Music Marketing In A Digital World Essay Example

Introduction

Television’s ability to present a video, audio, and motion is proving to be one of the most common and modern powerful means of delivering information to a larger audience or mass audience today (Ofcom, 2008).

Davis (2007) describes it as a “Trojan Horse that surprises many audiences.” On the other hand, some people would consider it a time-waster means of getting information with lots of fun, but little concentration for commercials (Davis, 2007, p.883).

However, the two perceptions do contradict the emerging trends in TV commercial marketing, especially with musical backgrounds or the use of music programs. Television can be used to increase market penetration, especially if the program associated with such a product becomes popular.

According to Ofcom (2008), Music on television can be used to attract direction, gather attention, and reach big masses for marketing purposes, among other commercial intentions. No wonder the industry revenue in the UK has been increasing on yearly basis, with 2008 seeing growth of 1.3% to hit £11.2bn (Ofcom, 2008).

Despite such growth, the total net revenue from advertising was down by 3%, ostensibly as a result of the global recession (Ofcom, 2008). Again, the music genres are seen as part of the promotional programs, giving room for many companies to choose on what they would prefer in line with the type of audience.

The changing nature of the music industry has presented a new challenge to the new program producers: breaking into the limelight and drawing a good number of audiences to attract many companies yearning for such arenas. The popular pop and rock culture seems to work best for advertisers who want to reach a larger audience. This is largely because pop is arguably the biggest crowd puller in the UK.

Rationale

The marketing and advertising industry has been revolutionized in many ways as evidenced by the emergence of internet. These changes have been observed as internet has presents a lot of avenues for modern and mercurial advertising.

The challenge to the mainstream media like television therefore is in the ability of the producers and program designers to come up with cutting-edge advertising methods that includes appropriate and attractive programs to draw the attention of the target audience in a huge manner. The question to be asked is whether the music advertising programs benefit the audience.

Statement of research question

Popular musical culture presents a theoretical link that determines not only the ability to produce and consume but also the unending possibility for successful marketing and advertising. In reality, there is an upsurge of reality television shows, with the new ability to draw more audiences like never before hence the probability of more success in the industry.

Aim and objectives

The aim of this project is to establish a new music program, predominantly with pop Music in a reality television show, to push the advertising agenda forward.

The following are the objectives of the research:

To learn how to formulate and implement advertising and marketing plans for the successful marketing and promotion of the band

To identify the specific steps that can be used to run a reality television show and boost advertising revenues.

Theoretical Framework

Live with Music will be a reality TV show that exposes the pop Music to the audience. The program will carry on with both established record labels as well as independent labels. In the recent past, independent labels have made a name for drawing huge crowds in their live performances, giving proof that they have a huge influence in society just like established record labels.

For example, Arctic Monkeys (Domino) is ruling the billboard chart with their Favourite Worst Nightmare album (Salmon, 2007). Other independent labels such as Block Party (Wichita), Kaiser Chiefs (B unique), Maximo Park have also experienced immeasurable success in the music industry with their diehard fans (Salmon, 2007).

Celebrities are known to reflect both sides of the society, the moral ambassadors, and the negative image of the society (Eliashberg, Hui & Zhang, 2007). They are known to influence the way the general society behaves like many of them would emulate as a whole or in part, what their celebrity heroes do, both in private and public.

Did you know that we normally take celebrities to have more worth than ourselves? We would rather take a designer to clothe done by a celebrity than the one by an unknown designer. In this case, quality is pushed aside to pave the way for the prestige of associating with a renowned celebrity/ designer.

In this perspective, it important to note the increased use of television viewing as a result of the increased application of creative programs such as those, in reality, TV shows. Furthermore, the music industry has presented a new form of a challenge as well as befits to the advertising industry.

A combination of creative pieces in the ad productions and alluring programs like Music is what a successful music program is made of. The critical decisions to be made are subject to a careful analysis of the budgeting criteria.

It will be of much importance if the new music program leads us to a structured process of drawing and implementing appropriate advertising plan for our clients who would want nothing less than above average considering the competitive nature of the advertising industry and competing programs.

In fact, it is my passion for music, combined with the intellectual knowledge of contemporary management issues related to popular culture and music that will be used to establish a popular advertising avenue.

To achieve the noble task of building a stronger brand of Live with Music, it is my wish and belief that the proposal proceeds to help me realize my dream- to see Live with Music hold an important position in the television programs with continuous culture of success and prosperity.

Brief Literature Review

In most cases, entertainment TV programs have put in place room for the analysis of the contents of the Music they play, so as to ensure that it goes in line with their culture (Chatman, 1978). Chatman (1978) says that content analysis will determine whether the show will attract many audiences or become a flop.

