Multicultural Aging Project: Interview With Elder University Essay Example

A conversation with Musa Abdullah, a 70-year-old community representative and elder in the Somali community. We met at the masjid, and he has since been my mentor. I have encountered him in his duties, and he is a passionate leader of the people. He urges today’s youth to avoid conflict, respect one another, and abstain from drugs. Musa wants the government to help fund the construction of community facilities so that he and other parents can address concerns like racism, substance abuse, and crime. He is thankful for his long life and greatly enjoys mentoring today’s youth. Aging for him is just a normal thing since he has no abnormalities. He is accorded respect as a leader in the community 1. Musa also discusses how the treatment of elders differs between traditional Somali and American values. He addresses issues concerning healthcare, an essential facility for older people like him and children. He also advocates for proper education among the community members, mostly the youth, by developing education programs.

Information About Interview Subject

War in Somalia forced 70-year-old Musa Abdullah to flee to a refugee center in Kenya before eventually settling in the Twin Cities. Because of his advanced years, he commands excellent regard as a recognized community elder. Parents frequently seek his guidance on school enrollment and neighborhood conflict resolution. Wisdom, a quality he is developed as he has gotten older, is something he stresses when giving advice (Maree, 2021). Abdullah encourages the younger population to avoid negative influences, appreciate people of all backgrounds, and abstain from drugs. His neighborhood is plagued by racism, substance abuse, criminality, and teen pregnancy; he thinks the government can assist by constructing youth facilities. For example, he comments on how his society places a higher value on respecting and honoring one’s seniors than the American culture he has experienced. Abdullah is thankful for his extended life and considers serving the community’s youth a pleasure.

Meaning of Elder Status in Community

Community members look up to and revere elders as a mark of distinction. The knowledge and expertise of the elderly are respected. They are honored for their role as preservers of the neighborhood’s customs and beliefs. When conflicts and disagreements develop, the elders mediate a peaceful resolution (Carstensen, 2021). They act as a resource for the community, offering counsel on matters such as health, relationships, and schooling. The community’s cultural traditions and history also fall under their purview, as they must be preserved and passed on to the next generation. When preserving the community’s social fiber, it is up to the elders to foster a sense of togetherness and peace. They ensure that the community’s beliefs and traditions remain unchanged over time and give residents a feeling of security. Elder status is gained through years of expertise, wisdom, and devotion to society. It is an important role that requires dedication and hard work but also comes with high praise and esteem.

What Interview Subject Wished They Knew When Younger

Musa Abdullah, a respected senior in his community, laments that he lacked the insight to recognize the value of experience when he was younger. Unlike when he was younger, when he preferred to debate rather than listen, he now understands the importance of listening to others and taking their advice on being a good leader (Falzarano et al., 2022). He encourages young people to avoid criminal activity, abstains from drugs, and treat all members of society with dignity and respect. Regarding the problems in his neighborhood, he thinks that community organizations need government funding and that parents should be more engaged in their kids’ lives. He appreciates being able to interact with and help the younger population.

Advice for the Younger Generation

Musa’s advice to stay out of danger, attend school, respect others, and avoid drugs will help young people succeed. Knowing that law enforcement officials are trying to keep the public safe and uphold the law can help you interact with them more positively. If you are pulled over while driving, stay calm, follow the officer’s instructions, and do not argue (Carstensen, 2021). Anger will escalate the situation and raise the risk of severe harm or death. Law enforcement rights and responsibilities are vital for youth. Your right to advice and silence are assured. Remembering that police agents are humans and treating them respectfully can defuse tense situations.

Important Community Issues

There is a pressing need to address the problems confronting the Musa people. Society feels the effects of racism, substance abuse, and criminal behavior. It is crucial to help those suffering from these problems is crucial and discovering what is causing them (Maree, 2021) is crucial. The construction of a youth center is a great plan to keep kids off the streets and involved in positive pursuits. Parents are responsible for keeping tabs on their kids, familiarizing themselves with their peers’ backgrounds, and ensuring their kids attend school and religious events regularly. It is crucial to urge children to remain in school and provide the required assistance because education is critical in preventing substance use and criminal activities.

What it Feels Like to Age

As individuals get older, they experience a variety of setbacks that severely test their ability to feel connected to everything near them. It is easy to oversimplify or limit loneliness to a person’s social circle or the frequency with which they interact with their family and peers. Conversely, Musa is thrilled to enter his senior year (Johnson et al., 2019). He is grateful to Allah for granting him a long and healthy life to continue his work with the community’s youth.

