Music: A Frequency Above Discrimination Essay Example

“We Shall Overcome”, a song sung by many in history, but none quite as loud as those who fought to be seen and heard throughout the Civil Rights Movement. Music was a driving force during this time for African-Americans as they needed something to inspire and help them in their time of need. Since even before the American Civil War, African-Americans, whom then were predominantly slaves, have been fighting against inequality and those who discriminated against them. This era and the eras to follow bred many trials and tribulations for those seeking to be seen as individuals and those fighting for the equality of rights. After countless years of this fighting, African-Americans were engulfed in a passion fueled for change by being treated unfairly in everything from jobs, education, and basic human rights. During the Civil Rights Movement, a difficult time both physically and emotionally for African-Americans, music became a powerful means of nonviolent expression and provided much needed emotional and financial support.

The Civil Rights Movement

The Civil Rights Movement was a time of growth in the United States as Americans of all shapes, sizes, and colors were fighting for equal rights and treatment of all. African-Americans were trying to free themselves from the discrimination that they had faced for years, this was their final push. Although this movement can be traced back to the times of slavery, many of the modern advances achieved were not made successful until later in history, predominantly the 1950s and 1960s (Of the People, 2017, pg 760). During this time in the United States, African-Americans were going through a beyond imaginable time of segregation and inequality. With the Jim Crow laws passed in southern states requiring legal segregation between whites and African-Americans, and the continued fight between citizens and government, a time of hate was developed (Of the People, 2017, pg 798). The negativity and laws surrounding equal rights created a need for someone to step up and answer the call to demand equality, although few in numbers, those who answered the call made the impact needed to change the course of history.

There were several important people involved during this time that made their mark on history. Some of those included President John F. Kennedy, Rosa Parks, and Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. Striving to help the country in the right direction, they made uncomfortable, even fatal, decisions and voiced opinions against the majority that would usher in a new era of equality. Shortly before his assassination, President John F. Kennedy gave a speech in June of 1963 beseeching Congress to pass legislation that would make discrimination by private business owners and in public accommodations, illegal (Voices of Freedom, 2016, pg.272, entry 171). In his speech, presented in the textbook Voices of Freedom (2016) as found in entry 171, the president states:

It ought to be possible, in short, for every American to enjoy the privileges of being American without regard to his race or his color. In short, every American ought to have the right to be treated as he would wish to be treated, as one would wish his children to be treated…

The President’s speech was in response to several recent events, predominantly the admittance of two African-American students to the University of Alabama where they faced great tribulation and prejudice. These boys were certainly not alone in the troubles they faced. When Rosa Parks refused to give up her seat to a white person on a bus, on December 1st, 1955, she unknowingly sparked the Civil Rights Movement as a whole (Of the People, 2017, pg 798).

An article by Herb Boyd (2006) about the late Rosa Parks really shows how influential her decision to not move from her seat became. In the article, Parks is quoted from her autobiography as saying “People always say that I didn’t give up my seat because I was tired… No, the only tired I was, was tired of giving in.’. Though known as a humble woman, Parks actions sparked the Montgomery bus boycott and the Civil Rights Movement. This led to her commonly being viewed as and referred to as the “Mother of the Civil Rights Movement”. Parks refusal to move from her seat, inspired many people to stand up and speak out, including the well-known and admired Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. King spoke kind and impowering words of Rosa Parks, noting her strength and admirable character (Voices of Freedom, 2016, pg 268, entry 170)

Dr. Martin Luther King Jr. is presumably the most prominent and well-known figure of the Civil Rights Movement. He began his involvement with the movement as the leader of the Montgomery bus boycott (Of the People, 2017, pg799). With some of the most powerful speeches in history, he is revered as one of the nation’s best speakers and leaders of all time. His ability to inspire people, and incite change, made him able to aid in moving forward for equality. People all over the country were drawn to gathere together to hear his speeches that would forever change lives (F. Sunnemark, 2003). King would often reference music and freedom songs in his speeches. For example, King proclaimed during the Albany movement, “The freedom songs are playing a strong and vital role in our struggle.” (Ryan Branch, 2013). King lends ear to the idea that music, its artist, its culture, became a guiding force for the Civil rights Movement.

