New Deal As The Second American Revolution Free Writing Sample

It would not be an understatement to claim that the Great Depression was one of the darkest hours in the American history. Therefore, the New Deal suggested by Frank Delano Roosevelt, or FDR, as he was commonly referred to, could be seen as a life-saving force. At the same time, there was a significant amount of controversy about the New Deal since I led to the increase in the power of trusts instead of regular citizens (Shi & Tindall, 2016). As a result, the problem of economic inequality was not resolved completely, which led to an even greater divide between the rich and the poor (Shi & Tindall, 2016). The significance of the New Deal can be summarized in FDR’s ability to pinpoint the core problems of the American economy of the time, simultaneously being a controversial solution undermining the power of regular citizens.

Reasons

The attempt at calling the New Deal “the second American Revolution” often raises multiple questions, yet there is solid evidence that the New Deal warranted the specified title. Representing the set of principles that would save the U.S. economy from even worse recession and the ultimate economic collapse that could have followed the Great depression, the New deal represented a pivotal change to the American economic environment. The endeavor to encourage private entrepreneurship turned out to be the crucial choice that promoted the economic revival of the American market and was a truly revolutionary step at the tome (Shi & Tindall, 2016). At the same time, the controversial aspects of the New Deal, such as the failure to address the socioeconomic inequalities within the American society, provided opportunities for creating more efficient strategies that could address the needs of vulnerable groups within the U.S. community.

Process of Change

With the transformation of the focus of the American economy, a massive change occurred within the U.S. market, causing the state’s GDP to rise exponentially. the fact that Roosevelt recognized the importance of private business and the need to support it indicated that the U.S. was ready to transfer to capitalist relationships and create premises for free trade (Shi & Tindall, 2016). Thus, the relationships within the American market improved significantly, leading to the emergence of new companies and causing a noticeable rise in the state economy, particularly, the levels of the U.S. GDP (Shi & Tindall, 2016). In addition, the New Deal facilitated the transition to the concept of social security as a means of securing the lives of those that have been disadvantaged in some way that prevented them from participating in economic relationships and benefitting from them (Shi & Tindall, 2016). Overall, the process of change launched by the New Deal occurred at several levels, affecting not only the market but also the social aspects of citizens’ lives.

Myths Destroyed

Before the New Deal was introduced, the Great Depression had left a devastating impact on the American economy, debunking a crucial myth about it and especially the concept of capitalism as market-based relationships. Namely, as the Great Depression reached its peak, the myth about high wages being the driving force behind effective economic performance, as well as the fact that, once stabilized, the economy will sustain itself (Shi & Tindall, 2016). Therefore, as awful as it was for the lives of millions of Americans, the Great Depression produced important lessons to learn. Showing what steps have to be avoided entirely when engaging in market relationships, the Great Depression was one of the darkest times in the American history. However, the Great Depression destroyed the myths that prevented the American economy from blossoming, which meant that the process was ultimately inevitable.

Liberalism, Positive Government, and FDR’s Policies

When embracing the role that the New Deal played in amending the American economy, one should note that it helped the participants of trade relationships to accept the significance of liberalism and positive government. Namely, the principles of classical liberalism were abandoned once the New Deal was accepted into the framework for managing economic changes within the country. Specifically, the range of liberal freedoms that American citizens could enjoy was expanded from the freedoms of the mind to those of economic and political actions, offering American residents, as well as organizations, greater agency in the U.S. economy. Likewise, the policies suggested by Roosevelt emphasized and enhanced the positive role of government, which was restricted to supervising the transactions occurring in the market and ensuring that the said transactions met the established legal requirements (Shi & Tindall, 2016). As a result, the government could not impede the development of economy and trade. Finally, the importance of state support from those in need was presented as a crucial part of the new economic model.

