The Great Plains region was home to lush green forests and abundant wildlife, including various Native American tribes such as the Crow tribe. The Crow tribe followed buffalo migrations and lived in portable camps, while other tribes preferred settling down in permanent villages. Situated between the South and Midwest regions to the east and the Rocky Mountains to the west, the Great Plains significantly influenced its indigenous inhabitants’ lifestyles. These tribes adapted to the climate and utilized natural resources like animals, fish, birds, plants, nuts, berries, and trees. Weather patterns and seasonal changes throughout each year also impacted their way of life. When European explorers arrived in North America in 1492, they encountered over 1 Million Indigenous people from more than 500 tribes with varying sizes ranging from 12 to 1000 individuals who spoke languages belonging to over 30 language families.
The Plain Indians wore clothing for various reasons, including warmth, protection, and religious ceremonies. Similar to many of us, their garments were hand-made from animal skins, with a preference for buffalo, antelope, and deer hides. Warriors would wear breastplates made from shells or bones and shields made from buffalo hides to defend against spears and arrows. Occasionally, tribes would engage in battle to acquire land or valuable resources. However, aesthetics also mattered to them, especially for girls. They would embellish their buffalo hide clothing with beads and fringes.
The housing structures used by the Great Plains Indians were influenced by material availability and durability. The Crow tribe, known for their nomadic lifestyle, preferred tepees as their main dwellings. Linguistically, the Great Plains Indians spoke various languages including Siouan, Algonquian, Uto-Aztecan, Caddoan, and Athabaskan. The introduction of horses in the 1750s allowed tribes from different regions to migrate to the Great Plains for buffalo hunting. However, this hunting culture was short-lived due to European settlers taking control in the 1880s and transitioning into farming, cowboy activities, and cattle ranching instead. It’s important to note that animals held significant cultural importance among the Great Plains Indians during this time period.
The Great Plains region was inhabited by a variety of animals, such as Bison (Buffalo), deer, cougars, elk, bear, beaver, porcupine, antelope, prairie dogs, eagles, and wolves. These animals served different purposes in providing food, clothing, shelter, and decorations.
The indigenous people of North America and Canada shared a belief system called Animism. Animism is a spiritual or religious concept that acknowledges the existence of souls or spirits in all natural entities throughout the universe. This belief includes not only humans but also animals, plants, trees rocks and even natural phenomena like thunderstorms and rain.
The Plains people worshipped Manitou or the “Great Spirit.” Men carried a “Medicine Bag or Bundle” containing herbs for Smudging Rituals as part of their customs.
The legends and mythology of the Plains peoples include references to the “Great Spirit”, the “Sun Dance”, and “Vision Quest Tricksters”, as well as heroic figures known as “Transformers” who shape the world into its current form. The Native American Crow tribe experienced a decline in population due to food scarcity and conflict, but it was not a common occurrence for tribes in the Grassy Plains to engage in total warfare or be completely wiped out. While many tribes perished in the past, some managed to survive and adapt their way of living.
To illustrate, rather than endangering their village population by sending out groups, the Crow tribes possibly utilized traps to capture animals. Some tribes may have faced extinction as raids from other villages resulted in the takeover of their territory. Moreover, with the arrival of white settlers came diseases that Native Americans had no immunity against, unlike the already exposed whites. As a result, many Native Americans fell ill and entire tribes were wiped out.
Existentialism: Philosophy Of Life And Existence
“Existentialism is an attitude that recognizes the unresolvable confusion of the human world, yet resists the all-too-human temptation to resolve the confusion by grasping toward whatever appears or can be made to appear firm or familiar…The existential attitude begins a disoriented individual facing a confused world that he cannot accept.” (Robert Solomon)
Existentialist all share a common concern with what they have coined as the “Human Condition.” They tend to ask: •Why am I here?
•What does it mean to be human?
•How should I go about living my life?
Existentialism is more of individual rather than social. They, Existentialist need to justify their existence. For them, they’re having their journey in life to know their purpose based on their own philosophy, according to EDU310 Foundations of Learning.
