Apple Inc. is an electronics company that designs, manufactures, and markets Apple hardware, software, and service work. The company currently deals with mobile phones, computers, tablets, and wearables and offers related service works. Its products are highly differentiated with brand names such as iPhone, iMac, iTunes, iPad, AirPods, and Apple Watch. The company is based in California, North America, in the United States.
Apple’s value proposition has changed over time. Its first signature, “Think different”, talked to creatives who think differently. Creatives in different industries, such as movie making and professional designs, equipped themselves with Apple products. Today, Apple’s value proposition has changed to “Air. Light. Speed.” This statement summarizes what customers want. A lightweight, super-fast, and one that goes far and beyond what they can ever get from any other laptop manufacturer. The signature represents the company’s state-of-the-art designs and sleek, reliable, and user-friendly products.
According to the company’s annual financial report, Apple’s annual revenue went up by 8% to reach $394.3 billion. In the quarter that ended September 24, 2022, in its 2022 fiscal year, the company recorded a revenue of $90.1 billion (Apple Inc., 2022). iPhone contributed $205.5 billion, which accounts for 52.11% of the annual revenue. Mac sales followed with $40 billion (10.19%), and the rest of the products contributed the rest (Apple Inc., 2022). The iPhone, Apple’s smartphone model, is not just a smartphone; it is a physical platform that combines hardware, software, and marketplace characteristics. This is the reason why it is the company’s most profitable product.
SWOT analysis strengths
Technology, Research, and Development
Apple’s expertise in technology stems from its investment in advanced research and development. The company can anticipate customer expectations and deliver products that exceed customers’ expectations (Apple Inc., 2021). Apple is known for building innovative products that changed the world. A new product from the same company will thus attract the same reception as the loyal customer base believes that Apple’s products are premium.
Apple has built products that resonate with corporate class and brands. Among creative professionals, iMacs are preferred due to their high performance. In 2020, Apple was ranked the 3rd most valuable brand. Just like Apple’s other products, a new product from Apple will enjoy a high reputation that will enable the company to charge premium prices.
Apple’s customers do not switch. Apple provides its customers with unique, top-notch technology with state-of-the-art privacy features that encourage customer loyalty. Furthermore, Apple has created an ecosystem where one can have all technology products from the same brand. That is iPhone, iMac, Mac book, Apple Watch, iTunes, and App store. In addition to this ecosystem, a new product will be positively received (Apple Inc., 2021). All Apple products focus on quality and simplicity, thus boosting brand loyalty.
Product or service singularity
Apple can leverage its expertise in research and development to introduce a new product, the Apple car, that can revolutionize the automotive industry. The new product, the Apple car, will be a unique type of vehicle that is completely autonomous. Such innovation will quickly overtake the current electric vehicles that are partially autonomous. This product will super-fast charging infrastructure that will overtake the current slow and time-wasting charging infrastructure. The product will incorporate AR and VR technologies, unique sunroof designs, and on-screen displays. Fully autonomous driving will allow customized and unique sitting designs that are lacking in current automotive products.
New product or service projections
In the third quarter of 2022, Apple claimed an 18% market share of the consumer electronics market (Statista, 2022). Having recovered from the pandemic, the projection is that the consumer’s purchasing power will increase, and the company will claim a higher market position. The introduction of the new product will improve the company’s productivity. This is because people are currently concerned with the effects of fossil fuel and will gladly welcome an autonomous electric car that overcomes the challenges associated with the partially autonomous electric cars that are currently available. Based on Apple’s ability to capture the corporate market, the Apple car will be a premium product for corporates, creatives, and upper-class customers who can afford premium prices.
Apple Inc. (2021, December 1). Form 10‐K. Retrieved from https://www.sec.gov/Archives/edgar/data/320193/000032019321000105/aapl-20210925.htm
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New Technologies In The Field Of Business University Essay Example
Technology has revolutionized how businesses operate and has enormously impacted the global economy. As technology rapidly evolves, so do the opportunities available to businesses. The challenge for businesses is assessing new technologies in their field and deciding which one best suits their needs. This report will determine three new technologies in the field of business analytics and recommend which one is best suited for businesses. This report will assess three technologies: self-service business intelligence, predictive analytics, and machine learning.
