In Module 4, we explored the complexities of potential conflicts one may encounter while serving in the Navy, Marines, or Coast Guard. This reflection aims to describe a personal experience where I felt a tension between my professional role and personal convictions, discuss how I dealt with it, and evaluate the moral implications of my actions. Additionally, I will address the surprising elements of the Trolley Car decisions and highlight the crucial factors influencing decision-making in those scenarios. This reflection aligns with the objective of enhancing our ability to navigate challenging situations within the naval community.
Part 1: Navigating Professional Role and Personal Convictions
Serving as a Navy officer allowed me opportunities for growth and learning under diverse circumstances but also presented some challenges that tested both professional acumen and personal integrity. One such situation arose when I was tasked with implementing an order whose intended outcome conflicted with humanitarian goals due to potential risks for innocent bystanders; how I navigated this ethical tension called upon intense reflection and decision-making skills based on reconciling societal values versus individual principles.
To address this predicament effectively, I needed to engage in a comprehensive deliberation process from a moral standpoint. This included an extensive examination of both adhering or rejecting the given instruction while considering personal principles and values alongside weighing potential consequences for all involved parties. After much consideration, conveying apprehensions respectfully upwards and suggesting a different approach emerged as the most effective approach in minimizing negative effects on civilian populations while accomplishing our mission objectives.
After much reflection on what happened, I do no doubt that taking action aligned with moral principles was indeed crucial. Standing up against an established hierarchy posed its share of challenges; however, staying steadfast in upholding guiding values prevailed over any difficulties encountered along the way. To ensure both professional obligations and deep-seated convictions were met simultaneously. Clear communication about concerns paired with offering alternative solutions proved instrumental in achieving outcomes in the best interests of innocent civilians. Even if things didn’t quite turn out as expected, upholding one’s integrity was prioritized.
Part 2: Surprising Aspects of Trolley Car Decisions
The Trolley Car decisions presented unexpected ethical dilemmas that tested my decision-making capabilities. I was surprised by the difficult choices and the weight of responsibility associated with determining the fate of individuals in high-pressure scenarios. The scenarios challenged me to make quick judgments, often involving sacrificing the lives of a few to save many.
Several factors influenced my thought process when making decisions in the Trolley Car scenarios. First and foremost, I considered the fundamental value of preserving human life and minimizing harm. Considering the available resources and time constraints, I also evaluated the practicality and feasibility of alternative actions in each situation. Furthermore, I analyzed my decisions’ potential long-term consequences and ethical implications, striving to balance immediate impact with broader considerations.
The module on navigating conflicts within the naval community has prompted me to reflect on a personal experience where I confronted the tension between my professional role and personal convictions. By engaging in moral deliberation and communicating my concerns respectfully, I was able to align my actions with my moral compass, even in a challenging situation. The Trolley Car decisions served as thought-provoking exercises, highlighting the complexities of decision-making and the importance of considering fundamental values, practicality, and long-term consequences. Through these reflections, I hope to enhance my ability to navigate future conflicts, contributing to our naval community’s collective growth and ethical development.
Paulo, N. (2023). The Trolley Problem in the Ethics of Autonomous Vehicles. The Philosophical Quarterly, pqad051.
Skerker, M. (n.d.). Consequences: Step Two in the Moral Deliberation Road Map for the Naval Community College.
Proposed Reasonable Accommodation Change
In this report, I will discuss a policy change I would like to recommend for your organization so that you can better comply with the Alberta Human Rights Act and foster an environment where everyone feels appreciated and included based on protected grounds such as race, religion, disabilities, gender or age. In the increasingly competitive business environment, organizations are realizing the value of promoting diversity and inclusiveness to enable a sense of belonging among top-talent employees. To maintain a competitive edge in the business environment in which it operates, your organization must create a work environment that promotes the rights of all workers, and not only because it is ethical. Therefore, I propose that you modify the company’s policy to reflect the Alberta Human Rights Act and advance these key principles by introducing reasonable accommodation programs for individuals with invisible disabilities.
The Proposed Change
Reasonable accommodations are the adjustments an organization makes to the work environment or job responsibilities after considering the needs of people with disabilities. Beatty et al. (2019) posit that when an organization implements policies tailored to the needs of people with disabilities, it benefits all stakeholders involved. My proposed change is also relevant because it emphasizes the need to train human resources, managers, and union representatives on disability regulations and necessary accommodations. Particularly, my report highlights that while there are people with visible physical disabilities, there is also a discriminated group of people affected by invisible disability. According to Norstedt (2019), a person with an invisible disability has one that is not visibly apparent to the average observer unless under exceptional situations or upon declaration by the impaired individual or another third party.