Government’s Responsibility to Support

Discussion

The opportunity to receive state-funded support for those that found themselves in rather unfavorable economic conditions was one of the major outcomes of the New Deal. However, the practical impact of the specified change is still debated as one of the concepts that may undermine the foundational concept of capitalism. Nonetheless, the importance of state support for individuals who cannot provide for themselves due to the circumstances that are out of their control is tremendous. The specified change represents a shift toward the reinforcement of social justice and the introduction of humanism into capitalist relationships. Therefore, from the perspective of ethics, the described change was a crucial step in shaping the capitalist relationships within the U.S.

Government’s Positive Role in the American Dream

Finally, the role of the government in shaping the relationships within the capitalist society needs to be brought up as an important and often contentious topic. The interference of government into the economic and trade-related transactions that goes beyond legal control is traditionally seen as negative (Shi & Tindall, 2016). Therefore, the government’s role in implementing the famous American Dream, which implies that everyone should have an equal chance to succeed, is to ensure that the American society functions on the principles of equity. In the economic context, the specified function includes social security for those that cannot provide for themselves, as well as market regulation. The latter allows avoiding the scenarios involving the development of monopolies that limit the opportunities of SMEs, as well as the threat of fraud in the economic environment.

The American Dream

Definition

Based on the concept of equal opportunities, the American dream implies that everyone can have a chance at garnering economic, financial and social success. While the specified notion might seem a bit unrealistic in the context of the modern U.S. society where inequalities still exist, the concept of the American dream retains its power. After the introduction of the New Deal that created premises for free trade, the American dream became particularly attainable, thus igniting the desire to succeed in millions of American citizens.

Conclusion

By distilling the exact factors that affected the U.S. economy to the greatest extent and creating the steps for influencing these factors to gain better control of them, as well as by extending the state support to those in need, Roosevelt managed to revive the American economy. With the emphasis on private business and the promotion of entrepreneurship, FDR modelled the setting where American people could explore business opportunities and improve their financial situation. As a result, the New Deal became one of the critical decisions that determined the course of the U.S. development and led to it establishing economic hegemony in the global market later.

Reference

Shi, D. E., & Tindall, G. B. (2016). America: A narrative history (10th ed.,Vol. 2). W. W. Norton & Company.

The Issue Of Abortion Eligibility

Introduction

The issue of whether abortion is morally justified is highly controversial and still gives rise to intense debate. Discussions are conducted even on a philosophical scale with the application of logically constructed arguments. However, there is no unanimity on this issue among proponents of opposite positions. Each one protects a particular virtue that contradicts the other. According to Gensler (1986), opponents of abortion advocate the value of innocent human life. At the same time, abortion proponents consider it necessary to protect women’s rights in the case of unintentional or involuntary pregnancy and consider other related instances. This paper examines the first and second-order reasons for abortion and analyzes their acceptability and reasonableness.

First Order Reasons

This category of reasons includes several situations in which pregnancy entails extremely negative experiences for the woman or has disastrous consequences. The first of these is an unwanted pregnancy due to rape. It should be noted that this case most clearly demonstrates the conflict between women’s rights and the value of an innocent child’s life. The second reason is the situation when the pregnancy endangers a woman’s life.

In the first instance, a woman is deprived of her right to make a choice, and in the second instance, she risks her life, which also makes her choices not entirely free. Gensler (1986) discusses the argument that no one can be burdened with an obligation unless it has been voluntarily confirmed. However, the author notes that some duties arise without voluntary consent and cites the example of a motorist who has a “special obligation toward a person he has injured in an accident” (Gensler, 1986, p. 88). In the case of a violent or threatening pregnancy, the woman is innocent, and therefore it is inappropriate to impose the obligation on her. The third reason is a severe mental or physical disability of the fetus. This implies a challenging experience and much effort for the mother of such a child. Thus, it should be noted that in all these cases, abortion should be the free choice of the woman. She should not be obliged since that choice is directly related to serious consequences in her life.