Self-service Business Intelligence
Passlick et al. (2020) state that self-service business intelligence (BI) is a powerful technology that enables businesses to quickly and efficiently access, analyze, and interpret data to gain insights, identify trends and make better decisions. It is rapidly becoming an essential tool for organizations as it is relatively cheap, easy to use, and can be implemented quickly. One of the key benefits of self-service BI is its affordability; it does not require expensive software or IT personnel to run, making it an attractive and cost-effective option for many businesses (Passlick et al.,2020). This is especially true for small to mid-sized businesses that often cannot afford to invest in traditional BI solutions. Additionally, self-service BI is relatively easy to use and can be used by non-technical personnel. This makes it an ideal choice for businesses with limited IT resources, as it requires minimal training and expertise. Self-service BI also enables businesses to identify trends and anomalies in their data quickly. For example, a business may be able to quickly identify a trend in customer buying habits or a sudden decrease in sales. This data can then be used to inform decisions and develop strategies for improving business performance. By monitoring key performance indicators (KPIs) over time, businesses can gain valuable insights into their operations and make informed decisions.
Self-service BI also enables businesses to identify new opportunities quickly. This can include identifying potential new markets, developing new products and services, or expanding into new areas. By analyzing data and spotting trends in customer behavior, businesses can quickly identify new opportunities that have the potential to generate significant revenue (Bani Hani,2017). Finally, self-service BI can help businesses improve their decision-making process. Businesses can make better decisions based on sound data rather than guesswork by quickly and accurately analyzing data. This can be especially helpful in product development, marketing, and customer service, where decisions are often made without adequate data.
Predictive analytics is a technology that enables businesses to gain insights into their operations with the help of historical data. In essence, predictive analytics is a powerful tool for businesses because it can better understand their operations and help them make better decisions. Predictive analytics can be used to predict customer demand, identify potential opportunities, and optimize operations. For example, predictive analytics can be used to forecast customer demand by analyzing historical sales data. This can help businesses create accurate forecasts and adjust their operations accordingly (Attaran et al.,2019). Additionally, predictive analytics can be used to identify potential opportunities that may arise due to changes in the market or customer needs. For instance, a business may use predictive analytics to identify new product development opportunities or target markets.
However, predictive analytics can be challenging to use and requires much knowledge and expertise. This makes it difficult for businesses to implement predictive analytics without hiring an experienced professional or team. Additionally, predictive analytics can be expensive as it requires specialized software and personnel. Furthermore, predictive analytics relies heavily on data accuracy and quality, meaning that businesses must ensure that their data is accurate and up to date. Finally, predictive analytics is only sometimes reliable as it can only predict events that are likely to occur and may not be 100% accurate.
Machine learning is a type of artificial intelligence that is used to automate processes, identify potential opportunities, and optimize operations. It is a computer-based technology that uses algorithms to identify data patterns and learn from them. This allows machines to make decisions and predictions without requiring human input (Canhoto et al.,2020). Machine learning can be used for various tasks, including text and voice recognition, image processing, and forecasting. The process of machine learning involves gathering data and building an algorithm, or a set of instructions, that can be used to identify patterns and make decisions. The algorithm is then tested against real-world data to check its accuracy. This process of testing and refining the algorithm is known as “training” and is essential to the success of the machine learning process.
According to research, the main advantage of machine learning is that it can be used to automate processes and identify potential opportunities. Machine learning algorithms are designed to improve continually, meaning they can learn from their mistakes and become more accurate over time (Canhoto et al.,2020). This makes them ideal for tasks such as predictive analytics, where they can be used to identify trends and patterns in large datasets. Additionally, machine learning can be used to optimize operations, such as improving customer service by identifying customer needs and making suggestions for improvement.
However, there are several potential drawbacks to using machine learning. The first is that the technology can be difficult to implement and requires great expertise. This is because the algorithms used in machine learning are complex and require an understanding of both data and computer science (Lee,2020). Additionally, machine learning can be expensive as it requires specialized hardware and software. As a result, businesses must be willing to invest significant resources into developing machine learning solutions to make the most of the technology.
After assessing the three technologies, it is recommended that businesses use self-service business intelligence. This technology is inexpensive, easy to use, and can be implemented quickly. For example, a small business can use self-service BI to gain insights into its customer behaviors. By using self-service BI, businesses can quickly and easily access their customer data and identify trends in their purchases. This can help the business identify customer needs and adjust its marketing campaigns accordingly.