There is no predetermined definition or purpose. We are free to make our own definitions through choices that lead toward self-definition.
Students are free agents, responsible for creating their own selves and purpose. Everything learned is a tool toward the realization of one’s own subjectivity.
Standardized testing restricts the interpersonal relationship between teacher and student. Value-laden students are vital, as is authentic assessment.
Therefore, Existentialism is a philosophy concerned with human existence, self-discovery, and the search for life’s meaning based on free will, experiences, beliefs, laws, and traditions.
How does existentialism connect to Axiology and Metaphysics? (Branches of philosophy)
In Education, Existentialism is very important, because as an Educator we should know each child’s life, existence and story behind their attitudes and characters, for us to become an effective educator, according to Bethel Jadem. Mediona from studymode.com. For example, a child has a problem and suddenly changed his/her attitude; we have to know the reason behind it for us to understand him/her. We should know also their philosophy and belief in life so that we could better adjust, know and appreciate their existence as well.
To show the connective thread between Axiology and existentialism and metaphysics and existentialism the terms need to first be defined.
•Axiology is the study of value. It is the branch of philosophy that deals with the nature and types of value such as in ethics and religion.(“What and why do you value?”)
•Metaphysics is (“What is real?”)
In connection to axiology, an example of existentialism is:
According to EDU 301 Foundations of Learning, studying the ethics of the Christian and Jewish religions is an example of a study in axiology. Therefore, if a child growing up in a Christian home has strong beliefs about God he/she values her beliefs and therefore concludes that here existence is solely because of God. “ There is a purpose for my existence, God will show me the way.”
In connection to metaphysics, an example of existentialism is:
Since “this” exists, that cannot exist.
“John was walking (this) on water (that).”
There is only knowledge of how, beyond what is given, so inferred to make the situation valid with natural cause.
As a metaphysical example, if he could walk on water, maybe he had water in his shoes.
There is also questions that go beyond what we know.Such as “is there a “first” cause?” Or is time “infinite”?
Since we ourselves can have no observation of such truth, only inference based on given present events, it becomes Metaphysical.
Deployment Flow Chart
“The clinical microsystem is the place where patients, families, and caregivers meet. It is the lotus of value creation in healthcare.”(Nelson, Batalden, et.al, 2011) Lilly Walden describes herself as an active, athletic, and healthy woman. In her mid-forties she continues to run 2–3 miles 5 days per week. Lilly is married with three children and is employed by the local school district as a speech therapist. Lilly describes herself as health-conscious. Her diet is balanced, and she is a nonsmoker and drinks wine on rare social occasions. Lilly has a history of asthma, triggered by environmental changes, and it typically requires antibiotic therapy for bronchial infections 2–3 times per year. This presentation will review the following:
1. Priority care needs of the patient at the center of the case study 2.Priority care needs of the family care providers
3.The disruption that this acute illness has caused for the patient, family members, and clinical microsystem 4.The experiential features of acuity
5.The elements that the clinical microsystem
6.Potential barriers to providing care
7.The communication strategies that were used in the delivery of care 8.Well-defined (but flexible) roles within the clinical microsystem 9.Potential strategies for unexpected changes
10. The Deployment Flowchart
Priority care needs of the patient require the organization to take good care of the patient in a timely manner to find the cause of the pain being experienced. The patient’s pain has to be kept at minimum, have direct communication with the patient and their family and try to find the cause of the pain in a timely manner and provide follow up instructions for the patient. Priority care needs of the family. It is vital that they contact Lilly’s husband Tom because they need consent from him and have to keep him informed of the wife’s situation. The organization has to communicate the patient’s treatment plan to the spouse just in case Lilly is unable to give consent or is unconscious. Tom has to find someone to take care of their children while he is in the hospital with his wife and he calls his sister to take care of the situation. There has to be shared decision making between the family members and educate them about treatment of the patient since they will be helping take care of the patient.
