Sam and Hunter Smith shouldn’t be here right now. Their existence were genetic fiction. There were 8,324,608 possible genetic combinations for human chromosome pairs. They could have never been. Yet, in front of me, two six-year-old anomalies stood. At one point, they were simply a fertilized egg in some woman’s fallopian tube. Now, they were two radiant twins enticed by the simple mechanics of Thomas the Train.
I met the genetic phenomenons the summer of my junior when I worked as camp counselor at the YMCA. Caramel eyes, deep chestnut skin and a bleach-white smiles, Sam and Hunter stood four feet, five inches. They were mirror images of each other; except, Hunter was autistic. Each of our interactions had been deja vu. At 7 o’clock, Sam and Hunter arrived to camp. Hunter wore his regular navy Thomas the Train tee, khaki shorts, ocean blue Velcro Nike sneakers, and a plastic Thomas The Train. As the summer progressed, I pondered how the same genome resulted in such different individuals as identical meant the same.
Every free moment of my summer was dedicated to Google searches on identical twins studies similar to Sam’s and Hunter’s. Although limited, my results led me to uncover the field of epigenetics, the study of how the environment influences gene expression. I concluded that our internal and external environments cause a domino effect on gene expressions, one modification results in the expression or lack of expression of another. Captivated by this systematic uncertainty, I continued to study the field the following summer auditing a 2-week epigenetics class at Harvard. From learning about the various methyltransferases, acetyl transferases, and phosphorylation, epigenetic never seems to have a dull moment. Discovering that a gene contains multi-functions depending on its genomic and organ location was beyond intriguing. Although brief, the intense level of academia consolidated my interest in genetics
My mother said,”One day, you will find a cause more important than yourself and when you do, fight for it.” Cases like Hunter and Sam Smith are my cause. Affecting one percent of the world, autism, or autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is neurodevelopmental condition characterized by challenges with social skills, repetitive behaviors, speech and nonverbal communication as well as by exceptional strengths. Of the one percent, 25% of autistic individuals are non-verbal. Since non-verbal autism is triggered by mutations on several human-specific genes, researcher have yet to identify a gene or genes directly associated with non-verbalism in autism.
However, in 1998, genetic researchers at Oxford University discovered the forkhead box protein 2 (FOXp2), a transcription factor associated with proper development of speech and language regions of the brain during embryogenesis of humans. The FOXp2 gene influences language development as it regulates brain development. High levels of methylation of histone 3 lysine 4 (H3K4) on the promoter region of the FOXp2 gene have been linked to delayed or absent cognitive abilities, such as oral communication as well as written communication. Between 2000 to 2002, the prevalence of autism increased from 3.06 % to an all-time high of 14.7% among individual born within the time span with 25% being non-verbal. In addition to, many children diagnosed with autism had been weaned off baby formula containing DHA/ARA supplements, which promotes brain development, rather than breast milk. With Harvard’s interdisciplinary curriculum and genomic research labs, I hope to one day pursue research on the the effects of baby formula has on methylation patterns of H3K4 of the promoter region of the FOXp2 gene with nonverbal children in hopes to solve enigmas like Sam and Hunter Smith Unearthing the mysteries of the human genome, this is not the only way I plan to utilize the multifaceted education gifted by Harvard but rather the beginning of a cause much greater than myself.
Difference Between Prejudice And Discrimination
Unfortunate enough in our history that discrimination has been with us for the longest time. As discrimination and prejudice probably won’t go away for a long time. Both are actions that treat people poorly, unfairly because of their social group, class or a category of a person that belongs to an individual. It’s wrong and unfair to a treat person, racial group, and a minority. That is an action based on prejudice. We know what happens when we allow prejudice to affect our actions toward everybody. We all know friendships or relationships are valuable to us that we don’t want to ruin it but either prejudice or discrimination can come between them that we will lose them. However, it’s just unnecessary for both to make lose our friendships. Prejudice and Discrimination is an action that treats people unfairly because of membership in a social group, class, or category to which that a person or thing belongs to rather on that individual. Prejudice runs much deeper than a person’s color, but discrimination is against others based upon on the attributes from the beginning of time. Sociologist would say “Those people are the source of all my problems.” Our society is abused with hatred based on people beliefs and origins as millions of people are fighting each other for no reason at all. The emergence of illusive relationships between the belonging of a certain social group and one’s behavior has some consequences. It’s the psychological and social health of a person that is based on awareness of both own individuality and singularity of a group identity that belongs to all humanity.
