Neurobiology In Human Social Behavior Essay Example


Different individuals expose different but selective social and Sexual attraction behaviors (Mackey, 2003). Individuals acquire these social manners as they grow and develop, and go a long way in determining the individual’s conduct, attitude, and choices in life. Sexually, monogamy and bi parenting are still dominant in many societies. The bond between mates of opposite sex tend to be strong and life lasting. (Young and Zuoxin, 2004).

This bond is thought to be biologically designed and dictated by molecular and neural actions. This essay critically analyses two articles that experimentally explain the role of the neuro hormones in bond pair formation. It involves a target essay and a supplementing article. It also relates the articles’ findings to class work.

Description of the target article

The given target article explores a model study that explains neurological bond pairing. Two neuropeptides, vasopressin and oxytocin, are used in the study. These hormones are made up of proteins, and found in various animals. Oxytocin is a hormone found in mammals. It is produced at the end of the gestation period and causes the relaxation and contraction of the muscles of the uterine wall, leading to parturition. It also boosts milk production in the mammary glands. The two hormones have been considered the main facilitators in recognizing individuals, and especially sexual partners. The study involves the use of these two neuropeptides and dopamine, a hormone thought to be involved in reinforcing the learning process.

Monogamy is widespread in many societies. It is characterized by long enduring relationships, although there are many rodents that exhibit the monogamous sexual behavior. These provide models in studying the biology of pair bond formation. In a monogamous relationship, one male and one female exclusively mate with each other (Pitkou et al, 2001). At times though, extra pair copulation does occur in a monogamous set up.

This is however rare. In this article, the term monogamy has been used to refer to a sexual relationship whereby, the female and male forming a mating pair have exclusive copulation and affection traits towards each other, sharing the nest, and bringing up the offspring together, also known as bi parenting. The mammals of the Microtus genus display the above-mentioned characteristics, and hence ideal for the study of bond pair formation in human beings. The study aims at understanding the human social behavior as well as the human social brain. The Microtus vole’s species is used in the article.

A laboratory test employs the method of partner preference test, which takes three hours. The test involves three animals, which are; the subject-which already has a mating partner, the mating partner and a novel stranger to the subject. The stranger and the mate are locked up in chambers while the subject is left free. The subject has often been found to spend more time in proximity of the chamber in which the mate is locked up, implying partner preference. Arginine vasopressin and oxytocin are said to be the cause of this partner preference. Oxytocin is also said to facilitate mother- infant regulation, while the vasopressin is associated with male social behaviors.

According to studies, the receptor density of the two hormones is equal in both men and women. There is no explanation yet, as to why the response to the hormones is varied in both sexes. Several hypotheses have however been put forward in an attempt to explain this thought. This has been elaborated below. It has been argued that, introduction of synthetic oxytocin in the cerebral ventricle of females decrease the duration for pair bonding. Administration of the arginine vasopressin in males also reduces the time taken for bond pair formation. Selective receptor antagonists of the two neuropeptides have been said to prevent bond pair formation in both.

The neuropeptides mentioned above also interact with other elements in the neuro transmission system. (Lim and Young, 2004). Monogamous spp. are said to have a higher density of oxytocin receptors in the brain, which involves bond pair formation. These receptors include the nucleus acumens and the caudate putamen. Higher densities of V1aR are found in the ventral palladium and medial dorsal thalamus. Introduction of the oxytocin receptor antagonist in the pre frontal cortex of females affect bond pair formation induced by mating. When the V1aR is blocked in the male before mating in the ventral palladium, bonding pair formation is also affected.

This therefore implies that, the mentioned parts are important parts of the brain involved in bond pair formation. Incidentally, these parts have also been found to be vital in mesolimbic dopamine reward system. For that reason, bonding pair formation and the dopamine reward system use the same circuit.

The reward system makes use of dopamine and is mediated by the dopamine neurons. These have been found to project from the nucleus frontal and cortex accumbency. The ventral palladium relays stimuli, which reward responses such as mating. Bond pairing is thus conditionally learnt, and dopamine appears to regulate this. Injection of a non-selective r dopamine receptor antagonist blocks partner preference, which is induced by mating.

An agonist of dopamine facilitates preference of partner without mating. Dopamine turnover in the nucleus accumbency is increased through mating. Sexual conditioning is dependent on D1 and D2 dopamine receptor types, and their activation. These are found at the nucleus accumbency. Mating is thus a rewarding response. Pair bonding is hypothesized to be an association between unconditioned and conditioned stimuli. Reinforcing properties of sex form the unconditioned stimulus, while the specific olfactory signature of the partner forms the conditioned stimulus.