Additional Questions and Information

Compared to his societal norms, Musa recognizes that traditional American ideals are different. Elders in Musa’s society do not go to nursing homes; instead, they remain in the family house and are cared for by the next generation. In contrast, in the United States, the elderly are typically placed in nursing homes when their children no longer feel capable of doing so.

Discussion and Application of Developmental Theories of Aging

When analyzing Musa Abdullah’s conversation, we can use Erik Erikson’s Psychosocial Theory of Aging and the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory. According to Erik Erikson’s theory of psychosocial development, individuals go through eight distinct phases throughout their lifetimes, each characterized by a unique crisis that must be overcome before moving on to the next phase (Maree, 2021). Integrity versus Despair describes the concluding phase of this theory, which happens in middle age. At this point, one can either look back on their life with a sense of contentment and fulfillment or with remorse and unhappiness. Musa Abdullah may have reached this final level of growth because he advises the younger generation to use knowledge and heed others when making choices. He has a healthy perspective and is content with his life; this is shown by his comments on the esteem he enjoys in his neighborhood.

According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, as individuals get older, they become more choosy in whom they choose to associate with socially (Carstensen, 2021). Compared to younger adults, who are more interested in forming new connections and expanding their social circles, older adults emphasize keeping positive relationships with those most essential to them. According to the Socioemotional Selectivity Theory, Musa Abdullah focuses on his close connections with his family and friends.

It is essential to remember that these theories were formulated in a Western setting and may not accurately represent the lived experiences of people in other parts of the world when evaluating their cultural suitability. On the other hand, both ideas have been tested on a wide range of people and have been found to hold up across cultural boundaries. The regard Musa Abdullah has earned as a community leader aligns with a universal value upheld in many societies. Some of his societal norms, such as bowing to seniors on the floor, may be at odds with those of Western societies.


African American patriarch Musa Abdullah imparts wisdom to the next generation. His advice includes honoring authority figures, avoiding problems, and listening to and considering the perspectives of others. As well as bringing attention to problems like racism and substance abuse, he offers remedies like community centers and family participation. When comparing traditional African values with American ones, he finds significant distinctions in how either culture treats its elderly population and its seniors.


Carstensen, L. L. (2021). Socioemotional selectivity theory: The role of perceived endings in human motivation. The Gerontologist61(8), 1188-1196.

Falzarano, F., Moxley, J., Pillemer, K., & Czaja, S. J. (2022). Family matters: Cross-cultural differences in familism and caregiving outcomes. The Journals of Gerontology: Series B77(7), 1269-1279.

Johnson, A. A., Shokhirev, M. N., & Shoshitaishvili, B. (2019). Revamping the evolutionary theories of aging. Aging research reviewsp. 55, 100947.

Maree, J. G. (2021). The psychosocial development theory of Erik Erikson: a critical overview. Early Child Development and Care191(7-8), 1107–1121.

NSAIDs And Acetaminophen Medication Classes Sample Assignment

Pharmacokinetics studies a drug’s absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion (ADME) (Ritter et al., 2008). Pharmacokinetics answers, “How the body handle a drug.” Understanding pharmacokinetics is essential in determining an individual’s choice of drug, dose, route of administration, and dosing interval. This paper is focused on comparing and contrasting the pharmacokinetics of the following class of medication: Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) and acetaminophen. In addition, the paper will list the contraindications and common adverse effects of each class of medication.



Acetaminophen is absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and occurs by passive transport following oral administration. The absorption rate of acetaminophen is rapid in the small intestines, but it occurs slowly in the colon and the stomach. The half-life of acetaminophen is 30-60 minutes, and it undergoes first-pass metabolism. First-pass metabolism is a phenomenon that involves drug metabolization at a specific location in the body before reaching the systemic circulation or site of action. This phenomenon reduces active drug concentration (Gerriets & Nappe, 2019). The rate of gastric emptying influences the absorption of acetaminophen. Acetaminophen is distributed throughout most body tissue and fluids except cerebrospinal fluid and fats. Studies have indicated that the distribution volume of acetaminophen is similar among healthy subjects, the elderly, patients with epilepsy, and gilbert syndrome. The drug does not bind to plasma proteins at therapeutic levels, but 15 -21% is bound at plasma concentration in case of an overdose. The liver is the primary body site for acetaminophen metabolism. Glucuronide and sulfate conjugates are the primary metabolites of acetaminophen. They are converted to N-acetyl-p-benzo-Quinone-imine by CYP-450-dependent hepatic mixed function oxidase. The metabolites undergo conjugation and are rapidly inactivated and excreted as mercapturic acid and cysteine conjugates. Lastly, 2-5% of the therapeutic dose is extracted in the urine unchanged.


Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) treat fever, pain, and inflammation. In other words, they can be used as analgesics, anti-inflammatories, and antipyretic agents. They can be grouped as selective such as celecoxib and valdecoxib, and nonselective such as aspirin, ibuprofen, and meloxicam. NSAIDs work by inhibiting Coenzymes COX 1 and COX 2, which are used in prostaglandin synthesis (Ghlichloo & Gerriets, 2020). They are well absorbed from the GIT following oral absorption. After oral administration, peak blood plasma level occurs after 1-2 hours. NSAIDs have a half-life of between 2-4 hours. The liver is the primary site for NSAID metabolism and is eliminated mainly in the urine and feces.


The contraindication of NSAIDs includes

  • A history of NSAIDs or salicylates hypersensitivity
  • Severe renal impairment
  • Heart failure
  • Patients taking anticoagulant
  • The third trimester of pregnancy
  • A patient who has undergone CABG surgery
  • Peptic ulcer
  • Bleeding disorder
  • In addition, asthmatic patients should avoid NSAIDs due to asthmatic symptoms execration (Ghlichloo & Gerriets, 2020).

The contradiction of acetaminophen includes

  • Patients with severe live impairment
  • Those taking carbamazepine and isoniazid
  • Caution should be taken when administering acetaminophen to patients with liver disease and those who consume alcohol excessively (Gerriets & Nappe, 2019).

Adverse effects

NSAIDs’ adverse effects affect the hepatic, hematological, cardiovascular, gastric mucosa, and cardiovascular system. Therefore, they include acute renal dysfunction, nephrotic syndrome, myocardial infarction, atrial fibrillation, renal papillary necrosis, hepatotoxicity, peptic ulcers, thrombocytopenia, hemophilia, and urticaria (Ghlichloo & Gerriets, 2020).

Acetaminophen-associated adverse effects include nephrotoxicity, anemia, hypersensitivity reaction, neutropenia, decreased serum bicarbonate, hyperuricemia, increased serum glucose, leukopenia, Steven Johnson Syndrome, hepatotoxicity, vomiting, abdominal pain, acute generalized exanthematous pustulosis, and hyperammonemia (Gerriets & Nappe, 2019).

In sum, NSAIDs and acetaminophen are effective analgesic medications but with different pharmacokinetics, contraindications, and adverse effects. For example, the medication class has a different metabolism, including half-life and route of elimination Individuals should stop taking this medication through self-directing and seek a doctor’s guidance.


Gerriets, V., & Nappe, T. M. (2019, October 12). Acetaminophen.; StatPearls Publishing.

‌Ghlichloo, I., & Gerriets, V. (2020). Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs). PubMed; StatPearls Publishing.

‌ Ritter, M., Lewsi, L., Mant, T., & Ferro, A. (2008). Clinical Pharmacology and Therapeutics.

Nutrition Assessment For An Elderly Adult Essay Example

Nutrition is essential to a healthy lifestyle, especially for the elderly. As aging occurs, individuals tend to become more prone to malnutrition due to decreased appetite, decreased metabolism, and decreased absorption and utilization of nutrients. As such, it is essential to assess the nutrition status of elderly individuals to ensure that they get the nutrients they need for a healthy life. Nutrition assessment evaluates an individual’s nutritional status by assessing their dietary intake, physical examination, and anthropometric measurements.


The client is a 70-year-old male with a height of 5’10” and a weight of 175 lbs. His body mass index (BMI) is 25.7, which is classified as being in the normal range ( Azzolino et al.,2020). He is not currently participating in regular physical activity but can perform light to moderate activities as needed. He has no known past or current medical history.

A 24 Hours Diet Recall

A 24-hour diet recall was conducted on a 70-year-old male client, and the results were recorded. This was followed by an in-depth interview, during which the client was asked about any special considerations that may affect their nutritional status. Questions related to environmental factors such as living alone, inability to prepare food, inadequate income, or lack of transportation were asked. Cultural traditions that may impact food preferences were also discussed. Food allergies, such as dairy products or fatty foods, seafood, etc., were discussed, and any weight loss or gain over the past six months was noted (Azzolino et al.,2020). Recent events that may have altered usual nutritional intakes, such as illness, surgery, or emotional stress, were noted. The client was also asked about any aspects of their therapeutic regimen that may affect food intake medications. Questions related to their interest in food, difficulties in ingesting, chewing, swallowing, regurgitation, stomach fullness, bloating, impaired fine motor coordination, manual dexterity, or fatigue were asked. Hydration levels were assessed to ensure the client consumed at least 2-3 liters daily. Overeating in response to stress was discussed, and the types of snack foods usually consumed were noted. If the client is hospitalized, their prescribed diet is discussed compared to their typical diet.


