Musculoskeletal Disorders Literature Review Essay Example

Musculoskeletal disorders are common workplace health problems that significantly threaten the organization’s and the worker’s health. Numerous studies have assessed this subject to provide recommendations and solutions to WMSDs. These studies can be applied in natural environments to improve workers’ health and organizational productivity.

Reducing WMSD associated with manual handling of gas cylinder

Devereux et al’s (1998) study assessed the hand-handle interface tool (HHIT) for its effectiveness in reducing musculoskeletal discomfort related to the manual handling of gas cylinders. The study showed the need for a practical approach to designing tools that would reduce physical straining, reducing musculoskeletal disorders at all stages of their work process. This study aimed to assess the potential benefits of using ergonomically designed manual tools for handling gas cylinder delivery and reducing physical strain. This study benefits organizations and the healthcare system in safeguarding the productivity of wholesome employees and eliminating healthcare costs associated with musculoskeletal disorders.

REBA Assessment

Haekal et al. (2020) study analyzed the operator’s body posture while packing using Rapid Entire Body Assessment (REBA) tool to assess the occupational safety compliance of a pharmaceutical company in Indonesia. The purpose of this study was to assess the risk factors associated with manual material handling activities that can lead to work accidents (Haekal et al., 2020). The study findings show that specific postures of the neck, back, wrist, arms and legs involved in packaging were associated with the development of musculoskeletal disorders that reduced productivity in the packaging process. The study findings can be applied in ergonomics to develop more efficient posture approaches to handling packaging operations. This study is essential to companies that rely on human labour for packaging items and the healthcare sector as implementing the findings and recommendations of the study can significantly overcome WMSD problems in the workplace and improve productivity.

Ergonomics and Barrow Lifting Techniques

Work-related musculoskeletal disorders are common among nurses involved in in-patient handling activities. Cao (2013) study assessed the ergonomic efficiency of patient barrow lifting technique using human digital modelling. The purpose of this study was to assess the effects of the height and weight of the patients, clinical staff and positions during lifting and associations with WMSDs (Cao, 2013). The study findings suggest that clinical staff with higher weight and height values are more susceptible to WMSDs (Cao, 2013). The study could inform decisions to prioritize high-risk individuals in efforts to eliminate musculoskeletal disorders when providing ergonomic tools and approaches. Moreover, this knowledge would improve the ergonomic tools and training programs aimed at reducing musculoskeletal disorders.

Risk Assessment: Digital Human Modelling

Organizations have a responsibility to safeguard their employees from potential health hazards. Zelck et al. (2020) study assessed the risk factors of WMSDs among maritime workers using Digital Human Modeling. This study aimed to analyze and assess dockworkers’ activities to determine the risk factors associated with their profession. Based on these findings, a framework can be developed for future observation to produce smart-Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) and product service systems that prevent unnecessary development of WMSDs.

Preventing Musculoskeletal Disorders In The Workplace

The World Health Organization (2003) provides a manual for preventing musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace. The manual presents guidance on the risk factors and characteristics of work environments that threaten the worker’s health. The factors to consider in WMSD prevention strategies have been well outlined. This resource provides valuable guidance that organizations could implement to eliminate health risk factors in their work environment (WHO, 2003). The information provided here can significantly reduce work-related musculoskeletal disorders by preventing harmful postures and activities predisposing workers to WMSDs.


The studies provide significant insight into the definitions, conditions and risk factors associated with work-related musculoskeletal disorders. The studies also provide approaches, solutions, and recommendations to improve safety in the workplace. Eliminating work-related musculoskeletal disorders has numerous benefits to the health of the workers and the organization’s productivity.


Cao, W., Jiang, M., Han, Y., & Khasawneh, M. T. (2013). Ergonomic assessment of patient barrow lifting technique using digital human modelling. In Digital Human Modeling and Applications in Health, Safety, Ergonomics, and Risk Management. Human Body Modeling and Ergonomics: 4th International Conference, DHM 2013, Held as Part of HCI International 2013, Las Vegas, NV, USA, July 21-26, 2013, Proceedings, Part II 4 (pp. 20-29). Springer Berlin Heidelberg.

Devereux, J., Buckle, P., & Haisman, M. (1998). The evaluation of a hand-handle interface tool (HHIT) for reducing musculoskeletal discomfort associated with the manual handling of gas cylinders. International Journal of Industrial Ergonomics21(1), 23–34.

Haekal, J., Hanum, B., & Adi Prasetio, D. E. (2020). Analysis of operator body posture packaging using Rapid entire body assessment (REBA) method: a case study of pharmaceutical company in Bogor, Indonesia. International Journal of Engineering Research and Advanced Technology-IJERAT (ISSN: 2454-6135)6(7), 27-36.