Studies in the sexual behaviors of human beings have provided evidence of neuropeptide circuits’ involvement and the rewarding reinforcement during the formation of a bonding pair. Nipple stimulation induces the release of oxytocin which is involved in social attachment. This serves to reinforce sexual bonding as an aspect of sexual activity. Brain activity patterns of individuals in romantic love reveal similar patterns (Nair and Young, 2006).

An experimental article

An experimental article was found to supplement this target article. This is entitled “vasopressin and pair bond formation: genes to brain to behavior.” In this article, Microtone rodents were chosen because of their monogamous behavior. The study was meant to reveal the vasopressin receptor-binding pattern in the brain and also explain how the pattern affects human behavior. Microtone rodents are also used as models to study social bonding behavior, due to their monogamous behavior found amongst many societies. In this article, a male vole was allowed to cohabit with its partner for 24 hours before the test.

The male was then put in a chamber that was between the partner’s chamber and the stranger’s chamber. If the male would spend more time near the chamber with the partner, then, selective partner preference would have been developed. In this article, over 90% of the voles used were found to have developed the selective preference. According to the article’s findings, the male rejected the unfamiliar female. It can therefore be concluded that, mating facilitates preferential partner selection in both males and females (Mackey, 2003).

The article describes vasopressin and oxytocin as social bond molecules. The two are brain neurotransmitters. They are synthesized by cells in the brain, and their receptors are also widely spread in the brain. Oxytocin is involved in regulation of social behavior, and particularly the attachment of the infant to the mother. Arginine vasopressin regulates scent marking, aggression, and paternal care (Young &Zuoxin, 2004).

According to the article, the two brain neurotransmitters were found to regulate bond pair formation. Infusion of AVP centrally was found to induce the pair bond formation in males, while oxytocin induced in females. The introduction of their antagonists prevented bond pairing. The difference in response of the two hormones is attributed to the differential location of the receptors in the brain. The variant distribution patterns between species accounts for the differences in social behaviors among the species (Pitkou et al, 2001). The ventral palladium was found to have most of the AVR receptors.

As a result, it is this region that shows the least variation in the many related species of the voles. According to the experiment, over-expression of the AVR receptors at the ventral palladium leads to the expression of preferential selection of a mate. This could be hindered by introduction of D2 dopamine receptor antagonist. This implies that, the pair formation is reward related and depends on dopamine signaling in the ventral palladium, which is regulated by vasopressin (Nair & Young, 2006).

In summary the findings of this article were: males are likely to reject strange females, and that the neuro chemicals oxytocin and arginine vasopressin are social bonding molecules. The two hormones work together with dopamine in the rewarding/ reinforcement system.

These findings imply that, the strong and intense social relations between mates are a biological aspect. Oxytocin has greater effects on the females, while the arginine vasopressin has social effects in the males, giving them the ability to scent partners as well as paternal qualities. Dopamine causes rewarding and reinforces the sexual life.

A critical Approach to the Articles

These articles do not seem to satisfactorily explain the involvement of the neuro hormones in bond pairing and preferential mate selection. They also fail to account for the big percentage of the monogamous male voles mating with multiple females. Moreover, the articles do not explain why there is variation in the ability to form and sustain the bonds (Mackey, 2003). In addition, both articles fail to explain the separation of males from their partners after co-habiting for five days, which leads to the loss of the preferential selectivity in the partner, but retains the identity of the siblings (Lim& Young, 2004).

Social behavior is not only determined by the hormones but other factors too. These may include, early childhood experiences, and stress. This notwithstanding, both articles put more emphases on the neuro hormones aspect, ignoring such factors. The target article ignores the role played by the corticotrophin releasing hormone in relation to anxiety and depression mediation. This hormone has been proven to reconcile emotions which can also affect bond formation (Mackey, 2003).


The neuro hormones, oxytocin and arginine vasopressin, play a great role in determining social behavior. They largely influence the preferential selection of a mate and also lead to formation of strong bonds between mates. However, the hormones are not the only catalysts to such bonding. Nevertheless, studies that seek to explain the unanswered issues relating to preferential mate selection are underway (Pitkou et al, 2001).

