New Zealand Transport Agency (NTZA) University Essay Example

Executive summary

This report gives the most appropriate recommendations for NZTA executive team to improve efficiency and effectiveness in managing their project. The report offers recommendations based on stakeholder management, project selection methods and maintenance of sustainable projects. The report gives recommendations that NZTA should focus on understanding stakeholders and building relationships with the stakeholders to manage the stakeholders in the best way possible. Based on selecting projects in the best way, the report recommends the checklist model method and profile model method. The report also recommends the best sustainable project approaches, which are Ensuring the organizational strategy has responsibilities of sustainable development and ensuring stakeholder engagement. Based on all these, the NZTA team can thoroughly select the best project and ensure it runs with minimal impact on society.


In every organization, project management is very critical, and it entails planning, organizing and executing projects with defined constraints like time, scope and budget. Resource management is essential for organizations since it involves managing resources, stakeholders and other risks that the project might face before, during or even after implementation (Hartono, Sulistyo & Umam, 2019). By applying strong leadership, problem-solving skills and communication, there is effective project t management that considers significant stakeholders and processes (Hartono, Sulistyo & Umam, 2019). This report aims at giving NTZA (New Zealand Transport Agency) executive teams the same considerations for improving their project management. Also, the report will give recommendations based on how NZTA should select projects, stakeholder management, and achieve sustainability with their projects.

Approaches for stakeholder management

Understanding the stakeholders

As an approach to stakeholder management, understanding stakeholders considers the identification and prioritization of stakeholders based on their influence, level of interest, and potential impact on the organization. This is very critical for the executive team of NZTA in its project. First, the executive team needs to undertake stakeholder mapping, which considers categorizing the stakeholders into different groups based on their influence and interest levels, as Park et al. (2017) argued. Some of the key stakeholders in the Manawatū Gorge project with interest in the project include the public, councils, iwi, road user groups and businesses. Additionally, the NZTA executive team needs to consider actively involving the stakeholders in decision-making and seeking feedback from them and their input. Here, the executive team will have a lot of transparency and accountability, which helps build long-term relationships with stakeholders and projects with that aspect are easy to work on since there are no conflicts (Park et al., 2017). Through this, the project will have an easy time for execution since every stakeholder will have given their views and feedback, thus feeling valued and part of the project.

Building relationships with the stakeholders

The other approach toward stakeholder management that the NZTA executive team needs to consider is building relationships with stakeholders. This involves creating and maintaining positive interactions between the organization and its stakeholders (de Oliveira & Rabechini, 2019). As a senior project manager, I urge NZTA executive teams to adopt open communication, partnership building and collaboration. Manawatū Gorge project will improve brand image and reputation, increase stakeholder loyalty and engagement and reduce stakeholder resistance and opposition risks. Through engaging the stakeholders, the Manawatū Gorge project will gain valuable perspective and insights, thus helping the organization make better and more informed decisions and shave their strategies with time. However, building strong relationships with the stakeholders is not easy, as it requires constant investment and effort. Additionally, it can be very challenging to balance the interests and the needs of various stakeholder groups and maintain consistency and alignment across multiple relationships (de Oliveira & Rabechini, 2019). Despite all this, I recommend that the NZTA consider the approach as it is a very effective way to manage stakeholder expectations and create long value for all parties involved.

Methods for selecting projects

Checklist model

As a senior project manager, the first method for selecting projects I suggest for NZTA executive team is checklist mode. It is a simple model which is straightforward for selection projects and based on predefined criteria. Here, the team can create questions or even criteria that a project should meet for it to be considered. Most of the aspects which the team should consider are potential benefits, project feasibility, availability of resources and risk assessment (Thesing, Feldmann, & Burchardt, 2021). For instance, the project here benefits the public, business owners and communities as it will facilitate effective and efficient commuting. The method gives a structured approach to evaluating projects and ensures all the critical factors are considered before making the decision (Thesing, Feldmann, & Burchardt, 2021). However, the method may have limitations since it may need to consider the interdependencies between projects and the dynamic structure of the business environment. Despite all this, the method will help the Manawatū Gorge project to reduce bias and subjectivity, especially in the selection, by focusing on objective criteria.