Music’s Role in the Movement

As protestors marched through the streets of major cities or were barricaded in churches or buildings, through every moment they stared discrimination and inequality in the face, music was there to comfort them. A collection about Music in the Civil Rights Movement provided by the Library of Congress (Date Unknown) speaks to a woman named Jamila Jones. Jones was a professional singer whom while attending the Highlander Folk School for nonviolent activist training found herself in the mists of a police raid. Within the collection from the Library of Congress, Jones recounts her experience as follows:

She found the strength to sing out into the darkness, adding a new verse, “We are not afraid,” to the song, “We Shall Overcome.” Jones explains, “And we got louder and louder with singing that verse, until one of the policemen came and he said to me, “If you have to sing,” and he was actually shaking, “do you have to sing so loud?” And I could not believe it. Here these people had all the guns, the billy clubs, the power, we thought. And he was asking me, with a shake, if I would not sing so loud. And it was that time that I really understood the power of our music.

Jones shows music has great power and during this time music allowed for African-Americans to voice their opinions and voices peacefully and how they wanted. There were many songs that were made popular to the movement as they fueled the success for the activists.

One extremely popular song of the time, that inevitably became the unofficial anthem of the movement, is known as “We Shall Overcome”. This song was originally written by Reverend Charles Albert Tindley in the year 1900 (Victor M Parachin, 2017). The anthem could have been heard on a Sunday as a means for religious expression and again the following day carefully vocalized by protestors and activists. In an interview by Maria Daniels, Bernice Johnson Reagon is quoted as saying:

There is a story of a policeman beating a demonstrator on the ground and the man being assaulted began to sing, ‘We Shall Overcome,’ and this particular policeman could not continue the beating… And the singing was essential to those of us involved in the action, it was galvanizing, it pulled us together, it helped us to handle fear and anger… it was powerful music, the freedom songs.

Reagon shows that music was vital to those fighting and demonstrating and had the power to bring many people from different backgrounds together.

An unlikely person to play a pertinent role in the Civil Rights Movement was Zilphia Horton. Horton was the daughter of a white coal mine owner from the rural south and a well-educated woman (Chelsea Hodge, 2017). Though having a seemingly different upbringing, she was a major activist that helped transform old hymnal songs into songs of protest and expression. A notable transformation, was the change of “I Shall Overcome Someday” written by Reverend Tindley to the staple anthem “We Shall Overcome” in 1945 (Victor M. Parachin, 2017). As stated in an article by Noah Adams (2013) Horton is heard on a tape sometime in the 1940s saying,

This is the song of ‘We Will Overcome’ — it’s a spiritual, I sang it with many different nationality groups. And it’s so simple, and the idea’s so sincere, that it doesn’t matter that it comes from the tobacco workers. When I sing it to people, it becomes their song.

Horton’s words show the power of this song, and why it played such a vital part in the influence of the movement. With such a simple yet powerful message, the freedom songs could move anyone who heard it.

Countless events were held to protest the unfair treatment such as rallies, marches, speeches, concerts, among other gatherings where activists made their advances. Other events were held and had little to do with the fight but made huge strides in their own way. One of the largest concert gatherings in 1967 shows a major triumph against segregation as some 200,000 people came together to listen to artists of both races including Jimi Hendrix and Janis Joplin (The Complete Monterey Pop Festival, 1967). When watching the videos of the music festival, that set the bar for both modern and historic music events, one can see, it is not a segregated event. There are both African-American and white citizens enjoying music without the fear of repercussion and disciplinary action. In the midst of a major political movement, no one seems to care what race the artist Jimi Hendrix is, they only seem to be mesmerized by the mind altering and emotional performance given by him on the stage.

Rock ‘n’ Roll music acted as a major common ground for the fight on segregation and inequality. In the 1950s artists such as Chuck Berry, Fats Domino, and Little Richard were performing songs that attracted both races because of their extremely sought-after sound in a time that segregation was strictly enforced (Maureen Mahon, 2015). Although they were not directly affecting the movement with political statements or protest songs, they established an atmosphere that people of all backgrounds and colors wanted to be a part of no matter the implications. As music gradually became one of the most prominent parts of the movement, it evolved into a more popular culture. With more and more listeners tuning into the artists as they sang about freedom and equality, money was raised for the cause through concerts and other musical showings. Money that would be well spent, as the Civil Rights Movement was successful. Music showed time and time again its connective, spiritual, powerful means of expression. The music could not do it alone, the musicians themselves were making strides and combated against the discrimination and hate.