The results of the 24-hour diet recall revealed that the client had consumed a total of 2550 calories, which was within the recommended daily intake for an individual of their age and gender (Azzolino et al.,2020). The breakdown of the macronutrient intake was as follows:

Carbohydrates: 500 calories (25%)

Protein: 400 calories (20%)

Fats: 1100 calories (55%)

The interview further revealed that the client had no environmental factors, such as living alone or lack of transportation, that may affect their food intake. The client also reported no cultural traditions that impact their food preferences. The client takes no medications or other therapeutic regimens that may affect their food intake (Azzolino et al.,2020). The client could easily consume various food items, such as fruits, vegetables, grains, dairy products, and fats. They reported no food allergies, no changes in their weight in the past six months, and no recent events such as illness, surgery, or emotional stress that altered their usual nutritional intake.

The client reported no difficulties with chewing, swallowing, regurgitation, stomach fullness, bloating, or impaired fine motor coordination and manual dexterity. The client reported some fatigue and a lack of interest in food, but these did not affect their food intake or reduce overall intake. The client also reported an adequate fluid intake, of 2-3 liters daily, within the recommended range for an older adult (Azzolino et al.,2020). The client also reported no overeating in response to stress and did not report any snack food used. The client’s nutritional status was adequate, with no significant deficiencies or allowances. The client could consume various foods without difficulty and reported an adequate fluid intake. The only areas of concern were fatigue and lack of interest in food, but these did not appear to impact the client’s overall nutritional status.

Nutritional Assessment

The first step in assessing the 24-hour diet recall for an adult 70 years of age or older is to use a senior primary care screening assessment tool. The Comprehensive Geriatric Assessment Kit Nutrition Assessment was used for this assessment, which consists of three tools: the Body mass index calculator, the Mini Nutritional Assessment, and the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool. The Body mass index calculator was used to assess the client’s body mass index, which measures body fat based on height and weight. The Mini Nutritional Assessment was used to assess the overall nutritional status of the individual and identify any risk factors related to malnutrition (Baranowski et al.,2019). Lastly, the Malnutrition Universal Screening Tool was used to identify risk factors that may lead to malnourishment. All three tools evaluated the person’s nutritional state and thoroughly explained their present health.

The client had consumed 2550 calories overall, .which was within the daily allowance for someone of their age and gender, according to the findings of the 24-hour diet recall. Following is a summary of the macronutrient intake::

Carbohydrates: 500 calories (25%)

Protein: 400 calories (20%)

Fats: 1100 calories (55%)

The Chronometer program also revealed that the individual had consumed 67 grams of fiber, slightly lower than the recommended daily intake of 25-38 grams for someone of this age and gender. The sodium intake was 5,217 mg, slightly higher than the recommended daily intake of 2,300 mg(Baranowski et al.,2019). The amount of total fat consumed by the person exceeded the 20–35% daily recommendation, with saturated fats (13%), polyunsaturated fats (6%), and monounsaturated fats (3%) accounting for the bulk of this fat. The daily recommended intake of 300 mg of cholesterol was marginally exceeded by the dietary cholesterol intake of 145 mg. It was discovered that the person had consumed an adequate quantity of vitamin A, vitamin C, vitamin D, vitamin e, vitamin k, thiamin, riboflavin, niacin, folate, vitamin b6, vitamin b12, magnesium, phosphorus, and potassium. The individual’s vitamin and mineral intake was also examined. The person’s diet was primarily made up of foods high in nutrients, and their intake of macro- and micronutrients was generally within the suggested ranges.