Davis (2007) says that analysis of content is a recognized qualitative technique, which historians have applied in their analysis as well as the study of literature recorded, including films and television programs.

With the increased use of technology, Music can be obtained from all quarters, thereby increasing the possibility that some viewers would be having a lot of knowledge on the Music being analyzed that they would need more and more details of the record and artists they love or like. It is possible to argue that there is no sector that has been transformed in the last decade, like Music, thanks to digital technology.

Traditionally, Independent record labels are not getting much publicity as compared to their established counterparts. These new bands’ efforts to rush to present their new demo tracks to the recording companies with high hope of making a kill out of their creative works are considered to be as a result of the culture of quick success that some musicians or record companies have got (Davis, 2007).

Despite all these efforts, the successes have not matched the high expectations, hence proving counterproductive as many artists do not manage to contain the hype that was characteristic of their first release (Salmon, 2007).

Historically and as expected, these disappointments created the many independent labels, which have tried to penetrate the market with their music records with no attachments to the mainstream recording companies. This need for publicity by the artists, especially the upcoming ones, is the idea behind the proposed show that is needed to boost their marketability as well as increase the demand for advertising opportunities.

Methodology

The show hosts would be involved in the analysis of the Music and the musicians, their lives, both professional and personal lives, as compared to their levels of success. In other words, it would examine and analyze the professionalism of the artists, their day to day activities, and their hidden personal lives that the public would be interested to know as the rumors have been known to drive the music industry and celebrity lives.

Other than playing pop and rock music, Live with Music would also host artists, both independent and established at different sessions to interview them, give the viewers the opportunity to ask questions and comments on their Music and lives.

In other words, it would be an opportunity for interactive show merged into the music session plus thorough analysis. Additionally, the show would be engaging other people, especially the fans who would be chosen randomly, after some random selection and interviews prior to the show.

The show would run as follows: on a daily basis, the show would feature a minimum of two celebrity singers, an upcoming artist vs. an established artist. The first 15 minutes of the show, their daily life would be featured through the cameras so that the viewers would be in a position to glance at their daily routine, from the moment they are awake to the go to bed.

In fact, it would be interesting to reveal how people whose lives are assumed to be unique and odd live ordinary lives as we do, probably the difference would be how they run their daily lives between home and production studios, and handling the public perception as they meet people outside duty or performance.

The host of the show would be Tom Brumpton, freelance public relations professional, a journalist, and a seasoned Radio Show Host whose experience would be critical handling the task.

Currently, as a co-host of Extreme To Serene Radio, Tom is has a lot of experience in the behind the scene (radio) talk show that would be critical in this program (Linketh.com, 2009). Considering the fact that Tom is also a specialist in entertainment, business, media, and marketing, the general idea of the show is to make room for the new edge of advertising opportunities.

The Show Schedule and the Target Audience

Live with Music would be made to take care of the need of both adults and teenagers at the same time. That is, it would be the viewing needs of both adults and teenagers, who normally embrace Music as part of their culture. In this case, it is an entertainment, informative as well as an educative program that is designed with the intention of catching the attention of a wide range of viewers.

The proposed show will run for one and a half hours during the weekends, from 9.00 to 10.30 pm. This is to ensure that only teenagers and adults get the opportunity to watch and participate in the show, while children would be presumably asleep to prevent them from encountering any offensive actions and behaviors.

In this program, the intention is to have a TV station that is known to have hosted some of the entertainment reality shows that had drawn huge audiences. Thus the choice of 4music, with its widescreen television network capability.

After being launched in 2008, the first popular show to be hosted was the Davina and Steve’s 20 Big Ones (Linketh.com, 2009). It was followed by another popular show in the Big Brother Live. These shows drew a huge number of viewers and fans, subsequently attracting a huge number of advertising companies.

According to Linketh.com (2009), the possibility of defining the future of television advertising business is dependent on the popularity of the program and the cultural orientation of the audience. How the popular culture can determine the success of a television show, and more specifically, a music show with artists hosted in the analysis.

Popular cultures influence what is to be produced and consumed (Chatman, 1978). The performance indicator is the ability to present an integrated approach to advertising, albeit without compromising the entertainment aspect of the show (Eliashberg, Hui & Zhang, 2007).

Show Personnel

The Show Host: He/she is in charge of the show as a whole. In this case, the host will take the responsibility of inviting the artists of choice, organize the schedule for their appearances, and ensures that the overall show runs smoothly. In summary, the show host is more of the overall manager both behind the scene and in front of the cameras.

Backline Technician: responsible for all of the instrumentation, equipment, and the stage set. Work very closely with the host so as to make sure that all the technical areas are in perfect working condition and must help if equipment fails during a show.

Production Manager: arrange and administer the technical requirements and staff for a show. It also plays the role of coordinating the activities of both the station staff and the visiting artists, hence must have an overview of the entire production.