Another large step forward came with the collaboration of two notably popular and important figures of the time, Elvis Presley and “Big Mama” Thornton. Together, through the collaboration of breaking down the race barrier between white and African-Americans, they customized the song “Hound Dog” as performed by Elvis in 1956 (Maureen Mahon, 2015). This is such a great example of two exceedingly well-known people, on opposites sides of the fence, ignoring the stigmas and working together to create something unique and wonderful. These artists were not alone in their willingness to advance equality, others worked hard for the cause, including Odetta Holmes. Odetta became such a prominent voice she was noted by some of her biggest fans such as Dr. Martin Luther King and Rosa Parks as the voice of the movement (Kent State University, Date Unknown). Music was the connecting link between those wishing for a brighter, more inclusive future.


An article by Leslie Paige Rose (2007) dictates a quote from Alan P. Merriam in 1964 from his book entitled Anthropology of Music stating, “There is probably no other human cultural activity which is so all-pervasive and which reaches into, shapes, and often controls so much of human behavior”. Music moves and motivates cultures as a whole and is a great tool for difference. The overall goal of the Civil Rights Movement was to bring people together to show that everyone deserved to be treated fairly, no matter the color of your skin. Music provided the support needed and was the way the activists spoke to the masses and changed people’s feelings for the better, in a peaceful, yet powerful, way. And, they did overcome.

Identity Of Social Work

Individuality is an aspect that constantly changes as you figure out what career path you are looking for and what professional life you pick. People can classify a bunch of characteristics of who they want to be. The setup of social workers identities include characteristics of social workers, whereas professional identity can be formed and articulated. This form of identity is not a stable, it is an ongoing process of development that can be shaped by environmental, education, an cultural systems. So many things can happen within your career to change your identity. As mentioned by Locklear(2017), “ professional identity development requires general self-reflection or introspection about the profession and use of self”. This paper will discuss the differences and similarities among the social work and professional identity. Including some interviews that will go along with it.

“ Identity is dependent upon the context in which we immerse ourselves: school, family, relationships, political parties and religious groups “(Rodgers and Scott, 2008). Students who are aspiring social workers will need to consider the characteristics that a social worker may have. Developing a social work identity embraces helping and engagement skills workers must have to assist client’s needs. Tools that comply with the identity of a social worker can be empowerment, caring, advocacy, and compassion. Additionally social workers who understand the dynamics of reflective listening, knowing the difference between empathy and sympathy, giving affirmations to relate to clients.(Shulman, 2016) Both forms of identities will help establish the social worker.

According to Mancini, Caricati, Pinari, and Tonarelli 2015, identity and self categorization includes personal and social dimensions that consists of a combination of inter-individuality and intergroup processes. Within the model that was developed and expanded by Marcia 1966, included two behavioral indicators that help form a professional identity. Exploration is an indicator where students begin to pursue that act of questioning and considering many identity alternatives before making decisions about values and the the goals they want to achieve. Asking questions to get more information is also something that will help establishing a professional identity. With thinking about these aspects it can help you point out characteristics such as critical thinking with students who are forming their own identity. Also another one is commitment which includes making relatable choices that can relate to one’s own identity. Keeping in mind relatively choices that can help form on honest replication of ones identity.

Additionally, according to the study by Mancini, Caricati, Pinari, and Tonarelli 2015,they found that students who do not make relative commitments to their own identity they may began to realize they need to find more stratifying and relatable commitments. Some students may feel pressured when making educational or career choices in their life. It is important to make commitments you can really relate to when forming one’s professional identity. Making commitments that you can not relate to can negatively affect your future outcome. It is important to consider how much you relate to what you choose to commit to in your life. This will show how serious and passionate you are in the work you do.

Professional identity begins to form in early adulthood. People first consider what their interests and career goals are and then begin to figure out their identity. However it is important to consider yourself and objectives when coming up with a professional identity. Professional identity develops over time and involves attitude, values, knowledge, beliefs and skills shared with others within your professional field.(Beddoe, 2013) Throughout the undergraduate degree students begin to take classes that will help their their professional career that they want to have. Students who want to become social workers take classes on social policy, poverty, cultural competence, families in crisis, family counseling, and many more. All these classes will guide students to get an understanding of what social work is all about.

A social work identity should show clients how culturally competent you can be, understanding the different values and beliefs. Grant and Kinman 2012 stated that social workers regard it as “unprofessional” to admit that traumatic cases affected them emotionally and that not mixing your personal life with work is considered “being professional”. The NASW code of ethics is a big part of social work, you will see it everywhere.


