Nature Is Created By Itself, While Art Is The Creation Of Nature Sample College Essay

Anja kroencke

Art knows no death, it is imperishable. As said by Longfellow that art is long and time is fleeting. The spices of nature are born only to die after a certain space of existence. Art continues indefinitely. Austin Dobson assessment of art is expressed in his saying that all passes. Art alone enduring stays to us. According to the celebrated Latin poet Ovid art lies in concealing art. If art is the magic of holding back time then artists are the magicians who captivate time in colors and canvases. As time passes by several take birth and perish, but some people with their achievements and contributions leave their foot prints on the sands of time. These people remain immortal for ever in the pages of history. One among these legends is Anja Kroencke. Anja Kroencke is magnificent illustrator renown for her outstanding fashion illustrations or more better said lifestyle illustrations. Her contribution in her field is commendable and her work includes the most identifiable masterpieces of illustrations. (Lamb, 210)

The soft spoken illustrator Anja Kroencke, in an interview with altpick.com in her home-studio in New York, described her life experience, location, education, inspirations and jobs. Anja Kroencke, the marvelous illustrator was born in Austria. Art flows in her blood. Since the days of her childhood unlike several other children she lacked playfulness, instead she preferred to draw. But she could never imagine that, by the miracle of destiny, her hobby would some day pave the way to her glorious career. (King, 15-17)

Anja Kroencke attended the College for Textile & Design in Vienna as a student in textile design and fashion illustration. She enjoyed working with type, color and works of art. In the year 1987 after graduating she decided to choose graphic design as her career. She started working as a graphic designer and worked in a few design studios in Austria. She used to design logos, packaging, corporate identities, brochures, etc. She had as well launched a small graphic design studio in Vienna. Later she joined GGK, one of Austria’s leading advertising agencies as an art director. In her quest for complete perfection Anja Kroencke used to design her own drawing and never depended on separate illustrators for her graphic design projects. After working for six years as a graphic designer she came to New York on a vacation to visit galleries, artists, and museums with her friends and decided to settle there and start the struggle for her career from the city. For about a year she kept on applying for jobs in design firms and freelanced. Finally she joined as design director in a design firm and worked there for two years. (King, 21-23)

Anja Kroencke was always interested in drawing. She realized that illustration is in public demand in New York. So she created a small portfolio of illustrations, found an agent and started taking projects on illustrations. In New York City Anja Kroencke got the essential boost to her career. Here her career gained acceleration and accomplished the peak of success. (Lamb, 214)

Anja Kroencke is well known for her distinct haughty women characters. The body proportion, body movement, faces, hands and feet, poses of the characters and the backgrounds in her drawings reflect high class, high profile modern society. Her characters (mostly women) are elegant, stylish and fashion trendy as seen from her drawings. The sophistication and the elegance of her lines and the zing in her works of art have given Anja Kroencke a distinct and remarkable position in the field of illustration. Her drawings are incredibly pure, playing with measured degree of black & white and color producing visible contrasts between wide stretches of pure white and vast regions of velvety shadows. Her illustrations are mostly portrayals of modern lifestyle and above all have a greatly sought after in the fashion world. Her drawings are found in the press all over the world. Anja Kroencke has a distinct style of drawing. She initially draws by hand, and then scans it into the computer for further manipulation. Anja Kroencke’s technique of amalgamation of conventional drawing with contemporary ultra-modern techniques of drawing has given a new definition to art that has perfectly fitted into requirements the advertising and the Web. (King, 38-41)

Anja Kroencke had made illustration more interesting and popular than ever. Her style has become such a standard in fashion illustration now that People were using more illustration than ever before. Anja Kroencke’s technique and style has influenced several artists. Artists all over world have started borrowing the concept for the style from recent trends in illustration. As a result the 2d illustrated method got greatly influenced by the medium in which the artists were working. This has helped the artists to communicate their own designs. (Lamb, 214-215)

In conclusion it would be relevant to mention that art is never demonstrative; it never catches attention with an exhibitionistic appeal. Obviously, a casual observer scarcely finds anything impressive, a thing of beauty, in it. But on the other hand, the eye of a connoisseur never misses it. Anja Kroencke, Austrian-born illustrator whose works of art is considered to be the most recognizable in her field, with hard work, creativity and diligence is successful in her career. She is a legend in real sense, a name to be noted in golden words on the pages of history.

