Motorola has endeared itself to the cause of making and marketing electronic and electrical communication equipment and mobile technology for the last eight decades. With a plethora of awards and accolades from all quarters, this global company clocked US$ 30.1 Billion during fiscal 2008. It is one of the big five names in mobile technology along with Nokia, Samsung, Sony-Ericsson, and LG, with a market stake of 12.3% in the global handset arena. (Handset manufacturers, market stats Q4 2007 2008).
What forecasting techniques does Motorola use?
Motorola uses the quantitative nature of the Time Series while encouraging the use of mathematical and statistical models that underpin forecasting studies of this nature. These kinds of models could be used with a high degree of accuracy for short-term purposes. (Gourdin 2001, 164).
When it comes to the need to assess and forecast demand and sales to customers, the causal model is very important. By use of the causal model, it is possible for Motorola to pre-determine with a good degree of accuracy, the causal volumes of sales and off takes of Motorola’s mobile products over a medium ad long-term period.
Thus, it is seen that Motorola uses time series forecasting for short-term forecasting and causal models for medium and long-term forecasting objectives.
How does your selected organization prepare budgets?
It was Motorola that pioneered the concept of Six Sigma some twenty years ago. It is believed that Six Sigma is the most advanced and effective business tool of all times and has been the major cause of Motorola’s success story. Six Sigma envisages DMAIC, which is used for budgetary preparations and control mechanisms. (Six sigma: how it works in Motorola and what it can do for the U.S. army: how can the army increase efficiency across its command structure? Put six sigma to work 2006).
The five facets of DMAIC are as follows
- D- Define Opportunities or tasks: how and what needs to be done. In the case of budget preparations, it is necessary to analyze trends, past history, and future projections, keeping the variables, risks factors, and constraints in mind.
- M- Measure performance or activities: in the case of budgetary controls, it is necessary to have quantitative figures for each aspect of budget costs and it needs to be accurately, and realistically budgeted and assessed in order to be matched.
- A- Analyze relationships: Budgets are related to past performances and future forecasts. Budgets need to take cognizance of the earlier figures, provide a measure of present time analysis and arrive at figures for the future to be attained and realized
- I- Improve performance: It is seen that budgets are intended to improve performances. Costs need to be lowered; efficiencies need to be increased, turnover and income need to be augmented and expenses reduced. Budgetary controls instituted by Motorola just seek to provide avenues for improved performance in all areas of accountability.
- C- Control performance: It is seen that actual performance needs to be matched against budgeted performances, in order to arrive at actual performance and efficiencies. Variances between budgeted and actual need to be identified, analyzed, and rectified wherever necessary.
What MRP concept do you see with respect to your organization?
The MRP concept as seen in the case of motorola is combined with Just in time (JIT) methods. It is very effective in determining capacity plans, scheduling material planning and manufacturing programs, and the overall control of inventory management and even in the case of strategic supply chain management. It also employs Radio Frequency Identification (RFID). It is seen that the use of these solutions could capture material tracking information all along the manufacturing process until the finished goods roll along the assembly lines. (Raw-materials environment solutions 2009).
Gourdin, Kent N 2001, Global logistic management, Wiley-Blackwell. Web.
Handset manufacturers, market stats Q4 2007 2008, Mobile Media Consult. Web.
Raw-materials environment solutions 2009, Motorola. Web.
Six sigma: how it works in Motorola and what it can do for the U.S. army: how can the army increase efficiency across its command structure? Put six sigma to work 2006, Goliath. Web.
“Bad Leadership” By Barbara Kellerman
The book under consideration is called “Bad Leadership” and is written by Barbara Kellerman (US: Harvard Business Press 2004). The book is a kind of warning for those who blindly follow the false leaders and are unable to differentiate the qualities of a full-fledged leader. In addition, the book explains the reader that sometimes leadership guidebooks cannot explain the shortcomings of bad leadership and the difference between a good and a bad leader. Moreover, the book discloses the solutions in detecting bad leadership.