World Health Organization , Jager, M., Griefahn, B., Caffier, G., Liebers, F., &, Luttmann. (2003). Preventing musculoskeletal disorders in the workplace.

Zelck, S., Verwulgen, S., Denteneer, L., & Scataglini, S. (2020). Digital human modelling as a risk assessment tool for maritime workers. In DHM2020 (pp. 398-407). IOS Press.

New Business And Professional Practice (Bespokeme) Writing Sample

Executive Summary

Primarily, BespokeMe is an online commercial platform hoping to specialize in handling the fashion marketing of bespoke designers to offer individuals convenience when shopping for fashion and design items. The commercial website will strategically bridge the gap between prospective clients and service providers. BespokeMe aims to support small and medium fashion designer enterprises by elevating their publicity to the general public. Unlike general directories dealing with a combination of the portfolio, such as real estate and automobile, the BespokeMe fashion and lifestyle directory website will be unique because it focuses only on bespoke fashion. As a result, competency is guaranteed by integrating diverse bespoke designers to serve diverse, prospective clients based on their personal needs. Moreover, BespokeMe will eliminate the need for customers to surf countless social media platforms to locate and compare different designs and styles since it houses them under a single website. BespokeMe is a promising revenue generator because it will offer adequate traffic and visibility to the intended service providers. Traditionally, fashion designers incurred huge expenses in marketing their products. BespokeMe guarantees enhanced publicity at a relatively lower cost.

Strategically, the Nigerian fashion industry is regarded as an outstanding competitor in the emerging fashion markets worldwide, housing exceptional designers such as Maki-Oh, who clothed Mrs. Obama, and Folake Folarin-Coker who clothed Agbani Darego in 2001 for her Miss World Pageant. Consequently, Agbani Darego emerged as the first native African to win Miss World. Because of the competitiveness of the fashion design industry in the country, Nigeria will be the target launching location for BespokeMe. Comprising about 36 states and 250 major ethnic groups, Nigeria has a population of over 200 million individuals. Thus, bringing the fashion design service providers under a single website will bring the bespoke services to the door of the consumers. Through diversification, BespokeMe will open endless opportunities for different service providers specializing in various fashion designs to meet prospective clients.

Designing the BespokeMe directory website will engage a web development team to create a user-friendly, appealing platform with a huge storage capacity. The website will be depicted crucial details such as the precise location of the service provider, contact details, social media details, the genre, specific customs, catalogs images and videos, and customer ratings and reviews to assist the client to make a purchase decision.

The management team will consist of the managing director, the supervisor, the facilitator, and the IT specialist. The managing director is also the co-owner of the business and will be accountable for all administrative tasks, inventory controls, endorsing signatories for purchases, and promotional activities. The supervisor will oversee the workers and ensure the stimulation of innovativeness among the employees. The facilitator will navigate both the virtual and walk-in clients. The IT specialist will regulate the routine activities of the website. The main source of income for the business will be the money paid for the services by the customers and will be used in reimbursing the workers, the management team, advertisement and promotional activities, and for the renovation and scaling-up services upon increased demand.

General Company’s Description

BespokeMe Directory is a virtual business that hopes to offer bespoke clients a sensible way of attaining the latest fashion design from the desired creator. The fashion industry in Nigeria is perceived as an exceptional contestant in the developing global fashion markets accommodating brilliant stylists such as Maki-Oh, who clothed Mrs. Obama, and Folake Folarin-Coker, who clothed Agbani Darego in 2001 for her Miss World Pageant. Subsequently, Agbani Darego became the first native African to win Miss World. The competitiveness of the fashion design industry in Nigeria will be the aim initiation setting for BespokeMe. Nigeria encompasses about 36 states and 250 major cultural groups and has a populace of over 200 million persons (Samuel, pp.69, 2022). Unlike the dominant general directories in Nigeria, merging several services such as real estate and automobile, the BespokeMe fashion and lifestyle directory website will be unique because it concentrates only on bespoke fashion. Thus, BespokeMe will utilize the business opportunity by becoming the only fashion design online business specializing only in bespoke designers. The business opportunity will offer BespokeMe the chance to bridge the gap between clients and service providers using the least time possible and at a considerable price. The website will utilize cloud computing technology to launch the website that integrates all the services under one page. The website will display crucial details such as the accurate location of the bespoke designer, contact details, social media details, the genre, specific customs, catalog images and videos, and client evaluations and reviews to support the customers in making the correct purchase decision. Thus, the main service to be delivered by BespokeMe is an online service to connect customers to suitable bespoke designers. Similarly, the website will incorporate Google Maps, which will virtually locate the nearest bespoke designer to the location of the customer for convenience purposes.