Brad Forenza 2016 conducted eight video interviews with social workers who disclosed information about their social work identity. All of the social workers recognized the most common goals by making a difference and empowering their clients. Social work is all about working with people and include all parts of their life to do so. The social workers identified with common values and concepts of the profession. For example, they were asked “what aspiring social workers should consider before entering and during the field?” All of the eight of the social workers expressed how important self-care is. There is such a high burnout rate for social workers and those in the helping professions. Self- care is very important when being in the helping professions and can help with the burnout rates.

One social worker revealed” a social worker should take themselves to a mentally safe place.” (RK, 2016) Many professionals and individuals claim self-care can be difficult to do. Spending time to understand and get to know yourself is a way of self-care. (AM, 2016) In life no matter what the circumstances are we always are trying to stay on top of things and feel the need to push through. Self-care and self-renewal are very important and needed in the helping professions. Taking care of yourself is what will help you in being coming stable, healthy and helpful in social work.

A new question that was important in the interview was “ would a non-social worker be able to identify you as a social worker?” This was really interesting because most social workers characteristics are similar to one another. For example, BW 2016 says “ due to my high caliber of interpersonal skill sets of listening, communicating and helping people hint out to people that i am a social worker”. Another way a non-social worker can identify a social worker is by the way an individual connects with people and the characteristics of the person. (AM, 2016) Social problems among society was another question that was brought up in the interviews. AJ 2016 stated “ racism perpetuates poverty”. Poverty is more seen in communities of color and minorities. To help with these things they have created social policies to be followed. Policies give social workers an understanding of the relationship between their clients. For an example having confidentiality between the social worker and the client. These policies are there for a reason and is important they are followed.


Almost all social workers that were interviewed possess relatable experiences to the population they work with which is an important to the social work identity. Working in a population and community you are familiar with can lead you to have improved client outcomes. Having a sense of competence and the use of empathy with the population social workers may not be familiar with is another aspect that could lead to a positive identity. Knowing that professional identity in social work is an area that is made up of beliefs and attributes in early work experiences and the workplace. Developing a social work identity can embrace helping and engagement skills workers must have to help with client’s needs. Tools that go along with the identity of a social worker can be empowerment, caring, advocacy, and compassion. Even though social work revolves around ethical values it also exits in everyday life and other professions. Professional ethics and being accountable are also important to social workers.

There are so many things that future social workers should take into account before pursuing their careers. They need to figure out their values and beliefs and what kind of person they are. They need to understand they need to focus on not just the environment but the individual as well. Social work is not an easy career choice and can be very overwhelming. Putting an emphasis on self-care and how important it is to have. Explain there is a high burnout rate but with self-care it can keep you on the right track. There will always be someone you can talk to in your career when having feelings of a burnout.

Social Work Research Paper


The report is based on an interview conducted at a medical social work agency. The primary purposes of this investigation were: to explore the organization and its delivery of services given to the society, and to understand and assess the function of the workers at the medical social work agency. This report attempts to provide a qualitative analysis of the organizational context of the services rendered, and the influences this has on agency practice, standards and functioning. In this study, we will begin with an overview of the agency, then we will look at the necessary avenues of a social worker in the healthcare sector; their roles and responsibilities to their firm and as a worker of the community, and finally the techniques used in the agency for working with the different parts of a community or society. Avenues such as practice and intervention, client population, ethical standards and professionality in dealing with issues arising within the firm, will be explored. The data was collected via a single interview and thus all data collected and analysed would be assumed as the standard for all social workers in the organization.

An Overview of the Agency

The name of the organization of focus was The Eastern Regional Health Authority (ERHA), located in Mayaro. It was founded in 1994 as an act of parliament and is one of five health authorities in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago. ERHA is responsible for healthcare in Trinidad’s eastern area which consists of places accounting for approximately one-third of Trinidad’s land mass. The agency covers from Rio Claro in the south, to Valencia in the east (The Government of the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, 2018). The organization works in line with the Ministry of Health in Trinidad and Tobago and it functions based on clusters which separate the different areas. The number of health facilities in the different areas will account for the varying of cluster numbers. According to the social worker, the area of research is split into two clusters and this is done throughout the different branches of the organization for easier management. Also, social work in ERHA is divided into two professional groups, psychiatric social workers and medical social workers.