Reference List

Lim,M. & Young , J. (2004). Corringendum to vasodepression independent neural circuits underlying pair bond formation. Science direct, vol 128 (issue 1), pg 127-134.

Mackey, W. (2003). Perspectives on human attachment /pair bonding. Evolutionary Psychology, vol 1 (issue1), pg. 138-154.

Nair, H. & Larry, Y.. (2006). Vasopressin and pair bond formation: Genes to brain behavior. Physiology, vol 21, pg. 146-152.

Pitkou, L. et al (2001). Facilitation of affiliation and pair bond formation by vasopressin receptor gene. Journal of neuroscience vol 21 (issue 18), pg. 7392- 78396.

Young, L. & Zuoxin, W. (2004). The neurobiology of pair bonding. Nature neuroscience. Vol 7, pg. 1048-1054.

Improvement And Implementation Methods In Statistics

Quality audits

Quality Audits can be very useful tools in monitoring process variability by ensuring that all records concerning the product information are up-to-date are have the correct figures corresponding to the correct dates of purchase. Inconsistency in the audit records can clearly indicate that something went wrong somewhere. Audit reports arising from internal and external audits can provide useful information that indicates variability in the purchasing process. A good example of how audits can work concerns the selection of the suitable suppliers within the prescribed criteria. The audits can reveal if indeed the selection criteria were followed before certain suppliers were selected.

Preventive or corrective actions

Preventive or corrective actions are also essential in monitoring variability. This applies mostly to personnel working on purchased product verification processes. Actions that ensure that they follow the prescribed procedures in processes ensure that variability is well monitored and they ensure that quality is consistent in all the purchased products. Actions can include rejecting a purchased product if at all it does not meet the customers requirements. This would send a message to those in charge that there is a problem hence the need for a solution to prevent future rejections.

Management review meetings

Management review meetings are also an important quality tool in Hershey organization. This is in the sense that through such meetings loopholes that can lead to compromised quality of purchased products are identified and adequate measures prescribed by the management.

Process control charts

This is a very useful tool for ensuring consistency in the statistics that concern the range of variability that should be associated with the purchased product. For instance it can provide the upper and lower limits within which the quality of the product has to fall especially during the verification process. This can ensure that quality of purchased products is maintained all through between the upper and lower limits.

Return Merchandise Authorization

This is a vital tool especially for notifying the suppliers that indeed the purchased product did not meet the customer’s requirements. Once such an authority is given it will ensure that compromised quality products which have been already purchased can be returned.

Check sheet

This is a method of presenting information in an efficient manner with the use of graphics. This can be well undertaken using lists of items which can be incorporated into the format and bring out the actual system which is under analysis. Graphs can be used to indicate the effect of the purchased product on the final product. With such a graph those who are in charge of suppliers will be in a better position to select the best quality suppliers based on the effects of the purchased product on the final product.


This can be utilized to generate so many ideas quickly.It can be significant in identification of problems and solutions in the verification of purchased products or selection of the best suppliers.

Nominal groups

This tool can be used in conjunction with brainstorming in the sense that ideas generated through brainstorming can be put into consensus concerning the most important problems in the purchasing process and from there suggest the workable solutions to ensure quality standard products are purchased. With this technique, each member is made to rank the generated problems in order of importance then consensus is arrived at with the highest ranked problem in a group.


Dramm, J. R., 1998. Results driven approach to improving quality and productivity. Conference

Proceedings, Wood Technology Clinic, Portland, OR. Miller Freeman.

Sample control charts

Range control chart
Average control chart

Gwendolyn Brooks And Langston Hughes: Poetry Comparison


Within a single lifetime, the United States has gone from a nation that openly and legislatively discriminated against a group of people based upon their race through the upheaval of the Civil Rights Movement to a society that elects a man of mixed races to the highest office available. One of the major sounds of this movement was the voices of black people, brilliantly expressed through the sounds of jazz in an increasingly modern and receptive public. These sounds weren’t exclusive to the music industry, but could be heard in the language used in the literature and poetry of the period as it was expressed by authors such as Gwendolyn Brooks and Langston Hughes. “Musical rhythms can put us in the mood for love or arouse us to other physical actions such as marching or dancing. Similarly, the appeal of some linguistic and poetic rhythms is irresistible. They travel our nervous system and intoxicate the brain or stimulate the heart, inducing gloom, excitation, contemplation, or euphoria” (Maulucci, 2009). Comparing the poetry of these two authors reveals similar approaches to sound including specific brevity of statement, improved flow of thought through enjambment and a focus on a specific element of the black experience.