Discrimination is a very serious problem in our society. Like in the past and as of now that people discriminate against each other with their actions. It can be the lack of knowledge of sociological triggers and being delusion and having a personal ignorance. As one can state that this is who we are but no. It’s within our minds that make us judge other people and as comparing them to ourselves and the ideal of a human being. However, this is a problem where we become overwhelmed with discrimination that we will start to fight against it and we need to determine how discrimination is developed in our mind and advocated by the society. With different types of discrimination that exist, as it effects on people’s lives. It’s everywhere and we judge other people because of their gender, ethnicity, and their behavior. Can it be a model of a human’s behavior or the stereotypes and the prejudices that are inflicted on our society? There’s a reason why we discriminate against other people as the way they look, act, think and speak differently. Even not belonging to the social group that it can feel some experience of segregation. People are highly prejudiced as most of them will not accept the differences of being more expedient to live in a world surrounded by the same color of skin, social status, and same belief. Showing the contempt of people that do not fit in the same category as those individuals can be smarter than you, talents, and the achievements that you can do or dream of it. Counter the fact that every person is unique to deny anything. We should respect our individuality and the individuality of other people despite their race, culture, religious beliefs as all people have equal rights and opportunities. As education is part of discrimination because of how students are being harassed and being treated less favorably based on disability, race, sexual orientation, age. In other words that even kids coming from another country and wanting to go the United States wants a better life and getting an education that they want and achieving their goal. For example, let’s say an immigrant comes to the United States with no papers or nothing but he/she somehow gets a higher level of education as anything is possible for someone to reach a high level of anything. Even with jobs that you’ll get an interview and have a good background plus the resume that you’ll not get the job because of your color skin which can be a discrimination. According to the book Racial and Ethnic Groups, by Schaefer, Richard T. it says, “Affirmative action is the positive effort to recruit subordinate-group members, including women, for jobs, promotions, and education opportunities”. The affirmative action appeared when as an executive order issued by President John F. Kennedy in the year of 1961 that it’s to take affirmative action to ensure the applicants are employed and the employees are treated during the employment and without regard. As for the people who show zero tolerance and enjoying discriminating against different social groups should think how they would feel if the same attitude is being shown to them and being born in a different family or a different location. We should understand that everyone needs to do an action of dissipated efforts as far with discrimination being issued. Particularly with Minority group being part of the discrimination that they’re placed in a disadvantageous position regarding societal rewards, but it ends up less than they would. As according to the book Race and Ethnic relations by Martin N. Marger it says, “Discrimination involve acts of aggression against ethnic minorities and ranging from an isolated incident of violence to the attempt to exterminate an entire group, genocide.” Based on that quotation that it’s trying to say that Minority groups can useless into our society as they can be in the bottom of the group and being hated on as somebody can be in a full range as beating them. With being in a less severe that is verbal abuse and denial of social resources but for more severe that is aggression against and genocide. There are eight way to prevent discrimination which is don’t pretend that it isn’t happening (discriminating behavior may escalate when people feel they can get away with it), seek advice (talk to people who can provide you with constructive advice and support), take action (tell the person who is discriminating against you that their actions are inappropriate and you will not accept it), take the accusation seriously (our body language and tone of voice contributes to the impact of our words and actions), and lastly encouraging diversity and inclusivity in work and study environments.