Evaluation and Control

To ensure viewers get value for their time, a review of the program will be carried out on a regular basis, making the viewers part of the review and evaluation process. Increasing the participation will be paramount as it will be the attraction for more advertising companies.

This will be evaluated by following the number of people who purchase the albums reviewed, hence resulting in a tentative outcome with the popularity of the show.

This will also help us analyze the strength of the fan base. At the same time, the number of callers will be recorded, and a form of the survey will be conducted by our team to ensure the new callers are noted for our evaluation purposes. From this show, we expect the number of participants to increase exponentially.

Reference List

Chatman, S. (1978) Story and Discourse: Narrative Structure in Fiction and Film. New York, Cornell University Press.

Davis, M.B. (2007) Doing a Successful Research Project. Hampshire, Palgrave Macmillian.

Eliashberg, J., Hui, S.K & Zhang J (2007) From Storyline to Box Office: A New Approach for Green-Lighting Movie Scripts. Management Science, 53 (6), 881-894.

Linketh.com (2009) Tom Brumpton summery and career highlights. Web.

Salmon, R. (2007) Starting your own record Label: Marketing your music in a digital world.

Ofcom, 2008. The communication market: Key market development in television.

Global Warming Is Not A Myth

Is climate change natural? Is global warming a myth? Essay samples like this one will help you find the answer. Check it out if you need to write a “global warming is not a myth” essay

Forewords

Whether global warming is a theory or a reality has been a matter of debate over the years. In fact, global warming and the evident climatic change poses as one of the most controversial, unclear, and highly debated phenomena in the world today with proponents and skeptics taking different sides of the argument.

While the proponents of global warming strongly believe that the phenomenon is a reality and is greatly responsible for the variations in climate witnessed in the last few years resulting from increased emission of greenhouse gases (Proctor, 2009), the skeptics and those opposed to the concept of global warming have dismissed it as a mere myth or rather an assumption with no-scientific evidence linking it to anthropogenic activities and which is greatly non-apprehensive (Wollstein, 2007).

In their own argument, the proponents of global warming argue that the increased human activities that have led to increased emission of greenhouse gases such as carbon dioxide into the atmosphere are responsible for the erratic climatic changes and global warming (Wollstein, 2007).

Although scientists are yet to come up with a comprehensive and clear scientific evidence linking the changing climatic changes with the depletion of ozone layer due to increased emission of greenhouse gases (the latter of which are believed to be the craft behind the global warming phenomenon), the recent suspicious climatic variations, steadily increasing temperatures and depletion of ice cover are indications that global warming issue may not be a myth after all (IPCC, 2001).

For instance, the recent unprecedented global variations in climatic conditions have escalated further the world’s world’s global warming debate.

Furthermore, the 1997 El Nino coupled with scores of other climatic signs that appear to evidence the myth of the global warming has turned the world attention to the phenomenon leading to staging of global platform to discuss the issues and seek solutions with a unified objective of “saving” the world from the looming catastrophe (IPCC, 2001).

One of the most famous and recent such conferences is the Kyoto conference which was held in Japan in 1997 and that sought to discuss the global warming phenomenon as well as find suitable solution to either prevent its escalation or mitigate the effects of the same.

As a result, the conference led to the participants’participants’ consensus on global warming and ended with the signing of an international decree to stem further emission of greenhouse gases to stem global warming, famously known as the “Kyoto protocol” (COP-3, 1997).

Irrespective of the fact that the partial consensus on global warming greatly brought out the issue of global warming as reality, skeptics and a number of climate scientist have stepped forward to disapprove that global warming is in indeed a reality and that gases emissions as a result of human activities were responsible for global warming and evidenced variations in climate.

This paper, therefore, presents an in-depth argument for the global warming theory and aims at disapproving skeptics of global warming that it is indeed a reality and not a myth. It seeks to prove that it is indeed human activities that are responsible for global warming, particular via increased emission of greenhouse gases-predominantly CO2.

The changing climatic conditions

The underlying principle behind the global warming phenomena and the ensuing debate is the unprecedented variations in climate that continues to be witnessed in different parts of the world (IPCC, 2001). Ideally, such changes in climate can be vividly observed and undeniable even by the skeptics.

Although the observed changing climatic conditions are greatly reliant on global climatic trends observation rather than global climate models, the worlds world’s scientist (including the skeptics of the future global warming) have unanimously accepted that there are unusual and unmatched variations in the global climate and which have steadily continued to change over the last few decades.

However, those opposed to global warming have adamantly continued to refute the proponent’s augment that climate changes are a direct result of increased emission of greenhouse gases, particularly carbon dioxide into the atmosphere resulting from increased human activities (Wollstein, 2007).