Second-Order Reasons

The reasons in this category are less radical and concern the morality of women’s freedom of choice in this area. The first reason regards the financial and social conditions that will not allow for the child or family to enjoy adequate well-being. It should be noted that the acceptability of this reason depends on the severity of financial and social difficulties. If they are very challenging, this situation will be close to first-order reasons. The two remaining reasons are the most controversial and relate to the career prospects and certain plans of the woman, which are violated by a potential pregnancy. For example, if a woman gets a unique opportunity to travel to Europe during her seventh month of pregnancy, she may want an abortion because she may become pregnant again. It seems that from an ethical point of view, the value of an innocent child’s life is more significant than a woman’s ambitions or desires. However, the final choice still has to be made by the woman, as pregnancy and childbirth have a primary impact on her life.

Conclusion

The issue of the acceptability of these reasons is highly controversial and may give rise to many conflicting arguments. At the same time, first-order reasons justify abortion to a greater extent than second-order ones. It may be concluded that despite the ethical arguments about the morality or immorality of abortion, the choice should be made by a woman, as it largely determines the potential consequences for her life.

Reference

Gensler, H. J. (1986). A Kantian argument against abortion. Philosophical Studies: An International Journal for Philosophy in the Analytic Tradition, 49(1), 83–98.

Philosophy About The Soul And Fundamental Belief

Care of the Soul

The soul is a rational part of a person, focused on solving moral problems. Socrates placed at the center of his teaching the question of an individual’s essence, especially the principle of knowing yourself. He understands the soul as people’s ability to think and evaluate their actions according to moral principles. As long as the essence of a person is the soul, it demands special care. Caring for the mind is the moral duty of every person. Virtue makes the soul genuine and perfect; it is associated with knowledge, which is necessary for doing good deeds. Without understanding the essence of ethics, a person will not know how to act appropriately.

I agree with this statement since virtue and reason do not contradict each other since thinking is vital to determine the concept of happiness and the possibility of achieving it. These days, the scientific and technological revolution, giving rise to innovative technologies, changes social communication and reality. The new cultural structure requires unusual norms and guidelines. Current realities pose further questions for a person, actualize old problems of good and evil, self-awareness, the boundaries of what is permissible. The issue of falling morals and rejection of universal human values and happiness questions are often discussed.

Consequently, Socrates’ attitude towards the internal has become acute as the source of joy is not in the body or external but the soul; people are happy when their soul is ordered and virtuous. “The best way to learn how to read philosophy well is to read it often” (Vaughn 30). Socrates calls on a soul to concern moral purity as the goal and meaning of life instead of the desire for fame and wealth, which often forces a person to commit crimes. Thus, the soul’s term is more precious than the body; it is an invisible, immaterial entity that determines the true self and personality.

Fundamental Belief

Fundamental beliefs are critical, being a psychologically significant position of a person. The presence of conscious life principles indicates a person’s place in the world. Through life principles, people define themselves, guide, and take actions. Basic beliefs are presented in speech statements, being value judgments chosen by a person as determining his or her actions. One of the principles is to avoid negative thinking and not to worry about issues being out of control. It is called Stoicism, whose primary focus is the ability to distinguish between what is under control and what is not. It would help if individuals concentrated their efforts first and not waste time. Many philosophical works are complex to understand and require in-depth reading and analyzing the text through the lens of self-reflection and the understanding of the world (Vaughn 29). However, stoicism’s main feature is its practicality; the opinion that philosophy is purely theoretical reasoning does not apply to this approach. Besides, stoicism is distinguished by its openness to new knowledge and readiness to criticize.

This belief belongs to axiology and practical philosophy, which represents different aspects of ethics. Ethics, in the broadest sense, primarily examines the place of a person in the world, tries to answer the questions of what human happiness is and how it is achieved. It explores the issues of good and evil, the concept of justice, looking for the meaning of human life. Axiology concerns the origin of values, their place in everyday life, the relationship of various matters ​​with each other, social and cultural factors, and personality structure.

Work Cited

Vaughn, Lewis. Philosophy Here and Now: Powerful Ideas in Everyday Life. Oxford University Press, 2018.

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