In the corporate sector, various stakeholders such as advocacy groups are increasingly addressing the challenges surrounding people with invisible disabilities such as chronic pain, learning difficulties, mental health disorders such as depression, autoimmune disorders, and sensory processing disorders (Syma, 2019). Invisible disabilities are often overlooked in the workplace if the workers are afraid to notify their supervisors or co-workers about their conditions. This makes it challenging for them to access the accommodations they require to work effectively like their counterparts. Thus, invisible disability should be treated with respect and consideration as visible physical disabilities. People with invisible disabilities at your organization should therefore be offered the same opportunities and access to resources as those without disabilities by providing them with reasonable accommodations and assistance.
Type of Change
The reasonable accommodation change proposed herein falls under an organizational and cultural shift. The organization’s culture, rules, and procedures must change to make people with invisible impairments a top priority. This shift calls for an all-encompassing strategy to be implemented to establish a setting that accepts and accommodates workers with invisible impairments. First, the organization should establish initiatives to raise awareness and educate staff about the challenges that people with inviable disabilities face in the workplace (Norstedt, 2019). These initiatives would encourage a more accepting and compassionate work environment by teaching employees to better understand and empathize with one another even when the others’ disabilities are not immediately apparent. Additionally, the organization should consider offering these individuals flexible work schedules such as working from home, working fewer hours per week, or other customized arrangements.
Thus, the company should set transparent rules and procedures explaining how workers may request and arrange alternative work schedules to meet individual requirements. Again, the organization may restructure work responsibilities or reallocate non-essential roles to accommodate people with invisible disabilities. This strategy guarantees that these individuals will have fewer disruptions in their workday and more time to concentrate on their primary duties (Norstedt, 2019). It is also vital to recognize that people with invisible disabilities struggle with mental health. Therefore, the organization can acknowledge this and provide free counseling services or implement employee assistance programs to promote an open and safe work environment where employees feel free to discuss their mental health.
Role of Management
It is possible that your organization’s managers may not realize the need to make adjustments for people with invisible disabilities if they do not perceive them as a real disability. Failure to provide reasonable accommodation for this group could result in reduced employee engagement, higher work-absence rates, and limited productivity (Alberta Human Rights Commission, 2021). To mitigate these challenges, the management team should learn more about invisible disabilities, how they affect employees, and what can be done to help those who work with them. They should also lead by example by treating all workers fairly and respectfully. They must be aware of their language, avoid making assumptions, and listen carefully to their workers’ concerns. Tantillo (2021) suggests that this will demonstrate their empathy, understanding, and support for all employees and enable the organization to develop a culture where employees feel safe admitting what they need to be more productive. Moreover, managers should provide the appropriate resources, such as monetary supplies or assistive technology tools, to assist workers with invisible disabilities. This may require them to work in tandem with human resources or expert external consultants experienced in invisible disability accommodations.
Employees’ Potential Reactions
Employees with invisible disabilities may become more productive if the organization implements the change. This is because it would enable them to access the resources and flexibility they need to meet their needs better and perform their duties without getting distracted. This could boost their morale, improve output, and enhance organizational productivity (Kensbock et al., 2016). Moreover, the change may improve team dynamics by creating an environment where staff members feel valued and engaged. Man et al. (2019) propose that when the organization’s workers see that their co-workers with invisible disabilities are being accommodated and considered in the organization’s policies, they will be more willing to collaborate with them through teamwork. The organization can benefit from the resulting insights, experiences, and problem-solving expertise which could result in greater creativity.
Research shows that organizations should anticipate various barriers during the adjusting period after implementing reasonable job accommodations. First, other colleagues may perceive that the adjustment is unfair because one team member receives preferential treatment. According to Kensbock et al. (2016), other employees within the organization may interpret that providing an accommodation reduces the receiver’s workload by lowering their inputs without changing the expected results. This may cause them to resist the change and reduce its potential to promote inclusion and diversity in the workplace effectively. In addition, communication breakdowns and insufficient understanding of the change will likely cause resistance. Employees may feel uneasy about the shift and its effects on their jobs, duties, and the company’s future without adequate communication and information. As a result of not knowing what to expect, workers may become anxious and resistant to the change.