Vision Statement, Mission Statement and Values of the Agency

The vision and aims of the agency are to continuously improve the quality of life for clients by delivering quality health care that is accessible to all. The mission statement and intended actions of the agency are to promote social welfare while collaborating with the community and by focusing on the needs of the population, the agency provides help for members of the community. It allows members of society to obtain several healthcare services that they may not be able to obtain, within the guidelines of national social policy.

The core values of the agency that define their identity and actions are as follows: 1) Respect for Human Dignity, 2) Integrity, 3) Shared Ownership, 4) Commitment to excellence, 5) Partnership, 6) Universal access, 7) affordability and equity and, 8) Quality Care.

The Role of the Social Worker in the Agency

The role of the social worker interviewed was that of a medical social worker. His role in the agency and to the community is to improve and maintain quality healthcare. An integral part of social work in healthcare management and service delivery is to provide support advice and sometimes advocate on behalf of clients and members in society.

The social worker is highly qualified for the job as in the Republic of Trinidad and Tobago, social workers must at least obtain a social work degree before gaining employment. The worker must obtain a full understanding of the theoretical aspect and principles of social work discipline to promote positive development and empowerment for those in society. They must also be mindful of social work policy and keep themselves up to date on all ethical standards and guidelines of both the National Association of Social Workers (NASW) and the agency.

The Qualities, Competencies and Skills of the Worker

Specific skills and competencies are highly required in the medical social work settings. One the worker considers is of great importance is the quality of self-awareness. The medical social worker utilizes this skill in dealing with client situations to allow for maximum service quality. By paying attention to his biases and other impeding qualities, along with personal understanding of his capabilities in managing a client’s situation, self-awareness helps the worker to determine the best route of action for his clients.

The worker highlighted that the field of social work is never entirely manageable or comprehensive, and by engaging in continuous practical field work he can and has built on his skills and capacities. Through human interaction, the worker was able to see how interpersonal skills are necessary; and how things such as journaling were important for understanding himself as it allows for reflectivity and re-evaluations of oneself to take place.

Ethical Standards, Professionality of the Agency

Ethical values of the NASW are upheld and maintained by the firm and as stated by the worker, the quality of service and ethics in the agency is not lost based on the continuous urgency of protocol and guidelines of policy administration. Workers are kept up to date on social policy, and, to maintain the standard that the organization holds, workers must sustain these ethical standards by the board to meet the responsibility of their clients. It’s important to be mindful of the ethics and other vital areas to ensure that there isn’t a breach in policy or standards. Example, rules of the organization include no conducting of business and not giving out money to clients but, seeking the relevant avenues for them to receive the financial assistance and help they need. The worker however disclosed that although it is shunned, sometimes they do help clients financially, but it is not to be exposed to the public because it will question worker’s integrity, and only occurs in urgent situations. It’s important to note that because the firm looks at empowerment, they try to provide discussions and forum for persons in need of financial assistance, to explore their strengths so that they aren’t dependent on government assistance so cases of physically giving clients financial assistance are few. Although it is a thoughtful sentiment, it can also be counterproductive in leading clients to believe that the system cannot fulfil their needs.

At all times, workers in the firm are to practice an anti-oppressive and anti-discriminatory intervention approach even in cases where their values, beliefs etc. lay elsewhere. This is an obligation of the social worker as it ensures that the client’s rights are upheld and that they are comfortable in the environment.

Description of Client Population

Approximately 450 clients are seen for a given year at the firm with the more significant numbers seen in female clients as opposed to males. This was assumed to be the cause of the psychological and emotional aspect that is focused on in the firm. As the worker believed that women may be more comfortable than men in discussing their feelings. Men are likely to be referral cases whereas women tend to seek and access the services of the organization more frequently.

The age group of the client population varies from elderly, middle age and persons from the younger population. Elderly client population deal with mainly care and management and non-compliance i.e. elderly persons who do not have someone to ensure that they take their medications etc. The middle age population is generally focused on situations like domestic abuse with intimate partner violence. The younger population consists of youths with learning disabilities or those of child abuse.

The Organization’s Relationship to the Client Group

The organization is a medical organization and as such it deals with all individuals in the community that require health care services and can’t afford it. The phrase ‘all individuals’, relates to the diversity of individuals in the community. The client group will pay attention to most individuals in the community seeking assistance within the health facility but is open to members of the community that have no reference in the facility.

