Neo-Liberalism In Latin America Sample College Essay


Neo-liberalism in Latin America has led to the government privatization of many services and industries when deregulating the rest. This action has led to increased poverty and inequality levels leading to a drastic decline in the quality provision of those services and the concerned industries. In the past few decades, neoliberal policies have constantly failed to meet up to their promises concerning development and economic growth. They have instead made things worse than expected. Latin America has now fallen to unequal regions, whereby many countries have experienced increased poverty levels. These policies have also been a critical factor leading to the decline of the quality of services offered by the public sector as the government lacks the funds to invest in them properly. This brings about a negative impact on the vulnerable members of society mainly. As people continue to realize the negative impacts of neo-liberalism on their lives, much resistance has been formed by Latin American individuals. In some countries, neo-liberalism has been opposed by the election of left-wing governments. In other situations, social unrest and mass protests have arisen to oppose neo-liberalism. Using the review and the developed research proposal, the effects of Latin American neo-liberalism on the government’s effectiveness and working, the actions it takes, laws and policies passed, and the effect they bring upon the general population’s well-being.

Latin America’s neo-liberalism has increased the privatization of governmental affairs and caused a decrease in the economy’s regulations. This has, in turn, caused an increase in poverty, environmental degradation, and inequality. The climate changes have caused severe and more rampant urban floods inciting development in areas identified as flood-prone (Coates and Anja 1301). How the issue of floods is responded to is similar and equated to the mode of power distribution in society. Politically well-established areas are more likely to be considered in providing relief than the poor in society, who are more likely to be neglected. Flooding has been argued to be a product of social and natural causes, and the government’s way of handling it portrays an unequal relation of societal power. The exchange of favors to gain political favors and support has continued to develop due to neo-liberalism (Coates and Anja 1303). This has inversely caused a drastic decrease in accountability and hiked levels of corruption. According to the two authors, Coates and Anja noted that the clientelistic correlation between citizens and government officials can risk the mismanagement of urban floods. Neo-liberalism has completely changed the state’s political ecology making the protection of the environment a lesser priority than economic development, which has taken priority (Coates and Anja 1305). Generally, neo-liberalism has eminent effects on the people of Latin America and the government. Neo-liberalism has played a great part in worsening urban floods and becoming more common.

An article based on politics in Latin America discusses the aspects of the political and participation landscape that have been changed due to neo-liberalism. It is argued that the rise of institutions and new actors through neo-liberalism has changed people’s mindsets and political participation. The article’s authors noted that the government had changed its stand from its previous vies of denying new citizenship to groups based on ethno racial grounds, sexuality, employment basis, and gender (Rich et al. 2). The article further discusses the kind implications of these changes towards the democracy of Latin America. Neo-liberalism, a political and economic doctrine, advocates for a laissez-free form of capitalism and the establishment of free markets. In Latin America, the implementation of neo-liberalism has been through a series of adjustment programs that are structurally based, which have been obligated by international institutes of finance such as the International Money Fund and the World Bank (Rich et al. 4). Such programs have led to quite a several changes in societies consisting of Latin Americans which included deregulation of markets, state-owned properties being made private and investment and trade liberalization. Also, the politics of Latin America has had some effects due to neo-liberalism. First, there was a rise in institutions and new actors, including NGOs and private companies, who currently play an influential role in the region’s politics (Rich et al. 4). Secondly, it has led to a change in people’s way of political participation, pinning more emphasis on the rights of the individual while lessening the traditional role of collective action (Rich et al. 7). Lastly, neo-liberalism has brought about a great impact in the Latin America democracy, declining the quality of democracy. At the same time, authoritarianism continues to grow (Rich et al. 8). All the implications of these changes for Latin American democracy are well discussed. The rise of neo-liberalism has been a major influence in the weakening of the region’s democracy which is most likely to continue in the future. The only means of stopping these changes is if only a permanent change is implemented in how Latin America is governed.