Main body

At the time Brooks wrote her poem “We Real Cool,” jazz was in full swing in the urban north and black people were finding their own voices in an increasingly receptive modern public. The brevity of language associated with the modern literary movement as well as the jazzy rhythms of the Chicago city scene can be found within her lines. The way in which Brooks separates the stanzas of her poem allows for a progression of thought through the very simple statements presented. The lines “We real cool. We left school” (1-2) talk about the way in which the boys would leave the time-wasting efforts of school in the city in order to hang out and display their ‘cool’ on the street corners. This same three word sentence structure, termed tetrameter (Maulucci, 2009), continues through the remaining two stanzas of establishing an energetic, hard-hitting beat. This same short sentence structure and heavy beat can be found in the lines of Hughes’ poem “I, Too.” Despite his isolation from ‘polite’ society as a result of the color of his skin, he says “I laugh, / And eat well, / And grow strong” (5-7). These short statements help Hughes illustrate his outrage that he is still dismissed when company comes, but the energy of these lines suggest he is also exultant that it won’t be long until many of his brothers will be educated just like him and able to lift up their unique voices to add to the cultural mix that is America.

Brooks employs a poetic tool known as enjambment in order to incorporate the rhythms of the street into her poem. Each line with the sole exception of the final line ends with the first word of the next sentence – always the word ‘we.’ This serves to keep the energy pulling from one line to the next, leaving a pause in the center of each line in imitation of the syncopated rhythms of jazz. At the same time, there continues to be an emphasis on the single word ‘we’, indicating that there are multiples of people involved in this activity, which is compounded by the greater ‘we’ of the public reading the poem who condones this type of behavior either through neglect, intention or ignorance. Hughes also uses enjambment to pull his reader from one line to the next: “Tomorrow, / I’ll be at the table / When company comes / Nobody’ll dare / Say to me, / ‘Eat in the kitchen’, / Then” (8-14). According to Maulucci (2009), the way in which the poet divides his or her lines is often based upon the rhythm of the poem, but can is also a matter of intuition, such as in determining just where to break the line for greatest effect. The unity formed of the poem from one line to the next enables Hughes to boldly claim in his final line, “I, too, sing America” (18).

Both poems also focus on the unique experience that is the ‘black’ experience of America, in which they have the opportunity to make something of themselves in theory, but not in actual fact. Maulucci points out that “It is the spirit of the poem and the meaning of the line that matters more” (2009). In her poem, Brooks is talking about the teenagers that she saw running wild through the mid-1900s Chicago streets. They would get together in gangs and do nothing with their lives but hang out on street corners causing trouble and getting involved in crime. This, of course, leads to them participating in small crimes, beginning with lurking late and then learning to ‘strike straight.’ the poem to indicate how the boys then begin to associate sin with their inner selves, drinking and partying until they die an early death as a result of their actions. In his poem, Hughes discusses the treatment of the black man as it has been experienced in American until this point: “They send me to eat in the kitchen / When company comes” (3-4) but also indicates the emerging strength of the black nation as they began to experience greater human rights and more opportunity for education. As he gains in knowledge, wisdom and opportunity, Hughes recognizes that black people will not always be so easy to dismiss.


Through the manipulation of rhythm through language structure and enjambment and choice of subject matter, both of these poets are able to depict the unique perspective of the black person in the mid-1900s as jazz and the ‘black’ voice was beginning to gain recognition and power of its own. This is demonstrated through the poems as both poets are able to skillfully manipulate the cadence of their poems to convey a sense of sorrow and joy simultaneously. While Brooks conveys sorrow more through her subject and joy through her rhythm, Hughes conveys sorrow more through his rhythm and hope through his subject. Despite these differences, both authors can be seen to draw from the rhythms and patterns of jazz to make their cases.

Works Cited

Brooks, Gwendolyn. “We Real Cool.” The Norton Anthology of Contemporary Poetry. 3rd Ed. Jahan Ramazani, Richard Ellmann & Robert O’Clair (eds.). New York: W.W. Norton and Company, 2003: 145.

Hughes, Langston. The Collected Poems of Langston Hughes. Vintage Classics, 1995.

Maulucci, A.S. “Writing Rhythmic Poetry.” Interaction Media Group. (2009). Web.

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