Intake Requirement

For a 70-year-old client, it is essential to ensure their dietary intake provides the necessary nutrients to keep them healthy and active. A 24-hour dietary intake recommendation for a 70-year-old client should provide adequate nutrients: carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals, and water. Carbohydrates should make up the majority of a 70-year-old’s daily caloric intake, with about 45-65% coming from carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits, vegetables, and legumes (Baranowski et al.,2019). A minimum of 130 grams of carbohydrates should be consumed daily, as this helps to provide the energy needed for daily activities. Protein is essential for tissue repair and maintenance and should come from lean meats, poultry, fish, eggs, beans, nuts, and seeds. Fats should make up 20-35% of a 70-year-old’s daily caloric intake, with a focus on healthy fats. These include olive oil, avocados, nuts, and seeds. Vitamins and minerals are also crucial for the 70-year-old to remain healthy. Vitamins and minerals are found in fruits, vegetables, dairy products, and fortified cereals. Vitamin D and calcium are essential for bone health, while B vitamins are important for energy production. Water is essential to keep the body hydrated and functioning properly. It is recommended that the 70-year-old drink at least eight glasses of water per day.

The Normal Intake to the Ideal Intake

The results of the 24-hour diet recall for the client showed that the total caloric intake was within the recommended daily intake for an individual of their age and gender. The macronutrient breakdown of the client’s diet showed that they had consumed 500 calories from carbohydrates, 400 calories from protein, and 1100 calories from fats. Although the caloric intake was within the recommended range, the macronutrient intake could have been better. The ideal macronutrient ratio for an individual of the client’s age and gender is 45-65% carbohydrates, 10-35% protein, and 20-35% fats. This means the client should consume 900-1200 calories from carbohydrates, 350-700 calories from protein, and 400-800 calories from fats(Baranowski et al.,2019). The client was overeating fats and under-consuming carbohydrates compared to the ideal ratio. The client should focus on increasing the intake of carbohydrates and reducing the intake of fats. To do this, the client should replace unhealthy fats, such as those found in processed foods, with healthier fats, such as those found in nuts, seeds, and avocados. The client should also focus on consuming more complex carbohydrates like whole grains, starchy vegetables, and legumes.

Meal Plan


  • Bowl of oatmeal with diced apples, walnuts, and cinnamon
  • 8 ounces of lo• 2 scrambled eggs w-fat milk


  • 2 ounces of grilled salmon
  • 2 cups of steamed broccoli
  • 1 cup of cooked quinoa
  • 8 ounces of low-fat yogurt


  • 3 ounces of grilled chicken
  • 1 cup of mashed sweet potatoes
  • 2 cups of steamed spinach


  • 2 ounces of hummus with 1 cup of raw vegetables
  • ½ cup of trail mix
  • 8 ounces of low-fat yogurt

How to Incorporate the Recommended Changes into the Client dietary habits

The client should be encouraged to change his diet to ensure it is balanced and meets his nutritional needs. This can be done by increasing the intake of fruits, vegetables, and whole grains while reducing the consumption of processed, high-fat and high-sugar foods. The client should also be encouraged to increase his physical activity level to help maintain a healthy weight(Baranowski et al.,2019). To reassess the client’s nutritional status in the future, the 24-hour diet recall can be repeated at regular intervals to assess progress. Assessing the client’s willingness and motivation to make the recommended dietary changes is essential. Questions such as whether he feels he could make the changes, his perceived barriers, and strategies he could use to overcome those barriers should be asked. The client should also be encouraged to set realistic goals and to be provided with support and resources to help him achieve those goals.

The 24-hour diet recall revealed that the client had consumed 2,550 calories, within the recommended daily intake for an individual of their age and gender. The macronutrient breakdown of the client’s diet showed that they had consumed 25% carbohydrates, 20% protein, and 55% fats, which could have been better. The client should focus on increasing their carbohydrate intake and reducing their fat intake. The client should also focus on consuming more complex carbohydrates like whole grains, starchy vegetables, and legumes. Lastly, the client should increase their protein intake, essential for maintaining muscle mass and promoting satiety. With these dietary changes, the client can optimize their overall nutritional status and ensure they get the necessary nutrients for health.


Azzolino, D., Arosio, B., Marzetti, E., Calvani, R., & Cesari, M. (2020). Nutritional status mediates fatigue and its underlying mechanisms in older people. Nutrients12(2), 444.

Baranowski, T., Ryan, C., Hoyos-Cespedes, A., & Lu, A. S. (2019). Nutrition education and dietary behavior change games: A scoping review. Games for health journal8(3), 153-176.

Cowan, A. E., Jun, S., Tooze, J. A., Dodd, K. W., Gahche, J. J., Eicher-Miller, H. A., … & Bailey, R. L. (2020). Comparison of 4 methods to assess the prevalence of use and estimates of nutrient intakes from dietary supplements among US adults. The Journal of Nutrition150(4), 884-893.