References:

King, H; Inner World of Anja Kroencke (HBT & Brooks Ltd. 2006)

Lamb, Davis; Kroencke: Cult to Culture; Development of Art on Modern Strata. Art Today; Vol. VII; 12 (National Book Trust. 2006) pp 210-215

Art scanned from King. H; Inner World of Anja Kroencke (HBT & Brooks Ltd. 2006) Pp 5, 17, 21, 44 and 58

Ankle Bracelets: Bringing High-Technology To Law Enforcement

Criminals must serve time. Justice demands for that. But sometimes there are offenders who do not need to spend another day in prison. This pertains to those guilty of non-heinous crimes, to which imprisonment in overcrowded prison will only turn them into hardened criminals. Policy makers and other experts can see the solution in using technology to keep an eye on those who are serving time but doing it outside the penal colony. For this to possible the United States government is turning to high technology and a product popularly known as ankle bracelets.

This paper will look into the problem of prison overcrowding and the need for electronic gadgets in the war against crime and an ineffective U.S. penitentiary. It is a documented fact that oftentimes than not imprisonment will make a person much worse instead of rehabilitating him. But an alternative to prison time means putting a system in place where authorities can keep a watchful eye on a convicted felon’s movements even if the justice department had given them a more lenient sentence by sending them home rather than hauling them to the slammer.

Prison Overcrowding

It is a sad and lamentable fact that prison overcrowding is a serious problem in the United States. In the book about U.S. prisons, authors Clear, Cole, and Reisig found out that, “In 2003, 22 states and the federal prison system reported operating at or above capacity. The federal system was estimated to be operating at 39 percent, and overall the state systems were operating at 14 percent above capacity” (2005, p. 467).

            Michael Jacobson the former Commissioner of the New York City Department of Correction, the largest city jail system in the U.S. provides additional figures that helps to clearly illustrate the crisis. And he remarked, “The United States now locks up a higher percentage of its population than any country in the world. The more than 2 million people who are incarcerated today make up roughly eight times the number in 1975” (Jacobson, 2005, p. 8).

Problem with Overcrowding

            What is the big deal with overcrowding? It is helpful to see prison overcrowding from another perspective. And that is to understand the real purpose of incarceration. Colvin argued that policy makers should be reminded that the main purpose of prison is to rehabilitate offenders and not just function as a place to lock them up (1992, p. 1).

Aside from futility of rehabilitating a criminal in an overcrowded facility there is also the problem of criminals seeing a significant flaws in this country’s laws and how to enforce them. Jones and Kovavich believe that, “…some crimes were committed because criminals believe the criminal justice system is so slow and backlogged, that even if they got caught, they will be given a suspended sentence or released from prison or jail early because of overcrowding” (2006, p. 392).

Solution

            Overcrowding reduces the efficacy of whatever rehabilitative impact prison can offer. This was highlighted by Clear, Cole and Reisig when they asserted that, “Prison overcrowding directly affects the ability of correctional officials to do their work, because it decreases the proportion of offenders in programs, increases the potential for violence, and greatly strains staff morale” (2005, p. 469).

            It will not require a rocket scientist to realize that the solution is effective crime prevention because Americans could no longer afford to keep sending and sending more men and women into the brig. For those who are already inside, their sentences must be shortened and for that to happen without offending the victims, an efficient system of giving parole must be in place.

            Aside from giving parole to those who have shown the capacity to change, a serious reduction in the number of inmates is to simply create laws and statutes that will be more lenient to those who were found guilty of less serious crimes. For this type of criminals staying in jail will be counterproductive to say the least. Justice can still be served in the form of stiff fines, forfeitures, denial of privileges and limiting their mobility through house arrest etc. This will only be possible with the use of technology.

Ankle Bracelets

            Aside from all the tried and tested solutions discussed above, law enforcement in the 21st century will benefit much from the proper utilization of science and technology. And one of the most effective uses of technology is in the use of monitoring devices such as ankle bracelets. An example such a device is called “The Constant Watch”, a stainless steel wristwatch or bracelet affixed and locked to a parolee’s ankle, to which Nils Christie pointed out as having:

A Global Positioning System chip … [that ] will track the individual’s changing location … If a parolee moves out of the prescribed freedom area or removes the Constant Watch bracelet, the Constant Watch computer system will immediately alert police officers who can take corrective action to contain the offender (Christie, 2000, p. 126).