As such, the latter has dismissed the global warming issue as a myth that can hardly be proven by scientific evidence. However, facts about suspicious variations in climatic conditions greatly raised the alarm and presented an authentic pedestal for proponents to stage their argument for global warming.

Greenhouse gases & the changing global temperatures

According to the proponents of global warming, irrespective of the fact that water vapor is the largest constituent of greenhouse gases, its concentration in the atmosphere has been proven to be consistent in determining temperature trends (Wollstein, 2007).

According to the latter, enhanced human activities have led to increased concentration of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, including carbon dioxide that is consistently being emitted from the burning of fossil fuels and increased deforestation.

Furthermore, emissions from global wetlands, termites and world water bodies particularly oceans coupled with gaseous emissions from ruminant animals, rice paddies, natural gases operations, and landfills among other sources of natural methane have led to an indisputable increase in the concentration of methane and related gases in the atmosphere (Archer, 2005).

In addition, Archer argues that increased use of nitrogen fertilizers in agriculture has led to an escalation in the levels of nitrous oxide and related gases in the atmosphere. Furthermore, the role of human activities in global warming is greatly evidenced by the fact that any of the chlorofluorocarbons have no known natural sources. Hence, their increased concentration in the atmosphere is solely as a result of human activities.

According to Proctor (2009), scientific evidence reveals that higher concentration of greenhouse gases are associated with higher temperature based on the underpinning evidence that the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases keep the globe warmer than it could have been if such gases were less concentrated than they are present.

From the facts, it has been proven that durations that have in the past been characterized by high levels of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere recorded higher temperature levels with the vice versa also holding to be true (Hansen, 2006).

The latter argues that the presence of increasing levels of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere has seen the earth temperature escalate by approximately 50oF, an implication that the surface temperature would have been 50oF lower than it currently is if such gases were virtually absent in the atmosphere.

According to the proponents of global warming (Archer, 2005), the increasing concentration of greenhouse gases has the potential for influencing global climate change long in the future after their emission into the atmosphere.

This is particularly because the greenhouse gases have a long life and long term atmospheric effects ranging from a decade for methane gases, approximately a century for carbon dioxide to one and half-century for nitrous oxide gases; a factor that has made the climatic system to have high climatic inertia, basically as a result of long lifetimes of the oceanic dynamical processes.

Irrespective of the fact that the degree of cooling effects from the sulfate particles that constitute sulfur dioxide has not been clearly ascertained, there is slight evidence that the higher their concentration in the atmosphere, the lower the global temperature as a result of their cooling effects.

Contracting evidence also points out the depletion of the ozone has had a positive contribution to global cooling, a factor that supports the global warming theory (Archer, 2005).

Over the last decade, however, evidence from the climate scientists approximates that the global temperatures have increased by a range of 0.3oC and 0.7oC (PIRCS, 1998).

The latter asserts that despite the fact that natural factors have played a role in the variations of the climatic condition and that it is almost impossible to accurately ascertain the contributions of human activities, increased greenhouse gases emission and resulting global warming in the same, the fact is that the latter is real, and its contributions to the changing global climatic conditions is equally significant.

However, the proof of global warming and its contribution to global climatic variations greatly depend on the ability and accuracy of the climatic scientists as well as the proponents of global warming to significantly reduce the uncertainty on the role of clouds variations, changes in water vapor, ice, oceanic circulation as well as regional variation of the respective climatic conditions (PIRCS, 1998).

Is global warming a myth?: Skeptics’ argument

Despite the presence of massive substantiation of global warming (that ranges from instrumental surface temperature records, withdrawer of mountain glaciers, and borehole temperature trends to blanching of coral reefs) those opposed to global warming theory have cited two main studies to push their argument through.

First, although the satellite temperature measurements from 1979 cited in Christy, Spencer & McNider (1995) revealed evidence of warming, skeptics argued that the later was only half the value of surface temperature values in this time.

Furthermore, an empirical survey in 1995 suggested that variations in the season’s cycle were solely responsible for the witnessed variations in the global temperatures (IPCC, 1995). However, the study failed to present any link whatsoever to radioactive forcing for the identification of the physical processes responsible for the variations.

In effect, the studies have been dismissed by the proponents of global warming as lacking in authenticity and apprehensiveness, thus requiring further investigations and falling short of the ability to offer a substantial base for anyone to conclude that global warming is a myth (Wollstein, 2007).

The global warming skeptics, while dismissing the proponents argument that the increase in the global temperature is as a result of increased emission of greenhouse gases, they argued that the steady increase in the world’s temperatures over the past a hundred and thirty years was still evident in the early years of the 20th century long before the purported inflation of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases began (Wollstein, 2007).