Delivering customer-centered services to bespoke fashion design services to our clients.


Our mission is to assume a global position in providing specialized fashion design services to bespoke designers and prospective clients to bring value to our pioneering technology and teamwork through accomplishing our corporate social responsibility.


  1. Pricing strategy: the business will operate using a cost-effective and competitive pricing strategy that ensures the cost of services offered at BespokeMe will be comparatively lower than those of contestants.
  2. Organizational management plan: the business will employ a collaborative approach that integrates the relationships and duties of the management team and the workers to accomplish the set objectives of the enterprise jointly.
  3. Quality of Services: the services will be delivered timely and customized to meet the customer’s requirements through forming a partnership with professional bespoke designers and service providers.
  4. Marketing: Since the business operates online, the promotional activities will target all the social media podiums.

Business Model

BespokeMe’s online business will operate under a retail business model. Strategically, online retailing of the bespoke designs will permit customers to visit the website and search for their preferred bespoke designer and genre. BespokeMe will bring all bespoke designers under a single website where the customers conveniently access the desired fashion. Through innovative cloud computing technology, comprehensive Google Maps will be provided for the customers to access the selected service providers. Thus, through the online integration of bespoke designers, the service providers will experience increased traffic and visibility at a considerable price (Tipu, pp.86, 2019).

Products and Services

Primarily, the BespokeMe directory website’s main product is to integrate all the bespoke designers under a unified online site and market the fashion designs to the general public in Nigeria to increase the service providers’ visibility and create convenience for the customers. The main features of the BespokeMe website will be the integration of all the bespoke designers under a unified page accompanied by the precise location of the bespoke designer, communication particulars, social media specifics, the genre, and unique customs, collections images and videos and the customer appraisals and reviews to aid the clients to make the appropriate procurement decision. Therefore, the main service to be conveyed by BespokeMe is an online service to link the clients to the appropriate bespoke designer. Another website feature will be Google Maps, which will virtually locate the nearby bespoke designer to the customer’s locality for expediency dedication. Moreover, integrating diverse bespoke designers to serve diverse, prospective clients based on their personal needs will offer an outstanding element of effectiveness. Thus, BespokeMe will eradicate clients’ need to surf numerous social media podiums to trace and relate diverse designs and styles because it stocks them under a solitary website.


Technological advancement has been witnessed in the fashion design industry in recent decades. The advancements in technology have established a shift from brick-and-mortar retail services to revolutionized e-commerce platforms. Thus, the business uses cloud computing technology, data analytics, and artificial intelligence to run and operate the BespokeMe directory website effectively. Cloud computing will offer effective data security to protect the confidentiality of client details and the overall wellbeing of the business due to the volatile nature of online operations.

The Markets and the Customers

Research Data

The main market for BespokeMe operations is the Nigerian population. Because of the degree of competition in the fashion design sector in the country, Nigeria will be the selected launching setting for BespokeMe. Comprising about 36 states and 250 major ethnic groups, Nigeria has a populace of over 200 million persons. Therefore, conveying the fashion design service providers under a unified website will bring the bespoke services at the convenience of the clients. Through diversification, BespokeMe will open endless opportunities for different service providers specializing in various fashion designs to meet prospective clients. Over the last decade, the Nigerian fashion industry has increased rapidly in complexity triggering international demand. In 2020, the retail apparel market in Nigeria was treasured at $4.8 billion, a corresponding rise of 5.5% and a projected value of $6.3 billion by 2025. Internationally, the plus-size marketplace is projected to accrue to about $700 billion by 2027. Similarly, bespoke fashion is gaining popularity because individuals increasingly want customized outfits to meet their demands. Similarly, the observed trends are because bespoke fashion accommodates all classes of individuals. The evidenced trends show that the fastening visibility of the bespoke retailers through BespokeMe will enhance the chances of increased awareness and ultimately acquire a global presence.


The target customers will include fashionistas and individuals requiring quick aid for last-minute occasions. The website will target individuals aged 16 and above. Nigerians love designs that are 100% customized based on the client’s body shape, choice, and desired style; the Nigerian population is the perfect customer base for BespokeMe.