Alberta Human Rights Act
This is a provincial statute whose overarching goal is to guarantee that everyone in Alberta is treated fairly and given equitable access to resources. This implies that organizations such as yours should make the workplace safe by eliminating bias in recruiting, promoting, and other workplace activities. The Alberta Human Rights Commission facilitates the resolution of human rights issues and promotes public knowledge after considering various employee needs (Alberta Human Rights Commission, 2021). The management team’s responsible for being familiar with the law and following its requirements. The act’s protected grounds include but are not limited to marriage status, race, religion, gender identity, age, physical and mental disability, and sexual orientation. The change proposed herein involves developing reasonable accommodation initiatives for people with invisible disabilities, which fall under the protected ground of disability under the Alberta Human Rights Act (Province of Alberta, 2023). The law shields people against discrimination based on their evident or invisible mental or physical disabilities. Conditions including chronic pain, mental disorders, or learning difficulties are categorized as invisible disabilities because they are not always obvious to outsiders.
From an HR perspective, reasonable accommodation changes may greatly benefit the organization by enabling it to recruit and retain top talent. Job seekers in today’s corporate market look for companies that value diversity and support employees living with disabilities. The organization may increase the number of people interested in working for it by accommodating this often discriminated group of people with invisible disabilities. Moreover, employees who feel supported are more likely to be actively involved in their work, experience high levels of job satisfaction, and be loyal to the organization (Edwards, n.d.). Secondly, the organization will reduce the risks associated with non-adherence to the law by providing these accommodations. Thus, your organization may reduce the likelihood of discrimination lawsuits and legal problems by responding to workers’ requests for reasonable accommodations. In addition to protecting the rights of people with disabilities, complying with the law may save money and keep you out of legal trouble, improving your public reputation.
Strategic Plan and Timeline
Month 1: Planning and Creating Awareness
The organization should establish a team of HR professionals, managers, and other key stakeholders to assess the current practices and organizational culture critically. Next, the team should educate the employees about the Alberta Human Rights Act and how it relates to the rights of people with disabilities. They should then develop teaching tools and training programs promoting awareness about people with invisible disabilities. This strategy is congruent with Section 17 of the AHRA, which posits that the commission requires institutions to develop educational programs designed to eliminate discriminatory practices on the grounds of disability (Province of Alberta, 2023).
Month 2: Introduce Flexible Work Arrangements
The management team should examine and revise current regulations governing job flexibility or create new ones entirely. It should establish open and understandable guidelines and processes for workers to request scheduling adjustments and ensure everyone knows what is expected. At this stage, the organization should also offer the management team training so that it can efficiently implement flexible work arrangements and adequately address any employee concerns that are voiced.
Month 3: Reorganizing Work Responsibilities
The organization must thoroughly analyze the roles and duties of every employee at the company. Through the HR department, it should find out which jobs or responsibilities can be adjusted to support people with invisible disabilities. The workers affected by the change should be made aware of the adjustments and offered extra support or training that they may need.
Month 4: Mental Health Support Programs
The management team should provide counseling services, employee support programs, and other relevant measures to foster open dialogue about mental health within the organization. This aligns with Section 3 of the Alberta Human Rights Act, which posits that no one should be discriminated against for their mental disability (Province of Alberta, 2023).
The first step to mitigating opposition to the change is to ensure that everyone in the organization understands the rationale behind the adjustment. Thus, the company should communicate what employees can expect to gain from the change and how it will help the company meet its ethical and legal responsibilities. This entails providing them with learning materials that dispel myths and shed light on invisible disabilities. Additionally, Ryamaker et al. (2020) insist that employees will be less resistant to change if they are engaged in decision-making on executing reasonable accommodation programs most effectively. This interactive strategy builds their trust in the organization, reduces resistance, and increases ownership of the programs.
Metrics to Support the Change
The organization can track the number of accommodation requests and their resolution status to evaluate how well procedures and policies work after implementing the changes. Monitoring this metric will allow the company to observe patterns and learn more about how to accommodate employees with invisible disabilities better. According to International Labor Organization (2016), it can also conduct regular employee feedback surveys to gauge employee satisfaction and collect data on the execution of reasonable accommodation programs. This indicator assesses how well the accommodations are implemented and how satisfied employees are with the changes. It aids in identifying opportunities for improvement by bringing to light any persisting problems that should be addressed within the change implementation.