As a result, skeptics argue that the warming must have been as a result of variation in natural factors and not a result of anthropogenic causes (Proctor, 2009).

However, the proof of the cooling effects and brightening of clouds by sulfate particles of sulfur dioxide, which results from the combustion of coal by human beings, counters the earlier argument by the skeptics presenting an ideal prove that global warming has a high possibility of having an anthropogenic link.

Global warming is not a myth: what proponents say?

The militant proponents of global warming theory continue to insist that the globe is greatly threatened by the steadily increasing levels of greenhouse gases and which poses a potential of completely bringing to the end of life of the human race as well as all other forms of life on earth (Wollstein, 2007).

According to the latter, the basic cause of global warming and which is currently being evidenced by drastic variations in climatic conditions is the increased emission of greenhouse gases – mainly carbon dioxide from anthropogenic sources which includes but not limited to emission from cars, widespread industries and factories, barbecues grills or even via the most natural act of breathing.

Going by the proponents’proponents’ theory of global warming and which the latter has presented as mere facts, it is only a comprehensive drastic reduction in emission of greenhouse gases in the atmosphere, which can, in fact, save the world from the imminent danger of extinction (Wollstein, 2007).

At one point, the proponents of the global warming have asserted that continued debate on the global warming phenomenon was greatly uncalled for and its time long gone in fact suggested that the global warming skeptics needed to be categorized and treated as Islamic terrorists as their continued skeptics meant the end of human race (Proctor, 2009).

The current worsening of climatic conditions under increased anthropogenic operations and increased atmospheric pollution greatly justify the seriousness in which the proponents have taken the issue of global warming. In fact, they adamantly continue to insist that the international scientists must unanimously reach a consensus that global warming is a reality and not a myth as skeptics would like to make people believe.

The proponents have relentlessly carried on with their endeavor to prove to the people that global warming is a direct result of human activities and the resultant atmospheric pollution via emission of greenhouse gases predominantly CO2.

As such, the proponents of global warming have tended to dismiss the global warming skeptics as either industrial trills, unbelievably misadvised individuals, or simply evil fellows who should not be allowed to mislead others further, thus deserving immediate silencing (Proctor, 2009).

At one point, Jackstraw – the British foreign secretary – the latter of whom is a strong proponent of global warming, indicated that skeptics deserved being treated the same as supporters of Islamic terrorists who didn’t even deserve to be allowed access to the media.

Also, grist magazine in the representation of true believers of global warming strongly indicated that climatic change was a result of anthropogenic activities, thus suggested that those who adamantly continued to deny this fact be tried using Nuremberg-style “war crime” (Wollstein, 2007).

The proponents win: signing of the Kyoto protocol

In what seemed initially as the proponents win, the international conference that was held in Tokyo Japan in 1997 and which sought to reach consensus that global warming and the climate change were direct results of human activities particularly via admission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere, led to the signing of the Kyoto protocol by almost all the participants (COP-3, 1997).

In fact, the nations represented in the conference unanimously agreed that increased emission of greenhouse gases predominantly carbon dioxide was the chief cause of global warming and responsible for the evidenced climatic change. As such, the objective of the conference i.e., basically to seek effective ways of acquiring control of carbon dioxide and other greenhouse gases, was achieved by the signing of the accord.

In effect, the decree bound all its signatories to exhibit responsibility in the absolute control of greenhouse emission by controlling anthropogenic activities that led to the same as a desperate measure of salvaging the earth from the potentially imminent extinction (COP-3, 1997).

Conclusion

All facts point out that the ranging debate on whether global warming is a myth or reality has been squarely won by global warming proponents. Ideally, the effects of global warming evidenced by drastic and live threatening variations in the global climatic conditions and increasing world temperatures are vivid and indisputable and provide ideal pedestals for proponents to place their argument for global warming.

Although there is little evidence by the proponents linking global warming with the anthropogenic sources i.e. human activities that leads to emissions of greenhouse gases chiefly carbon dioxide, the skeptics have adamantly denied the role of human beings in the same without even little evidence to substantiate their claim or to virtually detach human activities and emission of greenhouse gases from global warming.

All evidence points out that global warming is not a myth but an absolute reality, and just as proponents insist, the time for debate is long gone, and drastic measures need to be taken to control such activities as a last resort to save planet earth from potentially imminent extinction.

Reference List

Archer, D. (2005). “Fate of fossil fuel CO2 in geologic time: Journal of Geophysical Research 110 (C9): p.1–6″

Christy, J., Spencer, R., & McNider, R. T. (1995). Reducing noise in the MSU daily lower tropospheric global temperature data set. J. Climate 8,888-896.

COP-3, 1997: United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change, Conference of Parties – 3, Kyoto, Japan.