Intervention Methods Used by the Agency and Ways in Which the Groups of Society are Handled in the Firm

In the firm, the focus is on all levels of society, including macro, mezzo and micro levels and it was noted that the worker does this to bring about communal change in society. The medical social worker stated that he works with all the agents of society in the following scenarios: 1) casework which deals with one-on-one sessions with individuals utilizing methods of interviewing, home visits and play therapy; 2) groupwork in the form of support and providing knowledge to persons on a basis of need; and 3) community work dealing with outreach programs like lecturing the public about the services of social workers and informing them of the social work calendar, person’s rights, contacts for seeking help etc. The workers also act as brokers and advocators to link required resources to all of their clients. For example, advocating for clients and persons in different forums like a children’s authority seminar, where the worker(s) will utilize it as an avenue to speak about child-related issues.

The worker uses different techniques in different work environments. In casework, he encourages self-mediation to help persons deal with stressors. In group or community settings he may involve persons in mediation exercises to promote the interdependence of the group but, in the community, mediation is done as the promotion of services so that people have a sense of direction as to where to go for whatever requirements they have. The worker also highlighted that in dealing with family situations, he first speaks to each member of the family to get their ideas of commitment towards the family unit and, lays specific ground rules to avoid conflicts arising. The family members engage in discussions and are free to disagree; their interactions are valuable towards the family settings because social workers aren’t to advise persons on actions but to guide or provide suggestions. In extreme cases towards the law, however, the worker does give advice and may sometimes need to take matters into his own hands.

The organization’s most famous theory followed is the Ecological systems theory, because of the community setting that they work in. The theory allows for all areas of society to be addressed or looked at such as individuals, families and communities. The worker conveyed that the reasons for using this theory were that it speaks to all the facets that filter into an individual being who they are and how the individual reacts to their environment. Cognitive behavioural therapy is another method used in the firm because it looks at persons with personal issues such as self-esteem. He inferred that there may be other models used but in the intervention approach to social work at the firm, these are the most appropriate and functional methods.

Usually, persons are needed and recommended to go through referrals by the health facility instead of walk-ins. In severe cases, however, like suicide, the person may be allowed, if they do not wish to enter or disclose their issues with the health facility. Clients are informed of alternative services in cases that the firm cannot address their needs and are told when these services are not available. Example if there is a lack of funding for equipment or persons may not be able to obtain them, they should know because it is their right.

Lastly, the medical social worker works as a part of multi-disciplinary teams with other professions such as education, health and probation services, to ensure that all aspects of clients’ lives are taken into consideration when help is being discussed. The worker also aims to foster empowerment in society by looking at the psychological aspect of his client’s strengths and by working alongside the medical team, he can enhance the quality of health care for them and ensure that they can cope with stressful or traumatic events that occur.

Issues Occurring in the Medical Social Worker’s Practice

The worker inferred that transport difficulties and lack of finance are some of the significant challenges that clients face when seeking his services. He claimed that members of the firm are readily available and accessible to the public for these reasons. In the cases of home visits, they require persons to show a level of willingness and voluntariness by first reaching out to the organization, because they try to not make clients complacent about their services.

There is not much, if any, of social obstructions or hindrances on the worker from the society. The worker believes that if he trusts that the person(s) being helped can do well through the services, he can utilize this skill in supporting the intervention methods that are used.

How the Worker Responds to Values in Practice

The worker claims to be tolerant of all religious and cultural beliefs, and associations of his clients. It was stated that he is open and inquisitive to other religious beliefs which allows him to function in-line with the standards of a multi-diverse community. He believes that learning about other religions, cultures etc. is an integral and essential requirement of a social worker. In the medical field, a social worker encounters many persons with varying beliefs which sometimes may impede proper or necessary services being accepted by clients and if the worker is not able to deal with the client(s), he refers them to someone else or a different agency.

The worker mentioned that there are not any significant situations that have occurred regarding cultural or religious differences to impede his practice. He believes that this is because he prepared himself to deal with the varying gender issues in society by enrolling in gender studies that facilitated his understanding of the vast gender differences in the society today.


In a nutshell, the medical social worker is to be knowledgeable of all aspects of social work including standards, methods of practice and their self-awareness. It was found that the necessary and vital methods, theories and other avenues were like those learnt in the units. Besides healthcare, the organization also shows responsibility and commitment to the community by providing other services when needed.

Challenges occurred in summarising and digesting the crucial areas of the interview and placing each piece of information in their right category. However, conducting the actual interview was quite easy as the social worker was readily forthcoming with the answers.


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