Barbara Kellerman is acknowledged by many researchers which are proved by numerous articles that positively evaluate the concept of her study. She also takes very responsible positions and obtained many awards. Her recent works in this field are well known all over the world and have recognition in the most respectable capitals. Her works are especially valuable taking into consideration the dramatic development of management schools and its leadership orientation. Due to the fact that nowadays many outstanding companies are mostly centered on the leadership theory and its constant study, Barbara Kellerman opens a second view on that theory. In the organizational structure of the company, she deviates from the outright following the laws of power and money and reject to be subjected to their influence on both the leaders and the followers.
The book comprises seven types of bad leadership and points how to define bad leaders and to minimize the abuse of authority. Each type of bad leadership is followed by the opposed ideas concerning the positive qualities a good should possess. In each chapter, the writer discloses the nature of such phenomenon as “leadership” asserting that some evil forces induce the leader to lead and the follower to fall.
In the first part of the book, the author figures out the reasons of the bad leadership appearance and people’s desire to follow and to lead. She touches upon the historical, political and philosophical background of the leadership and declares to pay much attention to develop the good virtues in a person rather than how to capture the power over the followers. In the first chapter, Kellerman tells us about the necessity to study the history of bad leaders such as Adolph Hitler whose power was mostly based on fear, coercion, and absolute subordination. She considers the nature of evil in person and the complexity of human nature. Therefore, she reveals the difficulty in defining a bad leader. In addition, the author regards some external factors that influence bad followers.
Kellerman’s approaches to the problem are rather untraditional. She pays a significant attention to dark side of the leadership and, therefore, is a great mentor of this method of study. The study of this theme is not restricted by the analysis of this one research book. This book supported by other numerous works in this particular field. Thus, Kellerman’s works are also dedicated to the examination of bad followership and the main principles how to become a good follower. These concepts are considered in the work “Followership” where the importance to know how to lead is regarded. In other works, she also considers gender peculiarities and their impact on the leadership in general, political leadership and the history of leadership as well. Especially, the writer pays the most of attention to some peripheral effects of leadership. Anyway, generally viewing the whole research area of Kellerman, the problem of leadership is touched upon in all her works.
The book singles out the incompetence and inefficiency as the main background of a failed leadership. Hence comes, the writer makes an accent to all the vices of bad leadership from indifference to rigidity. Therefore, here she reveals seven kinds of evil leaders providing bright examples from the history and shows the deviation of leader’s qualities from good to bad. The book also detects the role of followers and the way they affect bad leadership. It logically ends with description of solutions that should be made to avoid the bad leader influence and to become better followers. The writer gives the prescription how to define the “dark side of the human condition” (Kellerman, B. 2004 p. 219). Therefore, the final chapter learns how to cultivate cardinal virtues and to have a good command in the field of leadership. In addition, the writer displays the real consequences of bad leadership that is considered the basis for people to estimate the costs of bad followership. From Kellerman’s point of view, the idealized outlook on the leaders and blinded following them is also explained by the animal instincts and need for security and safety. It is necessary to mention that Kellerman considers leadership in different contexts and analyzes the individuals in different environments.
It should be noted that the great merit of the book consists in the outright description of drawbacks of leadership. Like positive leaders, bad leaders may be classified into different types. According to this type, we can single out the main features of a good leader. To start with, a good leader should limit his/her power in order to avoid overestimation of his/her ability to govern. Hence comes, a veritable leader should be able to share power and to distribute obligations among the followers. Furthermore, a good leader should be a balanced person since the outright dedication to a job is a dangerous thing. Therefore, balanced leadership creates better organizational network. The next outcome of irrational leadership is that the leader should compensate his/her weak points rather than to conceal them. Sooner or later, a leader will have to face the difficulties and could have negative consequences both to the leader and to the company it manages.
The value of the book also lies in the introduction of numerous examples from history. The writer focuses on several individual stories about historic leaders, including Mary Meeker, Andrew Fastow, Al Dunlap, Stalin, Adolph Hitler and many others. Each story represents separate types of bad leadership that are rather different in its nature.
In a whole, the structure of the book is rather clear and the ideas have theoretical and practical ground. To my mind, the core point of the book and other works of this writer can be reduced to one statement “Leaders cannot lead unless followers follow” (Kellerman, B. 2004 p. 14) In this saying lies the whole significance and role of the book.