Hansen, J. (2006-01-12). Goddard Institute for Space Studies, GISS Surface Temperature Analysis, NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies.

IPCC (1995). Summary for Policymakers: The Science of Climate Change. IPCC Working Group.

IPCC, (2001). Global Warming: The Early Signs; An Increasing Body Of Observations Gives A Collective Picture Of A Warming World And Other Changes In The Climate System, Climate hot map.

PIRCS, (1998). Project to Intercompare Regional Climate Simulations, Iowa State University. Web.

Proctor, J. (2009). Is Global Warming a Myth? How to respond to people who doubt the human impact on the climate: scientific American.

Wollstein, J. (2007). Global Warming: Myths and Reality, ISIL home.

Race And Gender Stereotypes In Literature

Introduction

Literature is an avenue through which life experiences in society are portrayed from the perspective of the author. To achieve this reflection of encounters, the writer uses a number of stylistic features and techniques. Most of these literary devices are used to improve the quality of the message passed across to the audience.

A critical analysis of literature reveals that its application can have both positive and negative impacts on society. For example, over the years, writers have been accused of advancing stereotypes in the community. The most common aspects of these misleading generalizations include race and gender (McGarty, Yzerbyt and Spears 123).

The arguments made in this paper revolve around the subject of misplaced opinions in literature. Literary texts are used to advance gender and race-related stereotypes. In this paper, the author examines three literary texts. The three include Araby, a short story by James Joyce. The others are The Hound of the Baskervilles, a novel by Sir Arthur Conan Doyle, and The False Gems by Guy de Maupassant.

The attitudes of the three authors towards gender and race are highlighted. The objective is to illustrate how stereotypes based on the two issues are promoted in the texts. Instances of generalizations are provided in the paper. In addition, this author provides an annotated bibliography. The aim is to indicate how the selected texts are related to the thesis statement of this paper.

Stereotypes

Maass, D’Ettole, and Cadinu (231) point out that any given society is made up of individuals drawn from various ethnic, racial, and gender backgrounds. Under such circumstances, opinions are formed touching on the behaviors of these people. In some instances, the traits of these individuals are explained on the basis of their background. Such thought systems are what makeup stereotypes.

McGarty et al. (231) suggest that some of these opinions are erroneous. They may be misleading accounts of the behavior of individuals. Literature is a reflection of the reality in the society. The reason is that the authors are members of the community and are affected by what happens there. As a societal mirror, literature tends to make use of this fundamental aspect of stereotyping by generalizing the conduct of characters in the text.

Maass et al. (234) point out that a stereotype can be discriminatory depending on the tone and attitude used by the author. A classic example of this includes stereotypes revolving around gender. In a text, a woman can be depicted as being submissive to her spouse. However, when there is an indication of violence towards the female character, the author may turn prejudicial.

Consequently, the depiction of a passive woman is discriminative. The implication is that women are inferior to men. Such a scenario is an illustration of how literature makes use of stereotypes. The quality of this generalization, together with its impacts on society, relies on the author.

McGarty et al. (35) are of the view that racial generalizations are common in literature. For instance, the depiction of slavery in early times promoted the stereotype that Africans are ‘inferior’ to other races.

As a result, it is not surprising to find Africans playing subordinate roles in contemporary literature. Such kind of approach is viewed as a reinforcement of stereotypes in works of art. An analysis of the selected texts will help to illustrate this point further.

Annotated Bibliography

Doyle, Arthur. The Hound of the Baskervilles. 1st ed. 1902. London: George Newnes. Print.

The text is authored by Arthur Doyle, a fictional writer. The crime series book is about a murder revolving around a hound with supernatural origins. In the book, the author uses Sherlock Holmes as the main character. Holmes is assisted by Mr. Watson.

The role of the duo is to investigate the murder in reference. Sir Charles Baskerville dies in what appears to be a heart attack. However, there are power games at play behind the scenes. The scenario forces the investigators to take the safety of Baskerville’s heir into account.

The plot of the story is a very good example of how stereotypes can be promoted through art. An analysis of the characters reveals that none of them is female. The author does not make reference to women until the element of a curse is brought into the picture.

An earlier patriarch of the Baskerville family had forcefully held a female house help in captivity. Doyle (22) uses the female character to illustrate how society has neglected women. The author promotes the stereotype of domesticated women, who are objects of sexual gratification.

According to Maass et al. (236), most stereotypes related to women address the issues of labor and sex. The inclusion of this form of generalization in the narrative makes this text relevant to the current essay. It supports the paper’s thesis statement. Evidently, Doyle is prejudicial since the main female character is tortured. In fact, her demise is believed to be the cause of Sir Charles Baskerville’s death.

The narrative is important as it helps in illustrating the place of the woman in society. In this book, Doyle provides the reader with insights into the classical perceptions of women. The knowledge will help in promoting the topic of this study.