BespokeMe hopes to do an online fashion design business in a highly competitive arena. Nigeria’s online retail fashion design industry has numerous rivals (Samuel, pp.75, 2022). Thus, BespokeMe will encounter competitive rivals like Boohoo, Inditex, and Pretty Angel. The noted online fashion design businesses provide products similar to those offered by BespokeMe. Besides, the competitors target a similar market population in Nigeria. Strategically, their products aim to attract young fashioners between the ages of 16 and beyond. Most of the target customers are approaching the end of their educational journey and transitioning into the workplace. As a result, the target customers have less disposable income. Therefore, BespokeMe will position itself at a competitive advantage by offering cost-effective services. Moreover, most youths prefer high-quality products that are customized. Thus, BespokeMe will ensure the incorporated service providers aim for quality rather than quantity. Similarly, being a startup business, BespokeMe will face financial inadequacies to compete with established enterprises in Nigeria.

Marketing Plan

Markedly, the virtual fashion trend discloses that clients want to control their product purchase cycle. Thus, BespokeMe retail will take advantage of the online promotion by evaluating and restructuring retail options to concentrate on clients’ livelihoods. Through merging diverse service providers and displaying customer reviews, BespokeMe will strategically offer the opportunity for customers to parallel the quality, brand, choice, and convenience of the desired products.

Market Strategy

BespokeMe online retail will monetize the online marketing approach by evaluating and restructuring retail options to target the lifestyle of different customers and fashion design preferences. The promotional activities will target all the social media podiums since the business operates online (Desai & Vidyapeeth, pp.197, 2019). The uniqueness of the marketing strategy for BespokeMe will be the inclusion of different options for bespoke designers and customized services.

Price Positioning

The pricing technique will be displayed online with discounts for the services offered to the diverse bespoke fashion designs and genres. For convenience, the payment technique will be done online through various payment routes such as PayPal and Western Union, among other user-friendly payment options. Because BespokeMe is still in its startup phase, the business will run using a cost-effective and competitive pricing strategy that guarantees the price of services provided at BespokeMe will be relatively lower than those of competitors. Moreover, the pricing strategy will integrate customized pricing where the offered services will be charged based on the purchaser factor. Setting a fabric cost is essential for customized services. Besides, because of the fluctuating nature of the market price and the customers’ moods, the customized pricing strategy will consider factors such as the overall fashion design item to be purchased and the amount the budget of the target customer. Furthermore, BespokeMe will continuously compare the charges of other leading brands to ensure the price is relatively lower than that of the rivals (Hakala et al., pp.15, 2020). The low price at the startup will be useful to garner a loyal customer base. Innovative tools such as Pricing Analytics will be employed to evaluate the progress of the business from time to time and make endorsements for the appropriate pricing at any given moment. Moreover, the pricing strategy will incorporate value-based pricing by assessing the preference of customers. Strategically, the combination of customized and value-based pricing will ultimately strengthen the brand name and aid in creating of loyal customer base.

Sales Plan

Sales Strategy

The sale strategy for BespokeMe will be advertising and promoting the business on social media podiums such as WhatsApp, Twitter, Facebook, and Instagram, among the leading worldwide online social platforms. The advertisements will aim at increasing the awareness of BespokeMe. Conversely, promotional services will feature discounts and incentives after using BespokeMe to purchase and connect with bespoke designers. Similarly, the sales strategy will design a customer-feedback mechanism after using the service (John-Eke & Eke, pp.37, 2020). The feedback and recommendations offered by the customers will play a central role in modifying the sales strategy occasionally. Therefore, at the startup of BespokeMe, the business will offer the customers a 10% off price on the total services.

Standard Channels

The objective of sales promotion is to increase public awareness and visibility of the website’s services and create long-lasting relationships that will develop customer loyalty (Zebari et al., pp.657, 2019). The standard channels employed include digital advertisement and marketing through online platforms, search engine optimization, and the email marketing system through Articles and News Stories.


The business will engage in prompt recruitment to employ additional workers in cases of business expansion. Moreover, the recruitment process will be conducted to replace resigned workers or even in case of demise. Job advertisements will be disseminated through the public press, enumerating the job description, required qualifications, interview time, date, and location (Dimcea et al., pp.117, 2023). Moreover, the business will include a continuous training and development program to facilitate personal growth. Similarly, well-performing workers will be promoted to higher ranks. The management team will determine the incentives and promotions according to the workers’ productivity, educational level, specialization, and overall work experience of the employee.

Penetration Tactics

Moving target: The business will change the target groups based on the market trend at any given moment. Changing the target group will trigger diversity leading to improving overall sales due to developing a new customer base.

Sustainability: Different fashion design customers are increasingly becoming conscious of the environment. As a result, they expect products that will align with their ecological requirements. Thus, BespokeMe will partner with bespoke designers offering sustainable products. Thus, because a precise commitment to sustainability is regarded as a desirable practice in corporate image, the business will penetrate more virgin markets through corporate social responsibility (Katsikeas et al., pp.413, 2020).