Thorough overhaul of the book brings me to conclusion that the author has made a considerable contribution to the development of the leadership science. The author has disclosed the problem of leadership from historic, social, philosophical, and psychological angles. The main peculiarity of the work consists in the considering this topic not only in terms of business organizations but also in terms of social and cultural conditions. She touches upon the biblical leaders and their influence on the followed society.
The idea of the book is interwoven with the topic of human nature and eternal conflict of the Good and the Evil. Simply speaking, the writer states that there are no totally bad and good leaders as well as people. As human nature is rather complex, the same we could state about the bad leadership: it does not prevail but it exists. Moreover, both bad leadership and good leadership is still leadership, and therefore, all leaders have much in common. Kellerman has prompted how to differentiate between them in order to choose the right leader to follow. As I have mentioned, the book instructs us about the bad followers that can be useful for those who are subjected to bad leadership. Sometimes, followers can positively influence their senior managers. Therefore, she should not underestimate this category of people.
The work can serve as a reference book and can meet the requirement of different layers of the society. The book will be useful for humble population since the language of the book is rather simple and available. Business people who want to explore their knowledge about leadership and to learn how to be successful managers can also use it. Kellerman’s ideas will assist people who are not involved on business still has relation to the leadership in other spheres of life such as religion. The work might even be helpful for children and for parents to reveal either feature of a leader or a follower in their children.
Kellerman, B. (2004). Bad Leadership: what it is, how it happens, why it matters. US: Harvard Business Press.
Leveriza, M. (2008). Barbara Kellerman. Web.
“The Wild Swans At Coole” By William Butler Yeats
The poem “The Wild Swans at Coole” is a poem written about the scenery at a place called Coole. The poem is a dramatic lyric poem because of its musicality in the rhyme scheme and its direct expression of feelings. All five of the six-line stanzas are built upon the rhyme scheme abcbdd and are written in a loose iambic cadence intended to somewhat mimic the sound of verbal speech. Each odd-numbered line has four stressed syllables while each even-numbered line has three stressed syllables. These mechanics of the poem deliver a very sad, melancholy tone that remains in keeping with Yeats’ main theme of discouraged dreams.
This theme is introduced in the opening stanza as the poet describes the local scenery. “The trees are in their autumn beauty / The woodland paths are dry / Under the October twilight the water / Mirrors a still sky” (1-4). Within these four lines, Yeats has quickly informed his reader of the time of year (autumn), the climate (it has been dry), the time of day (twilight), and the weather (still). The lack of movement, the month of death, the dying leaves, and the dry weather preventing any growth all combine to convey the sense of desolation and discouragement that is the theme of the work.
There is a sharp contrast within the first stanza between the first four lines and the last two lines that keeps the poem’s theme about discouragement rather than death. After introducing the dying season of autumn and the motionless scenery, he adds the lines “Upon the brimming water among the stones / Are nine and fifty swans” (5-6), which contain small movement in the brimming water and life in the presence of the still unmoving swans. This is what keeps the poem from being about death in that there is still beauty and hope, but it is subdued, quiet, and rest.
The following stanzas make a connection between the poet and the swans that seem never-changing. He mentions in the second stanza that “The nineteenth autumn has come upon me / Since I first made my count” (7-8). Although so much time has passed between the time of his first visit and the time of the poem, nothing has really changed. The swans are still vital in that they are still wild, still, fly and, it is hinted, still copulate, but their numbers have not increased. Even though he feels nothing has changed in his life to this point, he also recognizes that all has changed, “And now my heart is sore” (24). He has grown older and he has not been able to accomplish all that he has wanted to accomplish. His heart is sore, he has been wearied by lover after lover without having found a nest of his own and he worries that these timeless birds will finally find what he seeks before he does.
Through his musical use of language and his construction of the poem, Yeats is able to invoke an emotional response in his reader of discouragement or melancholy frustration. This theme is established in his first stanza as he first sets the subdued mood and then tempers it with the presence of some movement and life. However, while the swans of the pond seem unchangeable, Yeats realizes his life is slipping by with as little to show for it as the swans. His discouragement continues to the end when he acknowledges that someday he expects even this beauty to have flown away.
Yeats, William Butler. “The Wild Swans at Coole.” The Longman Anthology of World Literature: Vol. F, The Twentieth Century. (2nd Ed.). New York: Pearson Longman, 2008: 309.