. The case study demonstrates how a business organisation may face issues as it grows and diversifies and the need for its software systems to adapt.

In what situation can you use what you have learned from the mini case study in your current or future job?

The information gained from this mini-case study can be utilised in my current or future job when software development or system selection decisions must be deliberated. It provides an understanding of the key factors that should be considered, such as scalability, business requirements, and cost analysis, when considering a decision for systems selection or development.


Mantel, S. P., Tatikonda, M. V., & Liao, Y. (2006). A behavioural study of supply manager decision-making: Factors influencing make versus buy evaluation. Journal of operations management24(6), 822-83

O’Brien, J. A., & Marakas, G. M. (2006). Management information systems (Vol. 6). New York, NY, USA: McGraw-Hill Irwin.

Peppard, J., & Ward, J. (2004). Beyond strategic information systems: towards an IS capability. The Journal of Strategic Information Systems13(2), 167-194.

Petter, S., DeLone, W., & McLean, E. (2008). Measuring information systems success: models, dimensions, measures, and interrelationships. European Journal of information systemspp. 17, 236–263.

Sinard, J. H., & Gershkovich, P. (2012). Custom software development for use in a clinical laboratory—journal of pathology informatics3(1), 44.

Tadavarthi, Y., Vey, B., Krupinski, E., Prater, A., Gichoya, J., Safdar, N., & Trivedi, H. (2020). The state of radiology AI: Considerations for purchase decisions and current market offerings. Radiology: Artificial Intelligence2(6), e200004.

Special Obligations And Role Mortality

Special obligations encompass the ethical duties and accountabilities that arise from specific positions, relationships, or commitments that individuals assume. These obligations are distinct from general moral principles that apply universally and instead pertain to the unique context and expectations associated with certain roles (Davidovic, n.d). For example, a parent has special obligations towards their children, such as providing care, guidance, and support, which may not extend to others. Likewise, doctors have special obligations towards their patients, including providing competent medical care, maintaining confidentiality, and prioritizing patient well-being. These special obligations recognize that certain roles inherently involve moral responsibilities that go beyond the general principles guiding our interactions with others in society. Role morality thus acknowledges the differentiated moral obligations that arise when individuals occupy specific roles or positions.

In military service, individuals assume unique moral obligations arising from their role’s inherent nature. These obligations encompass a range of responsibilities that distinguish military personnel from civilians. They include the duty to safeguard and defend their nation, uphold the fundamental principles and values of the military institution, and obediently follow lawful orders issued by their superiors. Such commitments often entail significant personal sacrifices and potentially jeopardize their lives while carrying out their duties. Whether on the battlefield or in support roles, service members are expected to prioritize their country’s and its citizens’ greater good, demonstrating a profound sense of duty, honor, and selflessness.

Guidelines regarding how military staff should conduct themselves fluctuate based on where they are located at any given time. Rules pertaining to adversarial service members outline specific methods for engaging with them that specify when it’s appropriate or not okay to use force against them during confrontations- aiming for fairness and minimizing impact where achievable whenever feasible. Those governing the treatment of nationals from other countries focus more strictly on keeping them safe – emphasizing welfare in its implementation. The mandate for soldiers is to take all possible measures to maintain the security of civilians while treating them with consideration and respect at all times.

Captain’s decision aboard H.M.S Alacrity has left many doubting its prudence in context with risking perilous dangers alongside their commands’ lives. Nevertheless, some people have pointed out how crucial it was for him to prioritize protecting these boats during amphibious landings and guaranteeing mission success, consequently justifying such decisions (Robinson & Woodward, 1992). All relevant facts need proper examination concerning specifics such as precise contexts or available data from that time frame while factoring in Captain’s opinion regarding probable effects, thus, giving way for a fair judgment.

Shifting to the case of “Per Diem,” special obligations come into play in the context of a friendship. The question arises regarding the special obligations one may have towards a friend, in this case, Grace. While a sense of loyalty and support may be owed to a friend, it does not necessarily justify falsifying an expense report. Special obligations should not override considerations of honesty and integrity (Skerker, n.d). Falsifying the expense report would be ethically questionable and could have consequences for one’s own integrity and reputation.