Digitalization: Noteworthy, contemporary fashion design customers utilize diverse online platforms to acquire details regarding trends, experience, and product prices. As a result, BespokeMe will increase its presence on different social platforms through the optimization of the search engine.

Overflow of data: Strategically, amassing comprehensive customer information targeting every aspect of the client, from their user accounts and social media preference, will be a novel penetration technique. The data will be used to determine the genre, time, and scope of the customer’s next purchase through sophisticated algorithms with high precision and probability. Therefore, the data will enable the customization of advertisements and product offerings.

IP and Patent Strategy

Because Bespoke Me is a patent idea, the IP strategy involves documenting the virgin plan and any future discoveries, using digital rights management, entering into strong non-disclosure contracts with the partners, and developing strong access passcodes for the website’s particulars.

Operations and Resource Plan

The core operations of BespokeMe will be the virtual platform where network connectivity will facilitate the advancement of the business to acquire a long-term goal of a worldwide customer base. The target customers for BespokeMe are individuals aged 16 and above and thus are well acquainted with internet technology. Hence, a huge populace of target customers can be acquired without significant inconveniences. Because the BespokeMe website directory operates on a unified site, most operations will be handled without outsourcing. However, the management of technological operations is projected to encounter a shortage of experts to manage and handle the customers effectively. As a result, BespokeMe will outsource only the specific technical aspects that will lack adequate experts to handle if the need arises.

Core in Service

BespokeMe’s unique operational procedures mandate the creation of a relatively appealing website that provides a broad range of updated trending fashion designs besides picturing significant details on past and prospective fashion design trends. The website will be user-friendly and easy to operate. The core service that will be executed by BespokeMe will be to timely and professionally link customers to the desired bespoke designer for quality and customized outfits.

Distribution Strategy

The business will deliver its services directly to prospective bespoke customers through the online platform (Tipu, pp.90, 2019). The bespoke designers will distribute the purchased products and the desired genre after the completion of the linking deal.

Value Added Services

Strategically, BespokeMe aims to promote the online retail business via a determined and focused marketing advocacy. The strategy will encompass a grand launching event, the involvement of local media coverage, and a direct mail campaign. The objective is to maintain a marketing cost of less than 5% of the gross annual sales. The business will partner with local bespoke designers and fashion design organizations.

Unique Processes

The operations on the website will be rendered customer-centered. Thus, BespokeMe will use a simple page with minimal designs and ads inclined toward product images and catalogs rather than features of flamboyant scripts. For a more personal touch, the website reviews section will illuminate the appraisals depicting the fashion designs loved by clients through the navigation link to “we too cherish these,” replacing the common statement, “clients also purchased.” Furthermore, the website will include a “New Arrivals” feature to make loyal clients get the newest collections promptly without needlessly surfing countless items already purchased. Overall, the outstanding uniqueness of the processes of BespokeMe is the online presence of its operations that will facilitate convenient marketing of the services offered by the business to the general population through targeting diverse social media platforms.

Future Services

Initially, the business will offer formal links to bespoke customers within Nigeria. In the future, the product categories can be expanded and differentiated under different subsidiaries to offer customized services based on different segments, such as men’s wear, women’s wear, and kids.

Management and Organization

Management Team and Key Personnel

The management team will consist of the managing director, the supervisor, the accounts manager, the quality control officer, and. The managing director is also the co-owner of the business and will execute the administrative functions, inventory regulation, network model, procurement, and promotional undertakings (Tipu, pp.91, 2019). Besides, the managing director will act as a sales representative part-time. The accounts manager will monitor the cash flow in and out of business. Besides, the accounts manager will maintain accurate financial records and assess the business’s financial capacity and projections. Furthermore, the quality control officer will monitor and coordinate the computer systems and all the business operations to ensure customer satisfaction.

Other key workers in the business will include the facilitators, the IT specialist, the supervisor, and the security personnel. The IT specialist will regulate the routine activities of the website. The security manager will ensure the safety of the office equipment and the cybersecurity of the software and programs installed for running the website through continuous monitoring and controlling the cybersecurity checkpoints. The supervisor will oversee the workers and stimulate creativity among the employees. The facilitator will navigate both the virtual and walk-in clients.

Workers will be motivated to operate within their areas of specialization to ensure physical and intellectual boundaries for optimizing productivity. Thus, all the business mandates will be delegated based on the strengths and weaknesses of the employees. All workers will be mandated to demonstrate a high degree of professionalism to offer specialized customer-centered services. The managing director will facilitate employee appraisal to assess the technical performance of the workers biannually. Strategically, the biannual assessments are appropriate for the continued advancement of the business.