Based on the research within this report, your organization can boost employee morale, recruit and retain top personnel, and reduce legal and reputational concerns by conforming to the Alberta Human Rights Act and fostering a supportive and accommodating work environment. The organization can cultivate a culture that accepts and considers the different needs of its staff by raising awareness of invisible disabilities, offering flexible work arrangements, restructuring duties, and providing mental health assistance. Nevertheless, to successfully implement these changes and pave the road for a more inclusive and fair workplace, management must minimize resistance through clear communication and engaging employees.
Alberta Human Rights Commission. (2021). Duty to Accommodate. https://albertahumanrights.ab.ca/publications/bulletins_sheets_booklets/bulletins/Documents/Dutytoaccommodate(April2021).pdf
Beatty, J. E., Baldridge, D. C., Boehm, S. A., Kulkarni, M., & Colella, A. J. (2019). On the treatment of persons with disabilities in organizations: A review and research agenda. Human Resource Management, 58(2), 119–137.
Edwards, J. (n.d.). Mastering strategic management: 1st Canadian edition. BCcampus.
International Labor Organization. (2016). PROMOTING EQUITY PROMOTING DIVERSITY AND INCLUSION THROUGH WORKPLACE ADJUSTMENTS A PRACTICAL GUIDE. https://www.ilo.org/wcmsp5/groups/public/—ed_norm/—declaration/documents/publication/wcms_536630.pdf
Kensbock, J. M., Boehm, S. A., & Bourovoi, K. (2016). Is There a Downside of Job Accommodations? An Employee Perspective on Individual Change Processes. Frontiers in Psychology, 8. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2017.01536
Man, X., Zhu, X., & Sun, C. (2019). The Positive Effect of Workplace Accommodation on Creative Performance of Employees With and Without Disabilities. Frontiers in Psychology, 11. https://doi.org/10.3389/fpsyg.2020.01217
Norstedt, M. (2019). Work and invisible disabilities: Practices experiences and understandings of nondisclosure. Scandinavian Journal of Disability Research, 21(1), 14–24.
Province of Alberta. (2023). ALBERTA HUMAN RIGHTS ACT. https://kings-printer.alberta.ca/documents/Acts/A25P5.pdf
Raymaker, D. M., Teo, A. R., Steckler, N. A., Lentz, B., Scharer, M., Delos Santos, A., & Nicolaidis, C. (2020). “Having all of your internal resources exhausted beyond measure and being left with no clean-up crew”: Defining autistic burnout. Autism in adulthood, 2(2), 132-143.
Syma, C. (2019). Invisible disabilities: Perceptions and barriers to reasonable accommodations in the workplace. Library Management, 40(1/2), 113–120.
Tantillo, J. F. (2021). An Invisible Truth: How Courts, Congress, & the ADA Have Failed to Support Reasonable Accommodations in the Workplace for People with Mental Illness. Syracuse L. Rev., 71, 903.
Signs Of Ethical Collapse
Ethical conduct within organizations is an important aspect that directly impacts success. Therefore, ethical collapse in an organization can damage its reputation, cause financial losses, and alter public trust. Marianne Jennings was a professor of legal and ethical studies in business at Arizona state university and observed that many companies in America were constantly collapsing due to failure to follow ethics (Prestol, 2006). She focused on highlighting signs that leaders in conducting different organizations could look out for identify ethical collapse so they could timely work on the issues to control the damage that would affect their organizations. Marianne Jennings stated seven signs of ethical failure: pressure at the workplace to maintain numbers, fear and silence, weak board, conflicts, young’uns, a bigger-than-life CEO, innovation like no other, and goodness in some, creating room for evil in other areas. Organizations can identify and address the root causes of ethical breakdown by watching out for these signs to avoid business collapse.
Key questions addressed in the book
One of the critical questions addressed in the book is why many companies initially do well after setting up eventually collapse. The book addresses this issue as influenced by the desire of companies to achieve short-term benefits and the desire to remain in the market such that they compromise ethical considerations. Another key question addressed in the book is whether there are observable indicators of ethical decline in companies where the book highlights the seven signs of ethical failure. Stakeholders can recognize the signs of ethical collapse bu looking out for specific unusual behaviors, actions, and circumstances that occur within a company. The book also addresses a fundamental question of the implications of ethical collapse for companies and their stakeholders. Some of the critical consequences the book highlights include reputation, damage, loss of jobs to employees as a company gradually goes bankrupt, and dealing with legal matters (Gill, 2006). The book also addresses what steps stakeholders should take after detecting signs of ethical collapse to mitigate it. The book emphasizes properly examining an identified problem to confirm it signifies danger and the taking necessary actions. While addressing ethical failure, the book encourages stakeholders, especially company leaders, to make informed decisions and maintain open communication to address ethical compromises adequately.