Additionally, self-service business intelligence does not require IT personnel or expensive software solutions. In comparison, predictive analytics and machine learning are more complex technologies that require a great deal of expertise and resources. Predictive analytics uses data to identify patterns and predict future trends, while machine learning is used to automate data analysis. These technologies can be challenging to use and require a great deal of expertise to use effectively. Additionally, these technologies can be expensive and require businesses to invest in an expensive software solution. As such, self-service business intelligence is the most suitable technology for businesses.
In conclusion, self-service business intelligence is the most suitable technology for businesses in business analytics. It is inexpensive, easy to use, and can be implemented quickly. This makes it an ideal choice for small to mid-sized businesses that often cannot afford to invest in traditional BI solutions. Additionally, self-service BI can be used by non-technical personnel, enabling businesses to identify trends and anomalies in their data quickly. This can help them make better decisions and develop strategies for improving business performance. Furthermore, self-service BI can help businesses identify new opportunities that have the potential to generate significant revenue. Predictive analytics and machine learning are more costly and require much expertise to use effectively. Therefore, self-service business intelligence is the most suitable technology for businesses in business analytics.
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Passlick, J., Guhr, N., Lebek, B., & Breitner, M. H. (2020). Encouraging the use of self-service business intelligence–an examination of employee-related influencing factors. Journal of Decision Systems, 29(1), 1-26.
New Trends In Management Essay Example
Any organisation’s success highly relies on applying effective strategic management. Organising and maintaining an organisation’s success ability is part of this process. Business strategy balances the internal resources and capabilities of a business. An organisation’s investments and weaknesses are generated from internal and external factors, respectively. This involves studying the environment, creating a plan, carrying it out, and assessing its effectiveness. The new managerial techniques that leaders adopt to handle their staff successfully are recent developments in management. The management trends develop and progress along with the market’s current state. The economic circumstances at the moment will affect these developments. Current management patterns disclose competence against a downturn, management position for the general public, an expansion of I.T. usages, and increased demand for strategic organisational skills. The problem is more likely to expound on an issue’s internal and outside mechanisms to resolve the company’s affairs. Moving forward with the standard of thorough coordination is necessary, and anticipating a downturn is the most challenging process. Implementing digital operations within a company is crucial since learning more about analytical knowledge and abilities is recommended. There are significant problems in dealing with the division of tasks using advanced technologies. It requires employees better understand relevant data by monitoring monetary and non-monetary transaction records. This paper aims to evaluate the various new trends in management, PESTEL analysis of these trends and a reflection on how these trends affect individual career paths. To effectively analyse these trends, Tesco is the chosen company.
New Management Trends
As it relates to internet marketing patterns, data gathering, and techniques, the world is rapidly changing. It is a challenging task for a company to address the problems of the diversity of culture and language that arise in societal structure (Anshari et al., 2019). It is also challenging to oversee business operations and gain knowledge, which leads to regular disagreements. New management trends furthermore endorse reducing the negative consequences of work pressure. The globalisation phenomenon renders management developments more feasible, motivating them to work hard and enhance their abilities (Ahmed et al., 2018). It increases business people’s perception of the dangers of difficulties and sharpens their abilities to interact with different cultures and linguistics. Skilled and experienced planning methods enable companies to establish the proper methodology and prepare the entire structure by automating the control of most company agents (Choi et al., 2018).
Digital Marketing as a New Trend in Management
Digital marketing, information gathering, and video approach all impact management capturing both benefits and drawbacks of the business world (van Esch & Mente, 2018). Digital marketing gains business owners and customers by making brands accessible for additional services based on e-commerce. Frustration can also emerge when business owners struggle to demonstrate their digital presence to customers due to outages. The emergence of digital techniques has destabilised age-old advertising and promotional methods. In a digital and mobile world, an online marketing system is now required to identify, entice, and maintain long-term relationships (Andrew et al., 2021). For instance, implementing an e-book from the MIT strategy on the Digital Economy showcases takeaways from this spring’s 2022 MIT Chief Marketing Officer Summit. The topline proposal for Tesco professionals is to have greater appeal and be socially connected to contemporary consumers, incorporating data, predictive analysis, and methodologies. Moreover, modern consumers consider brand decisions based on a broad range of digital network connections, from Facebook to WhatsApp, and the combination is continually shifting. Even though social customers at Tesco are impacted by what their networking site friends believe about various services and goods (a phenomenon known as “social proof”), Tesco must use discrete analysis to fully comprehend the impact of social networks in marketing (Blanche, Flavián and Pérez-Rueda, 2017).