Joyce, James. n.d. Araby. n.d. 2014. 

Joyce (1) uses the first person narrative to tell the story of how children transcend to puberty. The important stage in life is used to show how children prefer to have a lighter skin complexion. The author uses the innocence of these characters to highlight important themes like religion and idealization. The most important topic in the narrative is love. It is apparent that Joyce treats romance as his pet subject.

Joyce uses the characters in the narrative to depict some sort of racial stereotyping (4). The argument in the entire story is in line with the main objective of this study. The thesis statement is affirmed by the cases of racial discrimination illustrated in the book. An example of this is when the children play in the snow just to get a lighter complexion. The author tackles the subject with delight. Joyce appears to disregard the health of these children.

There are other stereotypes made evident in the narrative and which support the thesis statement of this study. Initially, most cases of racial stereotyping were associated with inferiority in relation to Caucasians. However, a different angle is introduced by this author.

The additional information suggests that people from the Arabian region are romantic. A stereotype of this nature will enable the author of the current paper to expound on the notion of tone and prejudice in literature. The same will assist in explaining how authors can use stereotypes in a positive light. The short story is quite relevant to the current study.

Maupassant, Guy. n.d. The False Gems. n.d. 2014. 

Maupassant (4) uses a number of stylistic tools to tell a love story in this narrative. The story revolves around a young man who falls in love with a maid at a dinner party. The journey of their relationship is highlighted in the short text.

The story is touching, especially to someone who values romantic narratives. Different themes are depicted, including romance and feminism. The main character later marries the lady. He is used to shedding light on the turmoil revolving around relationships.

Maupassant (3) uses this narrative to illustrate the three main traits of human beings. Using Latin as the main character, he exposes the materialistic nature of women. The author uses Lantin’s mother to show how women struggle in life.

The narrative helps to explain how women are portrayed as beauty trophies in society. All these themes are stereotypes associated with women. The story promotes the thesis statement selected for this study. The tone used by the author supports the claim that stereotypes can be used to promote certain beliefs about women.

A new element brought to fore in this story is the issue of how women may enjoy their status as objects. Maupassant (5) addresses this idea through Lantin’s wife. Her love for jewelry makes Latin doubt her faithfulness. McGarty et al. (238) explain that certain stereotypes are the creation of a particular group.

The argument is supported by those women who choose to stay at home and become housewives. Maupassant illustrates this point in a bid to show that the challenges associated with feminism may be brought about by women themselves.

Gender Stereotypes

The interaction between men and women varies from one time to the other. The engagement also differs from one place to the other. As a result, when such relationships are depicted in literature, the author relies on predetermined thoughts and opinions.

According to Maass et al. (239), the interaction between men and women has been characterized by male dominance since the classical periods. Consequently, the literature depicts men as superior to women. In such cases, the female partner is expected to be submissive to her male colleague.

The nature of the relationship may vary with the intentions of the two parties. McGarty et al. (23) suggest that when the woman appears to be too passive, the male partner may take advantage of her. In such cases, violence is likely to take place.

Violent confrontations may result, especially in instances where the woman tries to fight for her rights after a long period of male dominance. It is the responsibility of the author to point out these issues in their literary works. The three narratives used in this study manifest this characteristic.

Doyle (2) introduces the idea of crime in their story. As already indicated, the main characters in this narrative are all male. A review of their occupations makes it apparent that they are affluent members of society. Sherlock Holmes is investigating the death of a wealthy baron. The author introduces the deceased’s heir as a key player. Doyle appears obsessed with the idea of protecting this beneficiary.

Interestingly, very little is said about the baron’s wife. It is as if she never existed. The main female character is introduced as an afterthought. She comes into the scene as a flashback. The farmhand who was forced into a relationship with her master later dies trying to flee from the home. The scenario goes to show how women are treated in this story.

Another example of how gender is stereotyped in literature is seen through Maupassant’s story. His romantic narrative treats women in a very interesting manner. The story shows how materialistic women can become. Lantin’s wife is obsessed with jewelry and other forms of possessions. She lets her husband see how her ‘friends’ give her beautiful gifts. Latin becomes jealous.

The reality troubles him because he cannot afford to get her wife such items. The stereotype highlights the notion of how women are attracted to material things. Their desire for such items is ironical considering that they rely on men to purchase them. The same could be the reason why men find it hard to tolerate or understand women.

On their part, Joyce (8) relies on the main character to show how women can be used as objects of sexual gratification in the society. There is a woman in the bazaar who is preoccupied with men. The advances made by the main character notwithstanding, the woman appears to be content with her actions

In both examples, it is clear that stereotypes can be used to portray the characteristics of a group of people (Maass et al. 235). However, such perceptions are brought about by the thoughts and opinions of the author. To this end, it is apparent that writers act as ‘gods’ in their literary world. They are in control of the whole situation. They determine the opinions formed by their readers.