Acute illnesses often disrupt the patient, family members and the clinical microsystem that has to take care of the patient because of the rapid onset in such a short time. What disruption has this acute illness caused for the patient and family members? Lilly has to miss work because all over a sudden she is not feeling well and decides she needs to go see her doctor for more clarification. Her children have to be taken care of and therefore Tom her husband calls her sister to help with the kids on short notice, Lilly has to stay in the hospital longer because she develops pneumonia postoperatively and thus her supervisor has to be notified. After she is discharged she prepares for a slow recovery back to health and follow up with different doctors. How has this illness disrupted the clinical microsystem?
Even if they always have to be prepared for an emergency happening anytime, there is disruption at the office. Dr. Woods has to be interrupted while she is with another patient, she has to call for an ambulance and the other patients have to wait on her for a while, while she deals with the emergency or reschedule for another day. The symptoms that Lilly is experiencing include the following: Pain in her right lower quadrant
Poor physical appearance
Nonproductive cough/ no sputum
Crackles in lower left lung
In order to meet the needs of Lilly, the microsystem must possess effective communication and work in a timely manner. Because this is an emergency and anything can change anytime, communication to provide the best care and understand each other is vital. Timing is also very essential in acute care. “Careful role clarification and optimization based on education, licensure, formal training and practical experience give the work specificity.” (Nelson, Batalden, et.al, 2011). The microsystem has to be able to manage
disruptions and make structured decisions to be able to deal with emergencies proficiently. Much as we prepare for emergencies, there will be potential barriers. Poor communication, being unprepared for an emergency, unable to manage disruptions, ineffective handoffs, undefined roles within the microsystem. These barriers have to be managed in order to provide good care to the patient. Poor communication among the clinical microsystem might put the patient in more danger. If Proper procedures and algorithms are not followed this is a barrier to providing good care to the patient because instead of being able to deal with Lilly in a timely manner, they could make a misdiagnosis or not follow the proper measures. Being unprepared for an emergency is another barrier because microsystems always have to be ready and not to begin preparing when the emergency occurs. Everyone in the microsystem has to have a defined role and be prepared to do their job effectively. The communication strategies that were used in the delivery of care were: Office Manager – used practice-specific triage protocol Nurse Practitioner – Performed phone triage
Medical Receptionist – escorts Lilly directly into an examination room, and notifies the registered nurse that Lilly is in Exam Room 3 Nurse – took Lilly’s vital signs using office protocol Medical Assistant – called ambulance
Dr. Maureen Woods – Notified the emergency room of Lilly’s condition and her pending arrival. All these people in the microsystem were able to work together and realize an emergency because of proper training and everything went smoothly from one person to the other per proper protocol. Well-defined (but flexible) roles within the clinical microsystem. At Dr. Woods’s office, the staff was able to use clinical algorithms properly and identify and respond to the patients cares needs in a timely and efficient manner. Communication to family members was thorough and the other patients were notified of emergency situation and given other options. At the ER, the doctors tended to Lilly in a timely manner and were able to make the right diagnosis and perform surgery immediately. Proper recommendation for post-operative care was communicated to Lilly and her husband and follow up appointments given as well. Potential strategies to plan for unexpected
changes in care needs. Just like any illness unexpected changes can occur and a microsystem should always have strategies for theses unexpected changes in care needs. Lilly has to stay longer in the hospital because of pneumonia that she got post-operative, Recommendations are made for Lilly to receive nursing services at home to monitor her pneumonia and she has follow up visits with different doctors to monitor her after discharge. When Lilly goes to see Dr. Woods, she probably did not think she would end up being taken to the ER with an ambulance or stay away from work longer than one day. “Deployment charts are a type of process mapping tool that documents the process across roles or departments. This process mapping tool is very useful when redesigning process to optimize tools. It shows each person’s role and function during a patient’s initial visit to a primary care physician’s office.” (Nelson, Batalden, et.al, 2011). This particular deployment chart shows how Lilly Walden went from her physician Dr. Woods office and ended up in the ER in surgery, developing pneumonia post-operative and after an extended stay in the hospital is discharged with instructions to follow up with three different doctors and on her way back to recovery.