Prejudice is defined as a judgment of a group or an individual based mainly on group association. In other words that prejudice is like a destroyer of truth where our responses and attitudes are formed from a source of anything less than the truth. Admitting that we have prejudiced opinions. It can be hidden in our personalities where we don’t show it; prevent communication. It’s an opinion or decision of mind formed without due examination of facts or arguments. Prejudice is not necessarily a negative thing because it involves with Ethnocentrism as it’s a positive prejudice towards one’s in-group. However, many people who have a prejudice against another group that will go out their way to make life more difficult for other people. According to the book Introduction to Sociology by Anthony Giddens it says, “Stereotypes are often applied to ethnic minority groups such as the notion that all black men are naturally athletic or that all East Asians are hardworking.” It can be dangerous in some way because it can lead to a lawsuit and because of being damage to a group or individual either physically or just lies. At any level that it can do massive damage to those being targeted. There are types of prejudice which are racism, sexual orientation, religion, sex/gender. Racism is a form of prejudice that’s been around for centuries, but the common form of racism is against the black/African Americans that a lot of people think their lazy, violet, drug dealers, and live on welfare. Sexual Orientation is where people come out of the closet as being bisexual or homosexual that is not surpassed who only believed in heterosexual relations, but people would consider them as a sinner was doing things that are unnatural. Religion is where people have faiths on something but an entire religion with stereotypes and untruths with a negative action. The two main religious groups that suffered prejudice were Christians and Muslims. Lastly with sex/gender being involved in prejudice that there’s a belief of men being better than women but the result of the sexism of men earning a higher wage and getting more desirable jobs. Prejudices and stereotypes have some sources that perform functions of expressing one’s self and desire to seek a friendly society. As both stereotypes and prejudice are social inequality. There are ways to assess and eliminate stereotypes which are to consider what you have common with other people, avoid making assumptions, develop empathy for others, and educate yourself about different cultures and groups. An example of prejudice and racism being together is the Ku Klux Klan that is a racist organization: its member’s belief of white supremacy has been around over the century of hate crime and hate speech. The growth of prejudice mostly depends upon on family members, societies, tradition, customs, myths, legends, faiths, and beliefs. Even with the social distance that develops the attitude and prejudices. Reducing prejudice is a good thing because of not causing a problem and change negative attitudes toward groups of people. Like one is education where that has special programs for students to help them out. Another one is mass media that is reducing prejudice without requiring specially designed programs. According to the book Racial and Ethnic Groups by Richard T. Schaefer it says, “As with measuring the influence of programs designed to reduce prejudice, coming to a strong conclusion on mass media’s effect is hazardous.” With media being everywhere that there’s a 50% chance of increasing prejudice and 50% decreasing prejudice because with the violence, racism, sexist around the world, but the 50% of decreasing prejudice is good for the media because of different shows that are showing for the kids that may be young but it’s good for them to watch good ‘shows’ instead of bad because of never knowing what can happen in the future. Friendship is part of reducing prejudice because of them being there for each other, helping, and being supportive but at the end of the day that all friendship doesn’t end well because of something happening between them and it would increase the prejudice and worry too much that can lead into bad things. So, the apparent prejudicial behavior is inevitable to an individual from a different background and culture. As a result, in prejudice that was both conscious and unconsciously in the decisions that make in our daily life.