Most important information in the book
The most crucial information in the book is the need to uphold ethical conduct within organizations. It emphasizes that ethical behavior is a business necessity, not just a moral requirement. The book portrays ethical conduct as an essential aspect that builds and maintains a company’s reputation and the trust of stakeholders such as customers and investors. Also, it helps companies avoid legal implications because ethical failures mean violating laws and regulations that could lead to penalties and fines, creating a negative financial impact on the organization. The book also notes that upholding ethical standards influences the long-term sustainability of a business as it supports growth (Munro & Thanem, 2018). Ethical behavior within companies positively impacts employee morale and increases engagement, increasing productivity. Another way ethical standards influence the long-term sustainability of companies is by creating positive relationships with stakeholders and promoting long-term loyalty. This implies that companies should make ethical considerations in their strategies and decision-making processes and promote an ethical organizational culture.
The key concepts that you/we need to understand in this book
The key concepts to understand in the book by Marianne Jennings on ethical collapse are the seven signs that indicate a failure in companies and how to actions to take. One of the signs companies should watch out for is pressure to maintain numbers. When companies find themselves experiencing pressure to maintain specific numbers, either production, sales, or profits, which they cannot achieve generally, it means they are a high possibility they would compromise their ethical standards to reach those numbers (Gill, 2006). This is because the intense focus on achieving high expectations that companies cannot legally meet can lead to unethical practices such as using low-quality raw materials, accounting fraud, manipulation of financial statements, or deceptive marketing tactics. In such cases, company leaders should avoid violating ethics by ensuring a company sets reasonably and legally attainable goals. Leaders can ensure company goals are achievable by including all stakeholders, especially employees, in the decision-making process so they can speak out on targets they can achieve without pressure (Carmeli et al., 2017). Also, leaders should lead as role models by ensuring their actions and behavior in achieving anything within the company are ethically upright.
The second sign of ethical failure is prevailing fear and silence in the company’s culture. Fear and silence exist in a company if those that try to speak up about concerns and opinions or speak on ethical dilemmas are fired, threatened, or turned down. When employees feel silenced, they fear speaking up, creating an environment where unethical behavior goes unreported and spreads throughout the organization (Roszkowska & Melé, 2021). Therefore, company leaders should create an environment that encourages open communication where employees can speak up whenever they have worries to protect a company’s ethical values. Leaders can take steps to expand communication channels, actively listen, and respond to employees’ concerns so they are not tempted to engage in unethical practices once their worries are not taken care of.
Young’uns and bigger-than-life CEO is another sign of ethical failure. Typically, this is a situation where a CEO gives inexperienced or relatively young individuals significant authority and responsibility within the organization due to their association (Ay & Oktay, 2020). However, young leaders may need more knowledge and confidence to make informed decisions, enforce ethical practices and challenge unethical behavior in a company (Jennings, 2006). As a result, a lack of experienced leadership leads to unethical decision-making or disregarding ethical standards. Notably, CEOs or older leaders may also be assumed to be knowledgeable yet make uninformed decisions and fail to reinforce ethical practices. Therefore, addressing this issue involves letting experienced people lead an organization but only partially relying on them to make decisions.
Another sign of ethical failure in companies is a weak board. A lack of independence, diversity, expertise, and active oversight characterizes a weak board of directors. Companies with such a board of directors have low engagement between the leaders, including missing meetings, which may compromise the company’s ethics due to failure to emphasize the observation of ethical codes (Browning et al., 2019). This makes it challenging for leaders to identify and address ethical issues since they cannot exercise effective governance. The necessary action to take in this case is creating a strong board that prioritizes open communication to work together in identifying and addressing ethical issues within a company.
The other indicator of ethical failure in a company is conflicts of interest. Conflicts of interest arise in a company when individuals in leadership positions have competing interests based on whether they have an added advantage working in a company or illegally acquiring the leadership positions (Xu, Loi & Ngo, 2016). When leaders do not manage conflicts, they influence biased decision-making, favoritism, or unethical actions, leading to ethical collapse. Therefore, not it is crucial those involved in a company’s decision-making process disclose any conflicts of interest to avoid promoting unethical practices.