An article examining the dynamics of politics based on popular coalitions in post-neo-liberal Latin America focuses on relationships formed through social movements and unions. Through the article, claims have been made that neo-liberalism policies have caused damage to the region, paving room for the emergence of social movements and an increase in inequality (Etchemendy 161). An issue considered is the rise of the left-wing government around the 2000s leading to the implementation of policies based on countering the effects brought about by neo-liberalism. By just promising to take on vested interests to help the poor and needy and the working class individuals in the society, the populists won the support of the citizens. Arguments based on Etchemendy views stress that popular coalition groups emerged as a force directed at Latin American politics. These very same coalitions united territorial social movements and the unions to facilitate a response to the policies of neo-liberals that had already been implemented in the region during the late 20th century (Etchemendy 164). However, many a time, these governments have constantly failed to deliver their promises, risking a possible replacement from office by different and more right-wing established governments that are more interactive- friendly to the business interest. Arguments have emerged that coalitions have been crucial in advancing progressive policies and shielding economic and social rights. Despite this, the coalition has faced many significant challenges, such as the rise of populism of the right-wing, causing the left wing to weaken. While referring to cases of various countries such as Ecuador, Argentina, Venezuela, and Brazil, there are arguments for successful agenda advancing by the left through the formation of popular broad-based coalitions (Etchemendy 163). The coalitions have effectively mobilized progressive policy support and are crucial in winning elections. It is, however, noted that the left side has been in constant challenges over the past years, one being the emergence and rise of populism of the right wing and the downfall of the left. Despite the rise in the number of coalition parties throughout a millennium in the region, most of these coalitions were short-lived, failing to achieve lasting political change (Etchemendy 167). This is attributed to the fact that most of the coalitions had been based on opportunistic alliances between the social movements and unions rather than strategic planning having a shared vision (Etchemendy 172). Due to this attribute, the coalition has yet to be able to challenge the political parties in place effectively and dominate or even to start, engage and push a transformative agenda.

According to James Mahoney (2001), neo-liberalism imposition in the late 20th century was a great point of change for Latin Americans. The scholar had written about the effects and consequences of the liberalism of the 19th century concerning the fight for social equity and liberty in politics. He claimed that the approach in which different states imposed liberalism concurrently affected the class formations and the state’s trajectories, creating unavoidable effects on conflicts based on social and cultural grounds (Silva 12). The implementation of radical-issued policies gave rise to regimes of authoritarianism confronted by democratization movements, especially in Guatemala and El Salvador. The repression of these movements by the state generated an absurd outcome of insurrectionary movements. This led to the domination of the economy by foreigners and national elites who were weakly controlled by the stronger party to maintain power (Silva 12). Insurrection and popular mobilization were formed and directed towards the businesses that were foreign to be able to eradicate them.

In contrast, some reforms contribute to the greater good. For instance, the liberal policies implemented were partly the reason for democracy which could be equated to great social equity. However, Mahoney is still concerned about the radical efforts aborted in the 20th century that might have had opposing long-term impacts in some parts of Latin America, forcing the policymakers into following a liberal path of reform (Silva 12). These appeals are expounded based on their implications for the present. This links with the fact that order maintenance happens to be a primary function of the state that joins state weaknesses and disorders in the form of the administration’s inability to control the issue. However, the strength relies on the national and international power networks the state is connected to.