Conclusion

            The issue of prison overcrowding plus the general accepted idea that the U.S. prison system is not helping in deterring crime or rehabilitate offenders puts pressure on policy makers to grant more parole and to encourage the use of other punitive devices to exact punishment for the guilty. This can only mean one of two things: a) free up the prisoners to reduce the number of inmates and b) to increase the use of house arrest to punish less serious crimes and yet restrict mobility of the convicted felon.

            The only possible route is to go the high-technology way wherein law enforcement officers rely on sophisticated gadgets to keep intense vigilance of those found capable of doing illegal acts and yet allowed to serve time under house arrest. It is a good thing that there is a gizmo such as the “Constant Watch”, a gadget that points to the future of crime prevention and a new way of keeping an eye on a few troublemakers.

Reference List

Christie, N. (2000). Crime Control as Industry: Towards Gulags, Western Style. New York:

Routledge.

Clear, T., G. Cole, & Reisig, M. (2005). American Corrections. Belmont CA: Thomson Higher

Education.

Colvin, M. (1992). The Penitentiary in Crisis: From Accomodation to Riot in New Mexico. New

York: State University of New York Press.

Jacobson, M. (2005). Downsizing Prisons: How to Reduce Crime and End Mass Incarceration.

New York: New York University Press.

Jones, A. & Kovavich, G. (2006). High-Technology Crime Investigator’s Handbook.Burlington,

MA: Elsevier.

Ankylosing Spondylitis

Background

     The Skeletal system act as the framework of the body, consisting of 206 bones in a normal adult, it protects organs, anchors skeletal muscles facilitate movements and act as storage for minerals. There are four types of bones, the long bones (e.g. femur), flat bones (e.g., sternum), short bones (e.g. metacarpals), and the irregular bones (e.g. vertebrae). Each significantly located in certain areas of the body. Interrelated to mobility, bones work hand in hand with muscles; each formed and facilitated by large amounts of connective tissues in the system. First there are the Ligaments which is an inelastic band that hold bones together, the junctions of the bones is called Joints, which allows movement to take place. The Cartilage is a flexible tissue that covers the ends of the bones, which prevents friction upon movements. While Tendons, are the one which attaches the muscles to the bones. Aside from connective tissues, there are also synovial membranes that secrete synovial fluid that act as a lubricant and shock absorber; this allows free movement and lesser degree of damage upon exertion.

     During heavy exertion, damage may occur to the ligaments and tendons resulting to inflammation. Inflammation is a common response of the body when a certain micro organism or damage takes place. It is an immune response that involves the release of monocytes and T-lymphocytes that creates a phagocytic reaction that produces pain and edema. In the Musculoskeletal system, the joints are primarily the common site of inflammation (Brunner & Suddarth 10th ed., 2004, p1606). Though the usual causes were sprain, strain, and fall, some may even be chronic (e.g. osteoarthritis, rheumatoid arthritis and gouty arthritis) or systemic in nature.

     Anklylosing Spondylitis or Rheumatoid Spondylitis is a type of spondyloarthropathies that is a chronic inflammation of the spine and the sacro-iliac joint, which affects the cartilage and may even involve the tendons and ligaments. The continuous inflammation on the site results to fusion which generally stiffens and reduces mobility. Underlying cause is still unclear though the initial inflammation may have been caused by bacterial or viral infection, which results to thickening of the membrane and accumulation of the synovial fluid that triggers release of white blood cells. In the case of Ankylosing Spondylitis the release of the inflammatory cells may have not been triggered off, turning into an autoimmune disorder. As a result continuous formation of scar tissues exists; this in time ossifies and causes fusion of the bones. Aside from bacterial infection, a probable cause that doctors are looking into is the presence of HLA- B27 in the genes, with almost 90% of patients with Ankylosis have this ( Shiel W. medicine.net); it has been made part of the laboratory exams needed for diagnoses.

     As inflammation became chronic, fatigue is the first one that alters normal human responses, relatively caused by the progressive pain and edema on the body. The presenting symptom of Ankylosing Spondylitis is long term sacral pain that spreads to the hips, lower back and neck. It worsens over a long period of time but eases with activities or a warm shower. Arthritis in joints may even occur, as most cases with Ankylosis also have other spondylarthropathies disorder such as Psoriatic arthritis, Reiter’s syndrome, and Enteropathic arthritis. As the disease became chronic, the bones start to fuse, leading to brittle bones that are vulnerable to fracture.