Data Collection as a New Trend in Management
Data management refers to gathering, recording, and then using data in a practical, safe, and cost-effective manner. Tesco is increasingly resorting to incremental improvement in Data Management technologies (in the cloud) to regulate, safeguard, and analyse the data. This enables them to handle their business operations on a standard and centralised model. Data management technologies give the company more control and easier access to its data. Entrepreneurs can achieve a competitive advantage by incorporating Data Management into their strategic plan (Chen, Li, and Chen, 2020). Data Management systems are frequently employed to help with data analysis. It is employed to assist the company in becoming more profitable and competitive. Tesco has started to adopt predictive analytics to reduce expenses, increase profitability, and enhance productivity. As an outcome, technology is continually changing and progressing. Cloud analytics, as opposed to on-premises analytics, has several favourable circumstances (Steenkamp, 2020). It liberates the data team and enables a configurable workload, which helps to reduce overhead expenses. As a result, cloud analytics solutions are a rapidly expanding market. The advantages of data collection advance with concrete objectives to fulfil the outstanding achievements of customers through adequate website assessment. It makes it easier to obtain uniformity of validity and trustworthiness. It aids in learning more about proper specifications through sampling procedures (Mackey et al., 2018). Without research, faults in data gathering are exposed through the dangers of shared information (Vecchio & Secundo, 2018).
Video Strategy as a New Trend in Management
If there is one fixed value in online material and social networking sites over the last few years, it is the massive and increasing awareness of online video. Video marketing, long-form video, short-form video, live video, square video… Whichever style, video has generated a lot of media attention in the marketing world for its capacity to captivate and amuse, and Tesco is progressively incorporating it into their marketing techniques (Tong Luo, X. and Xu, 2019). A not long time ago, the concept of viewing online videos on a phone or tablet was considered ridiculous. Mobile broadband speeds were too slow, videos consumed too much data, and displays were inadequate for streaming.
Mobile video demand has exploded in recent years thanks to faster broadband speeds, improved video approval in mobile applications and websites, and smartphone screens designed for multimedia. According to studies, mobile video usage has been rising since 2012. However, it took off in 2015, with the worldwide number of minutes viewed per day increasing from about 14 minutes in 2015 to approximately 35 minutes in 2018 (Van Esch & Mente, 2018). Streaming live has evolved into one of the most prevalent forms of online video in recent years. Traditionally the domain of tech enthusiasts and event organisers, live video has emerged as a popular recreation medium and interpersonal tool in the last three years, thanks to the unveiling of services such as Periscope and Facebook Live, as well as the emergence of radio and television platforms such as Twitch (Vecchio & Secundo, 2018). The advantages of the video approach include the integration of large datasets, which raises revenue standards. Social media platforms help Tesco’s management patterns to showcase the corporate structure. However, the video method encourages experts to do their utmost to ensure data transfer in the highest quality modalities rather than employing data based on natural methods (Xie, 2021).
Tesco nowadays is attempting to put more emphasis on the various elements of marketing patterns that would be used to enhance their everyday business operations. As a result, the model of pastel analysis will be taken in an informative way to comprehend various features and concepts of the current topic. It is also useful when working with the preceding sections (Grewal et., 2021).
A nation’s political perspective is especially important, and it could cause organisation to consider changing product lines or, ultimately, brand outline (Hanlon, 2021). For instance, if Tesco considers digital marketing as a multiverse, the social media network and Search engine optimisation tools that are acquainted in the area market might not be the same in other counties. For example, Facebook has been treading up in various ways. This implies that any organisation like Tesco that uses Facebook in an area where this feature is obstructed will have no marketing possibilities. Tesco’s management trends are influenced by political considerations such as patent laws, institutional arrangements, and customs regulations, among others (Maddodi and K, 2019). It is necessary to highlight the implementation of political implications because it tends to decrease the elements of bribery and graft at the global arena among Tesco’s customers and colleagues. Tesco recognises the framework of political situation to shape videos and their techniques in a more entertaining manner. Political factors demonstrate Tesco’s independence to change their video tactics in order to learn more regarding the structure’s practicability. It also takes action before Tesco publish videos by tracking distinct regions’ political factors (Mackey et al., 2018).