Special obligations to Grace may create tension between personal relationships and broader considerations of constraints and consequences (Skerker, n.d). While there may be a desire to help a friend, evaluating the ethical implications and potential harm that may result from compromising moral principles is essential. Balancing special obligations and broader ethical considerations requires careful deliberation and a commitment to acting with integrity.

In conclusion, special obligations and role morality are important factors to consider when examining moral questions in specific contexts. Military service entails unique moral obligations, while friendships and personal relationships may also involve special obligations. It is crucial to navigate these obligations ethically, considering the broader consequences and upholding fundamental moral principles.


Davidovic, J. (n.d.). Special obligations and role morality [Video]. Retrieved from []

Robinson, P., & Woodward, S. (1992). Orders to HMS Alacrity. In One Hundred Days: The Memoirs of the Falkland Battle Group Commander (pp. 203). Naval Institute Press.

Skerker, M. (n.d.). Per Diem. Retrieved from []

Walzer, M. (n.d.). Michael Walzer on Just War Theory [Video]. Retrieved from []

Staffing In Healthcare

Delivering high-quality and safe healthcare services necessitates adequate staffing. Handling employee dissatisfaction and burnout is significant, which calls for sufficient staff within the healthcare industry. The matter of understaffing has an important effect on the healthcare system. Understaffing has adversely affected the patients in the healthcare facilities and the effective management of the healthcare facility. This essay offers an inclusive view of the challenges of understaffing and suggests the most pertinent approaches to address them. By stating the importance of sufficient staffing and probing the implications of understaffing, we can investigate the factors motivating and hindering this domain. This essay also proposes holistic advances in improving staffing in the healthcare industry to guarantee positive patient results.

Staffing Challenges in Healthcare

Healthcare staffing is an intricate process that depends on various factors, such as the requirements of the patients, shift requirements, and the facility’s need for general staffing. One of the biggest problems hospitals and other healthcare facilities experience is understaffing. This problem substantially affects many hospitals in terms of the care given to patients and the consequences on those patients’ health. To successfully address this challenge, careful planning and collaboration are vital. It is decisive to have an extensive management plan for healthcare staffing to guarantee that there is constantly enough staff on hand. The primary objective is hiring persons with a high level of expertise and training who can provide patients with reliable, effective healthcare at all times.

Planning for Adequate Staffing

Short-term and long-term goals should guide the staffing plan in healthcare. In the short term, the plan should bridge current and future skill gaps, prevent staff shortages, and facilitate succession planning. In the long run, the objective is to establish controlled recruitment, cost-effective measures, and a qualified and diverse workforce, ultimately enhancing patient care. Effective planning helps identify skills gaps, allowing managers to focus on recruiting individuals with the required expertise. Additionally, by considering factors such as patient needs and staff availability, planning ensures adequate staffing and prevents unnecessary shortages. Staff profiles, including those nearing retirement or on leave, should also be considered for seamless operations and appropriate planning. A comprehensive staffing plan saves time and money and improves the patient experience by ensuring optimal care.

Collaborative Efforts and Overcoming Resistance

Staffing committees and managers are critical in developing and overseeing staffing plans. Collaboration between healthcare organizations, patients, and staff is essential to implement effective staffing strategies. Open communication channels enable the exchange of information regarding patient needs and necessary adjustments. Although resistance to change can be encountered, such as financial constraints or negative attitudes from staff, success hinges upon cooperative efforts. Clear communication about the benefits of adequate staffing and addressing concerns can help alleviate resistance, ensuring successful implementation of the staffing plan.

Evaluating Staffing Strategies

Evaluation is crucial in today’s healthcare landscape, where understaffing continues to compromise the quality of service and patient outcomes. Successful staffing plans empower staff to provide optimal patient care, improve nurse-patient relationships, and enhance patient experience. Measuring the results through staff and patient feedback, cost reduction, and management reports helps gauge the effectiveness of the staffing plan. By maintaining positive outcomes in the long term, healthcare organizations can establish sustainable staffing practices that consistently deliver high-quality care.