Other conditions that may occur is the forward curvature of the torso, it results to the body’s inability to fully expand the chest due to the stiffness of the joints in the ribs. Therefore decreasing lung capacity, which in long term may cause breathing difficulty as scarring of the lungs may occur. And since it is a systemic disease, other complications to other organs might occur such as Iritis, an inflammation to the iris, Uveitis, an inflammation to the ciliary body and the choroids of the eye, Achilles Tendonitis, inflammation of the heel cord, and Plantar Fasciitis, inflammation of the plantar fascia or the heel bone that connects to the toes.

Other organs that may also be involved are the heart and kidneys resulting to scarring of the heart’s electrical system and accumulation of amyloid, which is a protein that may precedent to kidney failure.

Diagnoses of Ankylosing Spondylitis, involves Complete blood count which can help identify if there’s a presence of infection, an Erythrocyte sedimentation rate, which indirectly measures inflammation in the body, X-ray of the spine and pelvis, an HL-B27 antigen test, which looks for any presence of the protein, and last but not the least a physical assessment, which may present tenderness on the sacro-iliac joint and limitation during breathing exercises.

Treatment to Ankylosis Spondylitis, are more on palliative care since direct treatment is still unavailable. Non-steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAID), is commonly prescribed to relieve pain and inflammation, if NSAID’s does not work Sulfasalazine or Methotrexate may be given although liver test must be followed closely since it could lead to toxicity resulting to liver cirrhosis. The most promising drug so far is the Tumor Necrosis Factor- alpha blockers (TNF), which blocks the protein of inflammation, thus potentially slowing the progression.

     Other important thing to remember on the treatment is exercise and correct body posture.

This promotes flexibility and prevents atrophy. Several exercises that can be done are stretching of the chest, back and other joints, which all depends on the severity and the joints affected. Using different range of motion will help to reduce pain and fatigue, as pain eases with activity. Maintaining correct body posture also keeps the body align in case the bone fused. Some posture regimen are being fostered by the Spondylitis Association of America, such as Think tall, wherein the chin should be horizontal and parallel to the floor, the other one is the Back against the wall, wherein the heels are four inches away from the wall; with the buttocks and shoulders touching the wall. In this exercise, straining should be avoided with a spine measurement alignment kept for references. And last but not the least is Prone lying, wherein one should lay prone with a towel on the forehead or under the chest for support. Other Exercise programs that are encouraged are Aerobics, because it helps in the expansion of the lungs. And another one is swimming, because it avoids jarring of the spine.

Education is also an important factor for the patient as well as the care provider. Cigarette smoking is discouraged because of the limitation in the breathing pattern which may result to shortness of breathe. Ergonomics should also be kept in mind, chairs, bed and other fixtures should properly accommodate the patients back as well as his hips and lower body to prevent misalignment of the spines.

Alternative treatment could also be use such as Acupuncture, since the stimulation on the acupuncture points helps relieve pain. Other treatments are also suggested and had benefited patients such as yoga, chiropractic treatment and massage, but most doctors don’t encourage this since any manipulation may cause fracture.

     For the nutrition of the patients, it is encouraged to maintain a healthy weight depending on one’s Body Mass Index. A good diet should be a regimen, focusing on calcium intake and vitamin D, avoidance of alcohol should done cause it may affect drug interaction, and a good amount of yogurt and banana intake will help in the digestion, as it helps protect the lining of the gut wall. Since some popular Non- Steroidal Anti-inflammatory drugs can cause damage to it.

And if the problem may then be too severe especially on the hip area and the spine, surgery may follow.

Work Cited

“Ankylosing Spondylitis”. National Institute of Arthritis and Musculoskeletal and Skin             Disease. nlm.nih.org. 6 November 2007,         http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ankylosingspondylitis.html>.

Marieb, Elaine.Essential of Human Anatomy and Physiology. Singapore: Pearson education

            Asia Pte Ltd, 2002.

Shiel, William. “Ankylosing Spondylitis”. medicinenet.com. 6 November 2007,                <http://www.medicinenet.com/ankylosing_spondylitis/article.htm>.

Smeltzer, Suzanne and Bare, Brenda. Brunner and Suddarth’s Textbook of Medical and

            Surgical Nursing. 10th Ed. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams and Wilkins, 2004.

Spondylitis.org. 2007. Spondylitis Association of America. 6 November 2007,             <http://www.spondylitis.org/patient_resources/glossary.aspx>.

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