Throughout our society they’re always a difference between discrimination and prejudice. Discrimination involves with 3 different types which are micro, macro, and structural discrimination. Micro discrimination is action taken by individuals or groups of limited size to injure or deny members of minority ethnic groups. Macro discrimination is not limited of negative action taken against members of groups but incorporated in the society’s normative system. Structural discrimination is a result from the normal functioning of a society’s institutions, rather than the direct and intended actions of individuals. With Prejudices are pre-formed and not having a reasonable basis but for discrimination that includes all the actions that people take against others. An example of discrimination being different from prejudice is the segregation of black and whites during the Civil Rights Movement. Discrimination consist of more aggressive behavior like giving a dirty look and refusing to patronize a business because of managers are certain of race, gender or religion. Prejudice stems from a good intention for a better life of minorities. According to the book Exploring Social Life by James Henslin it says, “The sociological understanding of the dynamics of racial prejudice can be applied effectively by those promoting intragroup hatred as well as by those wanting to spread tolerance.” Within the Marxian theory that had the beneficiaries of prejudice and discrimination. The ethnic prejudice can be viewed as a means of sustaining a system of economic exploitation that is a benefit to the capitalist class. However, the difference between Discrimination and Prejudice that is the notion of an individual, race, and a group that is demonstrating a judgment. Prejudice is kept inside of an individual that is quiet to do a judgmental thing on the people. With Discrimination that it put’s prejudice into practice as if someone discriminate on daily bases that it will activate prejudice that letting it go from the inside (practice against the people). As prejudice can be described as an attitude towards a certain group of people based on their ethnic group, but when discrimination is in action that it’s taken against those people, the behavioral manifestation of prejudice. With the practice of prejudice and discrimination that comes from an individual’s perception of a certain group as the perceptions of a group that comes from stereotypes. The impact of stereotypes that directly effect of people in a negative way that we think of those as the traits come to mind. Meeting people from different group will make us focus on their traits and process it. Stereotyping affect our social judgements about a group of people as how much we like that person, our mood, attitudes towards the person, and the expectation form that person. One example of prejudice being different from discrimination is conforming behaviors that prejudice bring support to others as rejecting prejudices can lead to lose social support. Even within the economic benefits that prejudice can rise when different groups are in a competition for jobs as being more drama and having a social stress that discrimination won’t get involved into this. One person named Pearlin’s said “most prejudiced toward blacks remained mostly strongly affiliated with their precollege membership groups, and those least prejudiced experienced a weakening of such ties and an increasing identification with their new college groups.” As discrimination doesn’t come to close to prejudice that prejudice would top discrimination in many ways as if any situation that prejudice would come first. Prejudice is like our emotions that we constantly hide or show as let’s say with relationships that we would show someone we love them but if we don’t show them we love them that it can end up in a bad way. In the other hand with discrimination that we would show our action as protesting or something, but we would physically hurt someone as something they done or going against them. Except both must relate with scapegoating which is a common when two deprived ethnic group come into competition with another for economic rewards. According to the book The structure of social stratification in the United States by Leonard Beeghley it says, “prejudice and discrimination today has become controversial, that America is becoming a colorblind society such that minority group members are increasingly integrated into the mainstream.” So, this is the difference between discrimination and prejudice.
Lastly, looking into prejudice and discrimination that we necessarily investigate some of the social psychology of ethnic relations (individual), or interpersonal level. We have been concerned primarily with ethnic relations of groups, or structural level, the approach to prejudice and discrimination that will continue to emphasize the group dynamics and consequences of social phenomena. Both have been prevalent throughout human history. Prejudices have preconceived beliefs about groups of people or cultural practices but it either be a positive or negative form. When a negative thing is formed that it can lead to discrimination but it’s possible the prejudice to not act upon the attitudes. For those who practice discrimination must protect opportunities for themselves by denying access to those whom they believe that did not deserve the same treatment as everyone else. People need to stop following the crowd as following their footstep or something as they should form their footsteps or opinions. As everyone in this world has respect for one another that we would live in a peaceful world and believe what they wish, accept that everyone is different. Everyone comes from different parts of the world and a lot of them would come to the United States because of achieving their dream goal that they wanted to do as they were kids. However, it can come down to parents teaching their children right from wrong in this world and as raising them in a society that is cornered in the acceptance of different ways of life and culture. If we change our ways, that our future will be closed to accepting a character that is based on the content of their soul, religion, ethnicity, gender, and the color of their skin.