The overall business advisor will be selected from the management team. The qualifications of the management team members will be essential to ensure sound governance. The advisor will offer counsel after examining the business’s financial status, risk analysis, and customer appraisals.

Legal Structure

BespokeMe will get the mandatory legal licensing and permits to comply with the country’s regulations. Because it is a novel business idea in the bespoke fashion design industry, BespokeMe would be patented (Tipu, pp.91, 2019). Thus, the managing director will ensure that all the bespoke designers partnered in the business operation are licensed to ensure quality customer-centered services. The facilitators will operate under a full-time employment contract. All workers will have a two-week paid holiday after one year of recruitment.

Management Team Qualifications and Roles

Managing Director


  • A minimum of a diploma in business administration.
  • Sound managerial skills and technical expertise.
  • Leadership experience.


  • Facilitating sound relations between the workers and the management team.
  • Oversee the overall business operations.
  • Planning and organizing procurement undertakings.


  • A minimum of a diploma in accounting, book/keeping, or related qualifications from a recognized institution.
  • Certification in office practice will be an added advantage.


  • Cash flow monitoring.
  • Maintaining accurate financial records and assessing the financial position of the business.

IT Specialist

  • A minimum of a diploma in Information Technology or related qualifications from a recognized institution.
  • Sound knowledge in programming, web designing, and cybersecurity.


  • Development and maintenance of the BespokeMe website.
  • Performance of frequent cybersecurity checks.

Quality Control Officer

  • A minimum of a diploma in quality assurance or any related qualifications from a recognized institution.
  • Sound expertise in instrumentation, controlling, and reconciliation of technical errors.


  • Ensures quality services throughout the customers’ purchase cycle.
  • Monitoring the effectiveness of the website services.


  • A minimum of a certificate in human resource management.
  • A certificate in computer application packages.


  • Helping clients as the support team in case of queries.
  • Training of new employees.

Management Team Gaps

The projected gaps in the management team encompass the inadequacies in technological operations. The team may encounter an inadequate labor force with the required technical skills to run and create the website. Thus, BespokeMe will outsource the technological operations if the perceived gap occurs. Similarly, the management team solely relies on external bespoke designers who will complete the purchase cycle after being linked with the appropriate customers.

Financial Plan

Markedly, the business financial plan illustrates BespokeMe’s projections for future operations according to the amounts the business will employ as the budget. Thus, the financial plan depicts the pre-operation expenses, working capital approximates, cash flow balance sheet, break-even point, and productivity ratios.

Financial Capacity

The business needs a projected capital of $300,000. The managing director has $150,000. Thus, the business will borrow $10,000,000 from the National Bank. The remaining $50,000 will be obtained from friends and relatives wishing to support the initiative. The loan will be repaid within five years at a simple interest of 10%.

Pro forma Cash Flow

Received cash 2024 2025 2026
Sales ($) 2500.00 3694.50 5000.00
Receivable cash ($) 3000.00 5000.00 7500.00

Subtotal Cash Received

  2024 2025 2026
Expenses ($) 5500 8694.60 12500.00
Cash Expenditure ($) 4055 8261.37 10000.00
Billing 4.50 550.00 600.00

Subtotal Cash Flow Balance Sheet

  2024 2025 2026
($) 9555.00 17505.97 22500.00
Net Cash Flow ($) 36285.46 119622.27 542882.81
Balance ($) 28730.46 5545.68 520382.81

Primary Assumptions

The business plan centers the projections on the supposition that consumer behavior and the preference for bespoke designs will continue to grow steadily for the predictable future. The business assumes the Nigerian economy will remain in its current expansion position.

Years 2024 2025 2026
Monthly 1 2 3
Current ratio 10% 10% 10%
Interest 10% 10% 10%
Tax rate 25.5% 25% 25.5%

Primary category for the use of the funds
License and registering
Market study
Project planning
Opening stock

Key Startup Requirements

  1. Office installations
  2. Inventories
  3. Website
  4. Branding
  5. Marketing
  6. Photography
  7. Legal expenses
  8. Startup assets

Limitations and Risk Analysis

Primarily, the business projects numerous risks related to inventory management. Failure to attain the necessary inventory supplies may cause dissatisfied clients and declining sales. Similarly, the business landscape in Nigeria is a critical risk. The stiff competition from well-established industries is projected to pose a significant challenge (Zhao et al., pp.7, 2021). Therefore, the marketing operations will be optimized to ensure BespokeMe aligns with the highly competitive Nigerian market.