Additionally, the effects of neo-liberalism in Latin America create room to analyze the social and economic developments. The state of Latin America has had checkered and varied history while relating to its citizens. Regarding the aspect of social provision, there have been frequent displays of inequality. The impact caused at times tends to act as a repressive element in the provision of basic rights of citizens (Walton, 165). A great shift in the Latin American market orientation to great benefits in economic stability, development and distribution. Stability tended to flow from greater monetary and fiscal discretion. The growth would increase through greater reliance on the type of market and economic integration of investments and efficiency. The distribution of income would increase rapidly through mass reduction on rental opportunities and corruption (Walton, 167). The aspect of growth is best understood by digging up information in relation to policies. The Latin American growth during the 1990s would have been predicted by the world results if it came out just a bit higher than it was documented. This suggested that the modest performance was due to not necessarily based on the weak response from the Latin America towards the changes in various conditions and policies (Walton, 170). The reforms put in place were good for growth but not capable of shifting the concerned countries to the East Asian type of presentation. Stabilization and market oriented policies are by far not the only means which lead to growth. The government controlling factors such as education and infrastructure proved to be a growth drag (Walton, 170). Furthermore, there were aspects implied on the volatility of growth which had a great effect on the people’s well-being and economic conditions. The economic and social impacts not only affected the citizen but also the head of states and called for long lasting measures to be taken and implemented.

The neo-liberalism led to growth in political powers but caused a landslide in the economic field. Neo-liberalism established that free markets can control themselves, terming the government as incompetent and disrupting the market’s efficiency. Counter revolution of the neo-liberal has undermined or reserved managed capitalism aspects due to welfare transfers, progressive transfers, regulation of industries such as banking and also the empowerment of workers (Kuttner, 152). The various policies have failed drastically overtime including ones that were self regulated. The economy has become more unequal despite the economy becoming more chaotic while growing at a slow rate compared to the period of managed capitalism. Market concentration has risen from deregulation and not the expected salutary competition (Kuttner, 153). The experiment of neo-liberal over a span of four decades has proven that managed markets are more fair and efficient. The neo-liberalism had disastrous cost for the legitimization of democracy. With the government being unable to cushion sources of the market making lives of the common citizens full of struggles. The contemporary aspects of the middle class such as stable income points and jobs, secured medical cover, housing and college fees have become elusive which might not require that big of a loan (Kuttner, 155). Meanwhile, life for the financially well-off individuals is pleasurable, and the place of residence or work is not very much reliable. Many individuals have ceased having hope on the establishment of democracy and a firm government. The tries to secure a liberal democratic regime collapsed with the notion put forward in the various nations. As per the warnings of Karl Polanyi, a historian, on the possibility of societal overwhelming making the less privileged turn to help from tyrants. The regimes bordering neo-fascist whereby dictators and capitalist moved on the same path while undermining the dawn of democracy and capitalism (Kuttner, 156). The political constraint that arises is the issue of rule making and who will be mandated to perform that particular task and the benefitting group. Additionally, neo-liberalism practices have led to the creation and promotion of rules to prevent the democratic from defiling the rules, incorporating social interests that are countervailing and development of fair competition. Protection of incumbents has been based on the rules set of intellectual property and competition being tilted. Rules of bankruptcy have been inclined in the favor of the creditors. Various industries have which requires both consumers and employees to agree to a binding negotiation to follow a set of common-law rights (Kuttner, 159). Neo-liberalism plays a great part in the impactful development in the economic sector.

Neo-liberalism was also a key factor in the regulation of capital flow in the Latin America. Te governments in the post-liberalism era had about three reasons which led to the regulation of capital flows. Policies based on macroeconomic level, were placed under more capital controls which acted as a way of obtaining further strategy autonomy, it being a top condition for the growth of the economy and social inclusion. The adoption of restrictions of capital accounts in some countries, provided strength in foreign and financial interests (da Silva and Pedro, 1515). According to the conducted study dealing with this matter, post-liberalism proved to offer a positive impact in Latin America capital control. While having the international political economy in mind, it can be noted that the differences of political parties are still regarded in the provision of additional support and policy making in the partisan approach. However, the depth of these differences requires additional research. The relevance of the analysis of financial cross-border regulations which happens to be one of the most constrained policies of globalization. Party ideologies content play a pivotal role in the relationship between economic policies and government partisanship (da Silva and Pedro, 1516). Ideological classifications are needed to assess the government partisan impacts which deal with the great diversity. During the Global Financial Crisis, there was the establishment of more restrictions concerning the capital control. This however led to reactions across the nation which shed light on the countries ruling parties (da Silva and Pedro, 1516). Lastly, it is noted that the post neo-liberalism administration inherited the market reform but were unable to break off the capital mobility. The choice of the administrators in regulation of capital flow may be used to elaborate on Latin America ebb (da Silva and Pedro, 1516), which led to the political forces of the right-wing being strengthened. In this article the argument put forward by Crotty and Epstein in 1996, is also considered in the sense that any progressive restructuring of the economy is mainly based on posing a threat to capital control deployment. Basically, neo-liberalism was a major factor in the engagements related to capital flow and really impacted the final decisions on the same matter.