Implications of Understaffing

Understaffing in healthcare presents formidable challenges that require immediate attention to enhance patient outcomes and the overall effectiveness of the healthcare system. Extensive research consistently demonstrates a direct link between understaffing and negative patient outcomes. When healthcare facilities lack adequate staff members, patients may experience delays in receiving essential treatments, compromising their care and recovery. Furthermore, understaffing contributes to nurse fatigue, diminishing their ability to provide optimal healthcare services. This leads to subpar patient care and increased risks of adverse health outcomes, including healthcare-associated infections and higher mortality rates. Addressing understaffing is crucial to ensure patient safety, improving healthcare quality, and promoting positive health outcomes.

Driving Change to Address Understaffing

Recognizing the adverse effects of understaffing, stakeholders actively seek change within the healthcare system. These efforts include increasing healthcare training and education, integrating technology and automation, encouraging interdisciplinary collaboration, and improving working conditions and job satisfaction. Several forces drive the need for change, including the growing demand for healthcare services, the necessity of quality patient care, the importance of workforce well-being to prevent burnout, regulatory and accreditation requirements, and the economic impact of understaffing, such as increased healthcare costs. However, several barriers impede the implementation of staffing reforms, including resistance to change, financial constraints, inadequate healthcare education capacity, and complex regulatory environments.

The Role of Stakeholders in Addressing Understaffing

Effectively addressing the issue of understaffing in healthcare necessitates the collaborative efforts of various stakeholders. Healthcare practitioners offer important insights into the staffing demands and daily difficulties because they are front-line employees. Their knowledge and opinions are crucial when formulating plans to address understaffing challenges. The development of healthcare policies and the distribution of resources to ensure proper staffing levels are important functions of government policymakers. Policymakers can establish a suitable setting for tackling the issue by giving healthcare staffing funds and workforce development priorities.

Healthcare executives and administrators are in charge of managing resource allocation and hiring practices within healthcare businesses. Their leadership and strategic planning are crucial to implementing personnel strategies and guaranteeing suitable employees. Professional associations and unions advocate for the rights and well-being of healthcare workers. They can collaborate with healthcare organizations to negotiate fair working conditions, competitive salaries, and benefits packages, attracting and retaining skilled professionals. Patients and their families are key stakeholders, as understaffing directly impacts them. Their input and involvement can shed light on the consequences of inadequate staffing and emphasize the importance of adequate care. Community organizations can contribute by raising awareness, mobilizing support, and partnering with healthcare institutions to address staffing challenges in their local areas. Insurance companies are vested in promoting effective staffing to optimize patient outcomes and reduce healthcare costs. They can incentivize healthcare providers to maintain appropriate staffing levels through reimbursement policies and quality metrics. Educational institutions have a role in producing a well-prepared healthcare workforce. By expanding educational capacity, offering incentives for students pursuing healthcare professions, and collaborating with healthcare organizations, educational institutions can help address the shortage of qualified professionals.

However, various obstacles exist that hamper the success of these joint efforts. Financial restrictions limit the resources required to recruit and maintain additional staff members. The shortage of qualified healthcare professionals challenges meeting the demand for skilled workers. Multifaceted regulatory necessities can hinder the flexibility necessary to amend staffing levels efficiently. Additionally, resistance to change from numerous stakeholders may delay the implementation of needed reforms. Stakeholders must collaborate on a regional and national level, involve in open discussion, look for creative solutions, and overcome these obstacles. The healthcare system may make great progress in resolving the issue of understaffing by addressing financial difficulties, investing in workforce development, streamlining regulatory processes, and cultivating a culture of adaptation and continuous improvement.


Healthcare staffing is a multifaceted matter that requires careful planning and implementing all-encompassing processes. Sufficient staffing levels directly affect patient results, nurse job satisfaction, and general healthcare system efficiency. By identifying the implications of understaffing and comprehending the forces motivating and inhibiting change, healthcare organizations can advance holistic approaches to handling staffing matters. Collaboration between stakeholders, open communication, and evaluation of staffing approaches are important for guaranteeing positive patient experiences and maintaining high-quality care. The healthcare system can overcome staffing challenges through rigorous efforts and pave the way for enhanced healthcare delivery and outcomes.


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