BespokeMe must always ensure the required equipment is installed to ensure continuity of customer service. Similarly, the management team must devote adequate time and resources to marketing the business’s operations to remain competitive. Moreover, the customized pricing strategy will be maintained to ensure the cost is considerably lower than the rivals.

Alternative Solutions

BespokeMe will budget for future uncertain risks that may emerge at any given moment in the lifecycle of the business. The reserved risk finances will only be utilized in the event of the occurrence of the risks as an alternative remedy.


The business is scheduled to begin on 1st January 2024. BespokeMe will set precise and demarcated objectives regarding the business year’s beginning and termination.


Prioritized milestones will encompass the appraisal of customer satisfaction biannually. Besides, the pricing, quality, and distribution strategies will be reviewed biannually.

Relationship Occasions

The business will schedule and communicate important events to optimize profit generation and customer satisfaction. The events will be conducted quarterly, such as the questionnaire day, promotional week, and offers days for loyal customers.


The business plan depicts the launching of the BespokeMe directory website in Nigeria. BespokeMe is hoping to specialize in the handling of fashion marketing of bespoke designers to offer individuals convenience when shopping on fashion and design items. The website will close the gap between clients and the service providers (Oliveira et al., pp.12, 2022). The business aims at assisting small and medium fashion designer enterprise through increasing their publicity to the public. Contrary to general directories targeting a combination of product portfolio, BespokeMe fashion and lifestyle directory website will be distinct since it concentrates exclusively on bespoke fashion. As a result, competency is assured through the incorporation of different bespoke designers to serve varied clients according to their individual demands. Furthermore, BespokeMe will eradicate the necessity for clients to navigate innumerable social media podiums to find and compare different designs and styles because it offers them under a unified website. BespokeMe is a promising producer of income because it will provide sufficient traffic and visibility to the proposing service providers. Traditionally, fashion designers incurred huge expenses marketing their products. BespokeMe promises greater publicity a moderately lower expense. The target launching market for BespokeMe is Nigeria. Comprising about 36 states and 250 major ethnic groups, Nigeria has a population of over 200 million individuals. The business is scheduled to begin on 1st January 2024 with a projected budget of capital $300,000.


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Oppression In The Handmaid’s Tale Sample Essay

The dystopian novel The Handmaid’s Tale by Margaret Atwood depicts a dismal and repressive society called Gilead, which is rather unsettling. Gilead is a totalitarian state where women, in particular, are subject to extreme restrictions in a future unlike ours. The main character, Offred, is a handmaid in a totalitarian dictatorship, and her experiences there show the harsh measures taken to control her socially, politically, spatially, and physiologically. Offred is a mirror through which we can view Gilead’s repressive regime and how it turns her life into a physical dystopia. Offred has a strict dress code that she must adhere to; she has limited freedom of movement and association, and she is dehumanized through the loss of her name, which forces her to accept oppression like the ceremony. This piece will discuss Offred’s dehumanization and character change due to the oppression and control she experiences as a handmaid.

Offred’s acceptance of the ceremony’s systemic injustice demonstrates her internalized oppression. Recounting her experience at the Ceremony, Offred reflects, “Nor does rape cover it: nothing is going on here that I haven’t signed up for” (Atwood 89). This phrase perfectly captures Offred’s conflicted feelings about her life and the restrictive culture in which she exists. This remark alludes to “the Ceremony,” a monthly ceremony in Gilead in which handmaids are coerced into having sexual relations with their male spouses in order to procreate and further the state’s reproductive ambition. Offred’s narration of the Ceremony event reveals her inner thoughts and feelings as she reflects on and recounts the incident. Offred’s internal turmoil and how she has been bullied and used by the repressive Gileadian rule are reflected in her comment, “Nor does rape cover it: nothing is going on here that I haven’t signed up for.” On the one hand, by saying, “rape does not cover it,” she appears to agree that the Ritual is a sort of rape. Yet she also seems to feel some degree of cooperation, as if she’s decided or consented to participate in the ceremony despite her physical autonomy being violated. This line emphasizes how the tyrannical regime of Gilead has deprived Offred of her freedom and agency. She feels helpless and defeated as she is forced to take part in a ceremony that abuses her body as if she has no option but to conform to society’s norms. It’s easy to feel Offred’s inner turmoil as she tries to square her free will and moral compass with the repressive expectations imposed on her.