Neo-liberalism cab be concluded and agreed that it has both affected the government and the citizens of Latin America both positively and negatively. The citizens have been on the longer end of this process since they have fallen under the distress that comes with decline in the economic stability of the different states they are located. Survival of the citizens became hard, barely being able to satisfy their daily needs. The political aspect however blossomed and boomed greatly making the governmental proceedings smooth and direct. The government gained easy access to the needed resources making it even stronger and robust. Despite the fact that neo-liberalism was intended for the best along the way through people’s greed, the course of line changed and brought severe negative impacts to the state and people as one.

Work Cited

Coates, Robert, and Anja Nygren. “Urban floods, clientelism, and the political ecology of the state in Latin America.” Annals of the American Association of Geographers 110.5 (2020): 1301-1317.

da Silva, Pedro Perfeito. “The reregulation of capital flows in Latin America: assessing the impact of post-neoliberal governments.” Review of International Political Economy 29.5 (2022): 1497-1524.

Etchemendy, Sebastián. “The politics of popular coalitions: Unions and territorial social movements in post-neoliberal Latin America (2000–15).” Journal of Latin American Studies 52.1 (2020): 157-188.

Kuttner, Robert. “Neoliberalism: Political success, economic failure.” The American Prospect 25 (2019).

Rich, Jessica AJ, Lindsay Mayka, and Alfred P. Montero. “Introduction the politics of participation in Latin America: new actors and institutions.” Latin American Politics and Society 61.2 (2019): 1-20.

Silva, Eduardo. Challenging Neoliberalism in Latin America. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

Walton, Michael. “Neoliberalism in Latin America: Good, bad, or incomplete?.” Latin American Research Review 39.3 (2004): 165-183.

Netflix Marketing Strategy Essay Example


Marketing strategies are a business’s comprehensive approach to meeting customer demands and expanding its market share over time. They include identifying a company’s target audience and selecting the most effective distribution methods. This paper will analyze Netflix’s marketing strategy focusing on its product/service and pricing strategies. Netflix is highly sought after as a production company and streaming service. It has an extensive library of critically acclaimed series, movies, animation, documentaries, and more. It may be viewed on any internet-connected device, including smartphones, smart televisions, game consoles, set-top boxes, tablets, laptops, and desktop PCs. Netflix’s expansion to more than 190 countries and territories has sparked a revolution in the entertainment sector. The company’s total number of subscribers increased to 222 million, an increase of 18.2 million over the previous year due to Netflix’s brilliant marketing strategies (Arun, 2022). Netflix is a fantastic example of a company that uses an integrated marketing approach. It’s integrated, adaptable, and client-focused for maximum efficacy. Netflix uses a customer-focused business approach to ensure smooth interaction. The platform is data-driven and target-specific thanks to its innovative use of content marketing and integrated marketing. Netflix focuses on its customers, and the company strives to develop close bonds with them through personalized recommendations and in-depth conversations. Also, they use cutting-edge advertising techniques to entice people to tune in to their shows. The innovative use of data analytics is essential for today’s marketers to create experiences that satisfy their customers. Netflix uses consumer data analytics to determine what shows and movies its consumers are interested in watching (Elkawy et al., 2019).