Personal Statement Medical School
My desire to become a doctor is rooted in my experiences caring for my mother, a type 1 diabetic who for many years fought a losing battle against her disease. When I was 15 years old, I came home from school to find her slumped over on the bathroom floor, barely conscious. As I knelt beside her, each of her ragged breaths flooded my senses with the sickeningly sweet smell of ketones. Her sugar was high again, and she needed a shot of insulin. My hands shook as I struggled to guide the syringe needle into the tiny rubber cap of the insulin vial, as I’d seen my older sister do so many times before. After what felt like hours, the ambulance finally arrived to take her to the emergency department for the third time this month.
Mom hated hospitals, and seeing how she was treated there, I couldn’t blame her. Sitting at her bedside during our countless visits to the local emergency department , I came to understand the difference between treating a medical condition and caring for a patient. The doctors there knew her on a first name basis, and they never failed to provide her with the treatment she needed. She was promptly examined, given an IV, started on an insulin drip, and admitted to the ICU, where she would be closely monitored until she was stable enough to be discharged. This was her routine, and it worked.
But for my mother, this familiarity came with a price. Her recurrent visits earned her the label of the “noncompliant diabetic,” someone too irresponsible and stubborn to take care of herself. There was a cold air of indifference in the way the staff interacted with her. Their apathetic expressions and pointed remarks sent a message that was loud and clear: she was a lost cause; a poor investment of their time and effort. As if her physical suffering was not enough, each hospital visit left her more defeated and demoralized than the last. It was incredibly frustrating to see my mother treated in this way. On one hand, I was always grateful to her doctors; after all, they had saved her life on more than one occasion. But at the same time, I resented them for not caring for her in the way I knew she deserved. I was naive back then, and becoming a doctor was barely even a dream. Even so, I promised myself that if ever there came a time when I was entrusted with caring for someone’s mother, I would show her the kindness and respect that she deserves, regardless of the circumstances.
During college, I saw a different side of medicine while working nights as a medical scribe in the emergency department of a small community hospital a few miles off-campus. I spent each twelve-hour shift side-by-side with an emergency physician, meeting patients and documenting every conversation, symptom, and testing result. At first, I was overwhelmed, but as months and years passed, the work-ups became second nature, and I became fluent in the lingo that was once so foreign to me. As I gained more experience, I seized every opportunity to emulate the physicians who had become my mentors. When we encountered particularly complex cases, I scoured the patient’s medical records for any hidden clues. I was thrilled to be part of the team, especially in the instances when I uncovered some detail that seemed minor to me, but turned out to be vital part of the decision-making process.
As I pursue training as a physician, my end goal is not to fix broken bodies, but to care for those in need; and sometimes, people are broken in ways no medicine can repair: like the father of three whose visit started with him feeling “a little run down,” and ended with a diagnosis of terminal metastatic brain cancer. Or the young mother whose four year-old son fell off a playground swing and “just seemed a little wobbly,” before he fell asleep on the hospital bed and never woke up. Standing at the bedside during these pivotal moments, I learned that sometimes a touch on the shoulder or a comforting embrace did more than any medicine could, just by showing them that they were not alone, and that the people who they had trusted to fix them would stay by their side, even when there was nothing left to fix.
Although I am not yet equipped to treat patients, my experiences caring for them instilled me with a sense of personal responsibility that drove me to push on during the times when circumstances put my commitment to the test. Working three or more nights a week while keeping up with my classes was grueling. I took exams going on 30 hours without sleep. Once, after a 20-hour shift, I fell asleep at the wheel and wrapped my car around a telephone pole, leaving me with no car and a bad concussion. There were times when I doubted my ability to succeed. But looking back, I am grateful to have had the opportunity to test my resolve, and prove to myself that I have chosen a career that will never fail to bring me purpose and fulfillment, even when things get hard. I know the road ahead of me is long, but I embrace the challenge; and I eagerly anticipate the opportunity to make good on the promise I made to myself standing at my mother’s bedside all those years ago: that as a physician, I would not just treat my patients, but care for them, and give my absolute and uncompromising best in every aspect of that care.