The sixth sign that Marianne Jennings talked about was innovation like no other. Innovation is an essential practice in all companies but may influence ethical collapse if pursuing innovation and growth overshadows ethical considerations (Prestol, 2006). This may occur when a company prioritizes innovation at all costs, where overlooks legal requirements, or take shortcuts. Companies should review their ethical conduct with every innovation in such a case. It is also essential to balance the need to maintain ethical behavior and excitement for innovation.
In the seventh sign, Marianne Jennings talked about goodness in some areas atoning for evil in others. This sign highlights a situation where an organization may engage in unethical practices in certain areas while attempting to compensate for them through positive actions in other areas. Marianne stated that doing good while there are some areas where a business is ethically wrong does not cancel the wrong and leads to collapse in an organization’s ethical standards (Gill, 2006). Therefore, companies should create a strong ethical culture to ensure they do not violate ethical codes in some practices.
Importance of concepts and application in my life and career
These concepts are important because they provide insights into signs and causes of ethical collapse. Understanding these concepts makes monitoring and addressing ethical issues easier to avoid ethical failure (Munro & Thanem, 2018). They apply to my life and career to look for factors that trigger unethical practices and how to address them to build an ethical life and career. As a student, the conclusion I draw from this book is the importance of ethical decision-making because it is a crucial aspect later in business. As an employee, it encourages me to speak up about unethical practices to support an ethical organizational culture. As an employer, this book teaches me the need to be accountable for ethical conduct to establish a successful organization. As a citizen, I learned the impact of ethical collapse and the need to support businesses built on ethical practices.
Contribution of additional sources
Additional sources have contributed to my thoughts and analysis in various ways. Firstly, they have provided a broader perspective on practices that influence ethical collapse. These sources include case studies and research findings on ethical failure in organizations. The sources have also reinforced the concepts presented in the book, providing a broader understanding of the topic and its implications in various contexts.
In conclusion, ethical conduct is necessary for all companies for various reasons. It influences a good reputation and trusts in a company, ensures a company does not face legal implications, and enhances long-term sustainability. To identify ethical collapse, individuals should look for pressure to maintain numbers, fear and silence, weak board, conflicts, young’uns, and a bigger-than-life CEO, innovation like no other, and goodness in some, creating room for evil in other areas. These concepts help identify and address ethical issues to prevent organizational collapse.
Prestol, J. (2006). The seven signs of ethical collapse by Marianne M. Jennings. St, Martins Press
Gill, D.W. (2006). The seven signs of ethical collapse by Marianne M. Jennings. St, Martins Press
Ay, F. A., & Oktay, S. (2020). The Effect of Nepotism and Its Applications Leading to Ethical Collapse in Organizational Trust: A Research on Physicians and Nurses at a University Hospital. Is Ahlakı Dergisi, 13(1), 159-167. chrome-extension://efaidnbmnnnibpcajpcglclefindmkaj/http://isahlakidergisi.com/content/6-sayilar/25-13-cilt-1-sayi/m0161/m0161_eng.pdf
Browning, N., Yang, S. U., Park, Y. E., Lee, E., & Kim, T. (2019). Do ethics matter? Investigating donor responses to primary and tertiary ethical violations. Journalism & Mass Communication Quarterly, 96(4), 1145-1171.
Xu, A. J., Loi, R., & Ngo, H. Y. (2016). Ethical leadership behavior and employee justice perceptions: The mediating role of trust in organization. Journal of Business Ethics, 134, 493-504. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10551-014-2457-4
Roszkowska, P., & Melé, D. (2021). Organizational factors in the individual ethical behavior. The notion of the “organizational moral structure.” Humanistic Management Journal, 6, 187-209. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s41463-020-00080-z
Munro, I., & Thanem, T. (2018). The ethics of effective leadership: Organizing good encounters without leaders. Business Ethics Quarterly, 28(1), 51-69. https://www.cambridge.org/core/journals/business-ethics-quarterly/article/ethics-of-affective-leadership-organizing-good-encounters-without-leaders/F404DCD1EDEB2C55C1834DB511E7DE00
Carmeli, A., Brammer, S., Gomes, E., & Tarba, S. Y. (2017). An organizational ethic of care and employee involvement in sustainability‐related behaviors: A social identity perspective. Journal of Organizational Behavior, 38(9), 1380-1395. https://doi.org/10.1002/job.2185