Product/Service Strategy

Netflix utilizes personal data to appeal to and attract most of its consumers. Its target audience is millennials and Generation Z, who are run by emotions and personalized considerations. Netflix’s success stems from its ability to tailor its services to each individual user. The site is customized for each of its 216 million members. Because of their individualized recommendations’ effectiveness, they are responsible for 80% of all user engagement (Wise, 2022). The company’s understanding that people have diverse reasons for enjoying the same video is fundamental to its approach to personalization.

Furthermore, in what has become known as “binge viewing,” Netflix often keeps users glued to their screens for long periods. They expanded this method by catering to viewers’ insatiable need for a second helping of a program right after they finished the first, something that cable providers weren’t doing at the time. This allowed them to capture the most attention possible and keep their viewers interested. With auto-play and similar capabilities, consumers may continue watching their favourite shows without manually skipping to the next episode (Acharya, 2022). Once a movie or TV show is over, Netflix suggests something new to watch based on your viewing history. They even create new categories based on viewing history, grouping together shows with a common thread regarding plot, cast, or other characteristics.

Netflix offers a multi-mode experience to its consumers. Customers can begin a contact through phone (or their favourite channel) and carry it forward into other media with a multimodal experience, rather than being limited to the one they initially initiated it on. Netflix has been successful since its inception as a DVD rental service because of its commitment to supporting various devices. Netflix allows consumers to view videos live on their television, computer, smartphone, or tablet. When it comes to serving clients, the company needs to care where they happen to be located. Netflix uses online and traditional advertising methods to attract and retain users (Kumar, 2022).

In this day and age of instantaneous communication and entertainment, a business needs to stand out from the crowd. When used effectively, humour marketing is the most engaging advertising, drawing in more consumers than any other tactic. Although it may not appear that way at first glance, social media marketing is quite methodical in generating interest. Netflix frequently poses questions to their social media followers to spark conversation and get them involved (Bernat, 2018). Netflix has a reputation in the entertainment industry because of its humorous posts. The Netflix Twitter account regularly posts entertaining content and surveys for its followers. (Sy, 2021).

Pricing Strategy

Netflix uses a value-centred pricing strategy characterized by simplicity and low price. Value is at the heart of Netflix’s pricing model. Value-based pricing is novel since it provides customers with three distinct subscription tiers, each with a different level of value and corresponding price. The subscription model gives the company an edge over its rivals, who charge per episode or movie. The cheapest Netflix subscription in India costs 500 Indian rupees ($8.) a month, while the Premium plan costs 800 Indian rupees ($12.) per month. Under the Rs 500 Basic plan, users have access to all movies and TV shows, but there is only room for one viewer at a time on the screen (Heaji, 2021). Users can watch on any device they like, including a computer, TV, smartphone, or tablet. The Standard plan is the least expensive at Rs 650 per month. Netflix’s Rs 500 package has the same excellent service as the standard Netflix subscription, plus two more screens and HD movies. You may get four displays for an additional Rs 800, allowing four people to watch from different rooms simultaneously. If one of your pals has an Rs 800 Netflix subscription, you can split the bill and pay just Rs 200 each (Shastri, 2021). The company successfully encourages the use of its streaming services by providing affordable and straightforward subscription packages. All of its target readers can benefit most from this pricing strategy.


Members are thrilled by the personalized service since it helps them quickly identify films they would enjoy. It takes work to replicate a successful implementation of mass customization. In addition to boosting revenue, personalization is a crucial component of Netflix’s business model. 222 million users’ preferences are analyzed so that they can “right-size” their content spending. Based on predictions from its personalization algorithms, Netflix allocates more resources toward potential blockbusters like “Stranger Things” and fewer resources toward niche programming like “Dawn Wall.” (Wells, 2022) impressions from seeing. Netflix encodes content hundreds of times to accommodate varying bit rates and screen sizes.

Additionally, they work with a network of more than a thousand ISPs to accelerate the delivery of high-definition video over the Internet employing embedded deployments of their Open Connect Appliance. Furthermore, the Open Connect ISP network produces a unique and difficult-to-replicate network effect. Customers are thrilled by high-quality video and audio that “simply works.”