Tesco’s economic climate can be assessed on a global scale (Islam and Huda, 2019). For example, the brand’s physical attraction may make it socio-demographic, but the product’s value corresponds to the client’s anticipation of disposal income. These discussions can assist in alleviating the gloomy costs perspective or even provide low-cost adjustments to the main product or service offerings. Strategic management is the technique of creating, tracking, analysing, and evaluating all of the critical ingredients that an organisation requires to accomplish its goals. In a corporate environment, Tesco must constantly assess their strategies and procedures (Kannan and Li, 2017). At TESCO, a good system will offer a concise plan and a position for guiding principles or regulatory requirements, specifying the initiative that people in the trading activities should accept and the product they favor to achieve desired outcomes. Economic strategy is a relatively new and rapidly evolving area of financial consulting that entails the application of monetary concepts and means continue providing customers with diverse viewpoints and ongoing work (Hanlon, 2019).
Social forces are more difficult to measure than economic variables; they refer to how shareholders perceive life and liberty which can influence trade activities. Small consultations, for example, may seem to be related to more conspicuous things like lending rates or corporation taxes (Holmlund et al., 2020). Nonetheless, they can have a remarkably large impact on various markets. Each society’s patterns differ; even discussing social standards allocates corrective phases to entrepreneurs, which sounds plausible. Tesco’s marketing teams use digital marketing to generate, rector, and use videos to promote their products or offerings to their targeted clients. The strategy is to keep the audience engaged with the product line in an absorbable way (Labanauskait, Fiore, and Stays, 2020). Goals are needed at the beginning of any brand-new social media arrangement. And the company chooses the platform, the video category, the concept of the content creation, comprehends what post-production entails, strategies and encourages the videos, and acknowledges and analyses metrics. If the company wants to create compelling video content, it should make an effort to be easy to relate to at times. Visual content that resonates with customers and provides people a sense of what the company represents for is far more effective (Labanauskaitė, Fiore and Stašys, 2020).
Making manual and conventional data records increases people’s achievements and entices their interest in conducting proper research and utilising the best resources to help individuals and companies succeed (Grewal et al., 2021). Technology is all around and easily replaced in today’s corporate structure. At Tesco, the management teams and professionals must comprehend the consequences of technological variables on the company. The pace and quality of technological interference in today’s marketplace are unparalleled, and it has had a negative impact on many traditional companies. To create the videos more appealing, more innovative systems must be used. It is legitimate that having direct exposure to videos attracts people to any product or service (Feng, and Lv, 2021). The video strategy is intended to capture the interest of the customers by posting videos through the channel of social media groups. Successful video strategies increase people’s interest in viewing more thrilling videos, making them more usable and appealing to purchase and benefiting the company through digital marketing.
Legal factors emerge as a result of changes in market conditions, which may affect the overall economic growth, industries, or even individual exchange within a specific area. Laws can function as a mobility or an overall direction for operational processes; for example, the action could be increased capital requirements for financial companies (Islam, and Huda, 2019). And the following example of basic guidance is if the principle is so strict in a specific industry that it may function as a response to changes for conventional operators, resulting in legal hindrances that preclude feasible new recruits. Rather than inquiring about existing arbitration policies to be banned, legal preparation sets the trends in the industry for the strategic priorities to progress at a worldwide platform (Kannan and Li, 2017).
It is difficult to learn about the company administration’s execution of video strategic approach, which seeks a precise detailed plan to cultivate the business. However, each procedure must adhere to certain guidelines. Environmental variables help Tesco to choose specific goals by tracking available resources as they move through the channel (Liu et al., 2018). However, it is necessary to conduct an authentic assessment of the methods while keeping a control and balance on the corporate structure. But it enables them to ascertain their sources, utilise the most preferred advertisement through video processes, and encounter strong customer traffic through using isolated areas (Lee, 2018). It is more important to recognise that long-term commercial transactions pursue the desires of shareholders, which include business owners, business stockholders, company respondents, and customers.