Through their personal prejudices, authors tend to control how their characters are stereotyped by the larger society. Today, women appear to be moving away from their earlier status of powerlessness. They are fighting for their rights in the society. A contemporary writer will find it important to address this new development in attempts to make their work more relevant.

Maupassant (3) points out that the mother of the main character’s wife came to France upon the death of her spouse. The same goes to show the struggle that women go through in society. With the help of this narrative, the author is able to address the plight of women in a conventional community. Stereotypes are important tools of passing across certain themes dominant in a society.

The challenges encountered by women are cast in a new light when some of them refuse to work. They prefer to act as their husband’s trophies. In the story by Maupassant, such women are highlighted with the help of Lantin’s wife and her compulsive desire to amass jewelry.

Racial Stereotypes in Literature

As already indicated in this paper, a conventional society is composed of people from different socio-economic backgrounds. Maass et al. (231) point out that race is a common stereotype in today’s world. At times, members of the dominant race feel threatened by the minority group.

As a result, they impose certain regulations in that society to push the marginalized group into submission. In most Caucasian societies, Africans, Asians, and Arabs are treated as minorities.

When they are subjected to fear, individuals from the minority groups are made to believe that the dominant class is ‘superior’ to them. In the opinion of McGarty et al. (21), many individuals from minority groups want to be like Caucasians. Such kinds of thoughts can be put together in a narrative.

However, the attitude of the author telling such a story will determine the suitability of the said stereotype. A case in point is Araby, where the events take place in Dublin, a Caucasian society.

Joyce (8) uses the narrative to show how society views light-skinned people like Caucasians. The stereotype is advanced by the children who are accustomed to playing in the snow for the sole purpose of getting fair skin. It is shocking how the author uses children to demonstrate this aspect.

The characters draw their colored complexion from their Arabian ancestry. With the help of this stereotype, Joyce (13) illustrates how minority groups tend to associate themselves with the characteristics of people from the majority ethnic classes.

However, not all stereotypes are prejudicial. Joyce (11) introduces a new angle to this narrative by bringing on board the theme of romance. The story appears to suggest that the main character draws his romantic prowess from his Arab heritage.

Such a move is interesting because it depicts how a racial trait can be used to enhance positive opinions in a story. Furthermore, the tone used by Joyce in this text is positive. The reader gets the feeling that the story has a romantic touch to it regardless of the ‘inferiority’ illustrated by the children.

The two examples above are an illustration of how society creates impressions about individuals based on their backgrounds (Maass et al. 232). Ethnic variations are indications of human diversity. Joyce (11) uses this concept to construct the romantic attribute of the main character.

Romance is usually viewed as a priceless phenomenon. It is interesting to note how an individual who was earlier depicted as inferior goes ahead to exhibit this worthy attribute. Such an observation reveals how an author can use their ‘godly’ powers to introduce new thoughts into the mind of the reader. It is imperative to use race to depict positive thoughts and to fight negative stereotypes.

Conclusion

The three texts analyzed in this paper can be regarded as brilliant works of art. The various stylistic features employed by the authors are illustrations of the importance of different techniques used in writing. In this paper, it was revealed that stereotypes can be used as stylistic devices in literature.

The racial elements highlighted by Joyce (8), as well as the gender issues addressed by Maupassant (11), are classic examples of stereotypes. Common opinions about certain groups are highlighted in these texts. Such opinions are usually drawn from the personal thoughts of the writer. The sentiments are passed across to the reader through literature.

It is evident that literary texts can be used to advance stereotypes. In the opinion of Maass et al. (235), the author has the power to determine how the generalization will be perceived by the reader.

The attitude of the writer can be used to highlight a given stereotype in a positive light. To achieve this, a constructive tone is employed. Joyce (11) relies on this element to illustrate romance in their text. As such, one can argue that literary texts advance stereotypes through the tone and attitude adopted by the author.

Works Cited

Doyle, Arthur. The Hound of the Baskervilles. 1st ed. 1902. London: George Newnes. Print.

Joyce, James. n.d. Araby. n.d. 2014. Web. 

Maass, Anne, Claudio D’Ettole, and Mara Cadinu. “Checkmate? The Role of Gender Stereotypes in Ultimate Intellectual Sport.” European Journal of Social Psychology 38.2 (2008): 231-245. Print.

Maupassant, Guy. n.d. The False Gems. n.d. 2014. Web. 

McGarty, Craig, Vincent Yzerbyt, and Russell Spears. Stereotypes as Explanations: The Formation of Meaningful Beliefs about Social Groups, Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2002. Print.

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