Nevertheless, the battle for online streaming supremacy is heating up. In the streaming industry, nobody compares to Netflix. However, Netflix has been losing members in the United States since 2019, and the company is now at a crossroads where it must evaluate its existing position in the market. According to recent polls, consumers can’t wait to try new streaming services like Disney +. Almost two-thirds of customers plan to cancel or reduce the quality of at least one existing subscription to create a place for a new service. Consumers also prefer ad-supported models. Deloitte found that 65 percent of respondents to their recent poll on digital media trends would be willing to view advertisements in exchange for free or discounted subscriptions. Seventy percent of Hulu’s paying customers choose the ad-supported, cheaper tier. Peacock, NBC’s new streaming service, is free with advertisements (Heaji, 2021). This runs counter to Netflix’s “no advertisements” and premium positioning. Netflix needs to offer various pricing tiers to fend off rising costs and keep from losing subscribers to the competition. Alternatively, the corporation might roll out the cheaper mobile-only package they’re testing in other regions.


  • It should invest more in-service differentiation into various genres and Asian countries.
  • Conduct personalized customer surveys and marketing campaigns.
  • Introduce streaming sites with discounts for watching advertisements.
  • It should also adopt AI services to ensure consumer satisfaction.
  • It should take steps to reduce the basic pricing plan to ensure an increase in revenues.
  • Invest in repositioning with reduced pricing but maintaining originality and personalization of its products and services.


Acharya, N., 2022. A complete overview of the marketing strategy of Netflix.  M Skills.

Amer Abd Elkawy, A. L. K. R. A. M. P., 2019. Netflix the Face of the TV industry.  Research Gate.

Arun, R., 2022. A Case Study on Netflix Marketing Strategy.  SimpliLearn.

Bernat, J., 2018. Netflix and Itunes Case study.  Centria.

Kumar, I., 2022. A Case Study on Netflix Marketing Strategy. Saath Rahenge success Tak(SAFALTA).

Kweon Heaji, K. S. H., 2021. Pricing Strategy within the U.S. Streaming Services Market: A Focus on Netflix’s Price Plans.  Korea Science, 17(2), pp. 1-8.

Shastri, A., 2021. Comprehensive Marketing Mix of Netflix – With Full Company Overview. IIEDE.

Sy, A.-G., 2021. Netflix’s Nearly Flawless Marketing Strategy – How Can You Apply It? (Source:  Sortist.

Wells, T., 2022. What is the Pricing Strategy of Netflix 📽 Podcast Ep. 50.  Taylor Wells.

Wise, M., 2022. Lessons in Personalization: What Netflix Can Teach Marketing & Sales Teams.  Entrepreneur.

Network Architecture Paper Essay Example


This study outlines the TCP/IP Protocol Suite and highlights how each layer of the Framework mirrors the communicative stream of a structured firm across management units and throughout offices.

Effective communication from one party to the other is the cornerstone of all internet activity. The TCP/IP mechanism is the foundation of the more significant part of such communications. It was developed in the 1960s and 1970s by a team of computer experts to accommodate a growing network, and it has now grown into the benchmark for message delivery and interpretation.

Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model

The International Organization for Standardization (ISO) developed the Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) paradigm (ISO). The Open Systems Interconnection (OSI) model defines a working framework for implementing standards in stages, with control passing from one to the next. It divides network topology into seven categories. The tiers are the hardware, data connection layer, network layer, transport layer, session layer, presentation layer, and application layer. As a result, software and infrastructure may be designed separately for each layer (Shabani, Dermaku, & Ademi, 2020). Nevertheless, to correctly deliver a message, every tier serves a distinct function. However, for all intended purposes, the bulk of the tiers have one obligation: communicating with the tiers above and behind them in the architecture.

The TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol)

In the 1970s, DARPA created the TCP/IP (Transmission Control Protocol / Internet Protocol). ARPANET created the notion, also referred to as the “Internet Model.” TCP/IP, which stands for Transmission Control Protocol/Internet Protocol, is a collection of protocols for communication often used to connect network devices across the internet. TCP/IP is also a private communication protocol for networks. The TCP/IP protocol suite is a simplified form of the OSI model. It contains four layers rather than the OSI model’s seven (Mahmoodi et al., 2022). These are the layers:

  • Process/Application Layer
  • Host-to-Host/Transport Layer
  • Internet Layer
  • Network Access/Link Layer

The Application Layer

The application layer contains the software and serves as the user interface; the information flow commences with the application level of the client. Whenever a consumer submits an order, it is analyzed at the client’s application level before being forwarded to the subsequent level.

The network’s application layer receives signals from the transport layer. After the storage transaction is completed, the verification would be sent back from the storehouse application level so that it can be communicated to the various tiers and shipped to the customer.

The Transport Layer

This layer is just where data is encapsulated. In the client’s transport layer, orders supplied by the client and transmitted through the application layer are packaged into transport layer information format modules.

The segmented data is decapsulated and transmitted to the warehouse’s higher layers by the network’s transport layer; any responses from the host’s protocol stack are wrapped and then sent back to the consumer’s tier.

The Internet Layer

This layer generates sections and sequences for transit to the layers below. The transport layer-separated signal is handled at the client’s protocol stack, and IP headers are attached to the originator and recipient hosts’ IP addresses.

The received data is handled at the host’s network layer by eliminating the IP headers before being transmitted to the transport layer; when the reply from the server is returned, the information is inserted by the client’s IP address and delivered to the target.

Network Access Layers/Link Layer

This layer combines the Data Link Layer with the Physical Layer in the OSI paradigm. It looks for equipment identification, and the mechanisms at this layer allow for actual data transmission. This layer of the client’s network layer protocol provides the header and footer to the session and inspects it for errors throughout transmission (Heuschkel et al., 2019).The module takes the frame, sends it through the other layer, and any reply is sent to the client’s target through transmission medium in the host’s network layer protocol.

The network access layer is the customer’s point of contact with the internet. The frames are prepared for transmission, and the message’s beginning and end points are noted to avoid superfluous data from being provided within the packets. Such as the transport layer, this layer checks data as it passes through obstacles on its trip to its target. The transport layer is preoccupied with the target, while the network access layer is focused with how data leaves and traverses its way to its desired location.

The physical layer

The physical layer is commonly part of the network access layer, although it can be split further to represent how data moves across connection such as fibre, copper, and coax. Information can also be sent wirelessly to enhance the TCP/IP protocol suite. It is indeed critical for individuals to comprehend the applications they’re operating since some have limitations on what customizable physical layer settings may be used


As a consequence of these communication patterns, data is efficiently transferred within every layer for interaction between the customer and the servers. Whenever it involves network architecture, the TCP/IP protocol stack paired with the needs of the user might be a winning combination. Although TCP/IP provides a variety of information, it is nevertheless up to the customer to determine the particular infrastructure and programmes to execute. Due to the last decades’ data transmission wars and TCP/near-universal IP’s acceptance, I anticipate to see this architecture used in the next data wave to preserve the internet accessible and operational.


Heuschkel, J., Fleckstein, E., Ofenloch, M., & Muhlhauser, M. (2019, December). Udp++: Cross-layer optimizable transport protocol for managed wireless networks. In 2019 IEEE Global Communications Conference (GLOBECOM) (pp. 1-6). IEEE.

Mahmoodi Khaniabadi, S., Javadpour, A., Gheisari, M., Zhang, W., Liu, Y., & Sangaiah, A. K. (2022). An intelligent sustainable efficient transmission internet protocol to switch between User Datagram Protocol and Transmission Control Protocol in IoT computing. Expert Systems, e13129.

Shabani, A., Dermaku, K., & Ademi, G. (2020). Analyzing OSI Model Layers, Benefits and Disadvantages.