Digital marketing, data gathering, and video techniques are all linked because they help entrepreneurs in a wider sense. The cultural landscape is being transformed by internet marketing patterns, data gathering, and video approach. It informs business owners about their company’s weaknesses and advantages through the use of internet marketing trends, data gathering, and video approach. Simply stay visible in front of customers with a great record keeps asking people to learn more about the accepted process with their prerequisites put forth by consumer achievements. Current management trends in internet advertising, data gathering, and video strategy allow the business owner to explore and gather data about the demands of marketing trends while also learning about the public’s expectations.
Graham Gibbs invented the Gibbs’ Reflective Cycle in 1988 to shape learning from experiences. It serves as a framework for evaluating experiences, and because it is cyclical, it extends itself notably well to repetitive experiences, enabling individuals to learn and prepare from events that went well or bad. . The model comprise of six stages i.e. description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan The reflective summary of this paper will be primarily based on the Gibbs reflective model as described below.
As the first step in the Gibb’s reflective model, description enables participants to precisely describe the situation. in the current age of globalisation, Tesco has been faced by new trends in management that can positively or negatively affect its business operations. The common new trends discussed in this paper are: digital marketing, video strategy and data collection. Reflecting on my digital program experience, it has been a fantastic skill-building journey and encounter. My expertise is in business planning and management, and while I studied marketing in my management and business degrees, I didn’t do a lot of online marketing, and while I converse on social media platforms personally, I would like to learn more on how to use them to help my own career, but also to use my family’s business as a testing ground to move it to the next generation and increase revenue.
I was able to build and launch a website using the tools I learned. This was an undertaking that I had wanted to accomplish for years but lacked the courage to do so. The learning on SEO and how to design a good website were very interesting and informative and have already enabled reach to more clients and sales growth from prospective consumers since launch. I learned great tools to improve the business by creating efficient use of Google analytics and keyword phrases, which will possibly lead to further expansion and natural rating increases.
When I was taking a course in digital marketing, I was not conversant with the terminologies related to the field and the significance of this course in my future career opportunities. However, after thorough concentration and dedication, it was fantastic to be able to incorporate the research results into a live company or organisation and evaluate the results; some worked well, while others did not. The targeted customers were very advantageous to what profile I needed to endear to and where the demographic untruths with each forum such as Linked In, Facebook, Twitter, Ticktock, Instagram, and so on. The social networking advertising and predictive analysis content was extremely useful because it not only provided me with a foundation in digital but also highlighted the emerging trends of video and user generated content. I consider that the practical aspect of being able to utilise on a live business in which I am a major investor, as well as the ability to collaborate with teams on different projects, helped bring the content of the lesson to life. The group work allowed me to get a sense of other people’s viewpoints and experiences instituting the strategic plan with all of their different experiences, which gave me the confidence to fully immerse myself in the online marketing culture.
Digital marketing course has been of great significance to my life and the life of others since I have been able to help individuals and companies to create websites and advertise their product thus increasing their client base, brand reputation, customer attraction and retention and effectiveness. However, since the online market strategies are constantly changing, it is important for me to continue learning new trends in this market.
The online marketing enables me to concentrate on the various kinds of factors and management trends of Tesco, which is very crucial for me to comprehend that distinct sorts of businesses are required to reduce their ecological footprint if they wish to increase their sustainability initiatives, and I have also seen that entities must uphold the legal factors and intellectual property rights if they want to preserve the quality of their products. I explain on the diverse technical aspects that enable me to comprehend that various companies must concentrate on the areas of artificial intelligence if they wish to boost their company’s current climate in the larger work context. I also improve my data analysis skills, which is very essential, and it also enables me to understand that an appropriate information gathering technique will indeed help to gather reliable and feasible information to accurately explain the research study.
Conclusion and action plan
It can be deduced from the preceding section that I need to push for better action plans if I choose to push for better research strategies because I need to get the better research approaches to conquer the various sorts of difficulties while functioning on the source materials for expounding the research topic. The stronger areas related to study techniques will be helpful to allow me to concentrate on the proper research, and based on the research subject, I have also discovered that entities must put more emphasis on the better locations of handling trends if they wish to deal with the current market dynamics. Every concern regarding effective communication skill sets will be beneficial to me as it will enable me to converse about information that is relevant to my research subject, which is critical for the instructor to comprehend the constituents of my research topics on the patterns of handling the operational activities in a company.
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