Offred is burdened by the rules of attire that she must follow as a handmaid. The handmaids are confined to servitude, wearing long scarlet skirts and white wings that hide everything save their eyes. This clothing code is meant to keep the handmaids from standing out as individuals and to keep them mindful of their role as reproductive tools. Offred describes the dress code as “We are containers, it’s only the inside of our bodies that are important. The outside is taboo.” (Atwood, chap.4). The objectification of women and the reduction of their reproductive value is shown by this remark. Women are only considered valuable for their potential to reproduce, and their bodies are viewed as nothing more than vessels for the fetus. The phrase emphasizes the rigid gender roles and cultural standards of Gilead via the lens of the “inside” vs. the “outside” of the body. The state’s reproductive agenda requires the protection of the “inside” of the body, which symbolizes the reproductive organs. The “outside” of the body, however, is off-limits. This includes things like outward appearance, outward expression, and individual action. This means that handmaids and other women are not permitted to decide about their bodies, looks, or lifestyles. Their bodies are used as instruments of the state to ensure they comply with predetermined gender roles and social norms. Even more so, the quote’s use of the term “taboo” emphasizes that any departure from the anticipated norms about women’s bodies is discouraged and condemned in the culture of Gilead. Offred loses agency and her ability to make decisions for herself due to her dehumanization. The regime is always keeping tabs on her and controlling her every move. In her own words, Offred explains that she has no control over her situation since “I am a passenger on the driverless train; I am not the driver.” (Atwood, chap. 30). This comment emphasizes how dehumanized Offred is; and how she has been relegated to the role of a bystander in her own life.

The restrictions on Offred’s movement and association are another kind of oppression. A “guardian” is a hired escort who must accompany each handmaid whenever she leaves the house. “He’s not our husband, he’s a job,” Offred says of the guardian (Atwood 78). This phrase emphasizes the guardians’ dehumanization and role as rule enforcers in the handmaids’ lives. Offred’s regimen is strictly enforced, and she faces harsh consequences if she deviates from it in any way. The devaluing and objectification of human relationships in Gilead are reflected in the phrase, “He’s not our husband, he’s a job.” Offred’s role as a handmaid reduces her to little more than a womb to produce offspring for the elite. The monetization of human beings in Gilead is further emphasized by using the term “job” to describe the guardian’s position. It dehumanizes the guardian, making him or her feel like nothing more than a machine. The government of Gilead controls every area of Offred’s existence, including her relationships and interactions with others, as shown by this brutal portrayal of life in Gilead. Space control is a tyranny that limits Offred’s freedom of movement and interaction. Handmaids are practically confined to a small area since they cannot leave the house without their escort. Because of this ban, they are cut off from the rest of society and cannot communicate with others, obtain assistance, or evade the repressive Gileadian government.

Offred is dehumanized when her identity is taken from her. As Offred puts it, she has become “no longer a person but a thing, a missing person, disappeared without a trace.” (Atwood, chap.3). The term “no longer a person” alludes to the fact that the harsh Gileadian dictatorship has robbed Offred of her humanity. Handmaids like Offred have no rights in this dystopian society and are treated as property. They are valued only concerning their reproduction ability and are allocated responsibilities based exclusively on this criterion. Offred’s humanity and feeling of worth are diminished when she is seen as nothing more than a means to an end (procreation). Offred’s dehumanization is emphasized even further by using the word “a thing.” It refers to something lacking the capacity to feel, think, or desire anything independently. Offred loses any sense of free will when she becomes the state’s property and is deprived of her humanity. Offred loses her humanity due to the repressive regime’s treatment of her and becomes invisible to them. That Offred is “a lost person, disappeared without a trace” is a metaphor for how the government of Gilead has erased her unique identity and free will. She is wiped from existence, made into nothing more than a number or a nameless number in the eyes of the authority. She loses any sense of who she is and is further dehumanized by the government’s insistence that she play by its rules and duties.

Women’s rights are illuminated in the news story “In Israel, TV’s dystopian ‘Handmaids’ is protest fixture,” which draws comparisons with Margaret Atwood’s novel The Handmaid’s Tale. The importance of women’s rights concerns and the fight for gender equality are highlighted in this news piece. It exemplifies the efforts of Israeli women to bring attention to their struggles and their desire for equal rights via the medium of popular culture. The influence of art and media in molding public discourse and motivating social movements is demonstrated by using television programs like “Chayot” as a tool of protest. Like the dystopian society shown in The Handmaid’s Tale, the one in “Chayot” severely limits women’s rights and treats them harshly. This similarity is crucial because it shows that Atwood’s work is still timely in depicting the effects of sexism and the dilution of women’s rights.

Work Cited

Atwood, Margaret. The Handmaid’s Tale. 1st Anchor Books ed, Anchor Books, 1998.

“In Israel, TV’s Dystopian ‘Handmaids’ Is Protest Fixture.” AP NEWS, 17 Mar. 2023,