Profile models

The profile model is the other method for selecting projects for NZTA as a senior project manager. The model considers developing a set of criteria that defines an organization’s strategic objectives and then evaluating the project against the criteria (Siraj & Fayek, 2019). This method is very helpful since it will help the NTZA focus on the projects that are likely to contribute to their strategic objectives and avoid the ones with less importance. The method is among the most efficient, especially where the organization has fewer resources (Siraj & Fayek, 2019). For instance, the project should focus on the strategic objectives as identified, which are safety, efficiency and resilience as part of the project’s strategic goals. However, the NZTA goes for assessment criteria of implement ability which too is part of the profile model. Since the method suggested here is efficient when the resources are few, it was among the best options for the executive teams.

Sustainable management of projects

Ensuring the organizational strategy has responsibilities for sustainable development

As a senior project manager, I suggest to the NZTA executive team to consider having an organizational strategy aligned with responsibilities for sustainable development. Organizations must be aware of their impacts on the environment, society, and the economy in general (Boffa & Maffei, 2021). Manawatū Gorge project should have established policies and guidelines which support sustainable development and leads to the encouragement of stakeholders to participate in sustainability initiatives by conducting sustainability assessments to identify potential environmental and social impacts (Boffa & Maffei, 2021). The neighbouring communities and residents see where it needs to identify measures for reducing environmental on the community; therefore, I recommend the approach since it will address all of this. On the same note, concerns raised by the business owner are linked with the impacts of the project based on the economy and the approach to sustainable development recommended here is very applicable. For instance, NZTA has undertaken works for direct traffic to and from Saddle Road through Woodville. However, more is needed based on the efficiency and effectiveness of the project’s economic impacts.

Ensuring stakeholder engagement

Ensuring stakeholder engagement is one of the practices of sustainable projects, which I suggest as the NZTA executive teams consider a senior project manager. It involves identifying, analysing, and prioritising the stakeholders impacted by the project and keenly and actively involving them in decision-making processes throughout the project lifecycle (El Khatib et al., 2020). Stakeholder engagement will ensure that the Manawatū Gorge project is aligned with the stakeholders’ needs and expectations, which helps minimise the project’s negative impacts, as seen by the community of Ashhurst residents. On the same note, it helps promote transparency and accountability, which helps build trust between the project team members and the stakeholders (El Khatib et al., 2020). Through this, and as the senior project manager, I recommend that the NZTA executive team use the approach to ensure trust between the stakeholders through regular feedback and communication. This is also critical in identifying any concerns and issues to be addressed, which the executive team needs to focus on.


In conclusion, project management involves a combination of skills, tools, and techniques aimed at achieving project goals within a given time frame, budget, and scope. Effective project management requires a deep understanding of the project objectives, stakeholders, resources, risks, and constraints. Appropriate project management methodologies, tools, and techniques can significantly enhance project outcomes and success. Based on what the paper discusses, NTZA executive team considerations for effective project management. The report offers insights for NZTA regarding project selection, stakeholder management, and sustainable business approaches. The report recommends that NTZA consider understanding stakeholders, building relationships with stakeholders, using profile model and checklist model methods to select projects, and considering stakeholder engagement as the best approach to sustainable projects.


  • The NZTA team should focus on understanding and building relationships with stakeholders to manage them in the best way possible. These are critical, as identified in the report, as they are helpful for organizations.
  • The NZTA should use the checklist model method and profile model method. This has been addressed to see the agency choosing the best alternatives.
  • The NZTA should use the best sustainable project approaches, ensuring the organizational strategy has responsibilities for sustainable development and stakeholder engagement.


Boffa, E., & Maffei, A. (2021). Classification of Sustainable Business Models: A literature review and a map of their impact on the Sustainable Development Goals. FME Transactions49(4), 784-794.

de Oliveira, G. F., & Rabechini Jr, R. (2019). Stakeholder management influence on trust in a project: A quantitative study. International journal of project management37(1), 131-144.

El Khatib, M., Alabdooli, K., AlKaabi, A., & Al Harmoodi, S. (2020). Sustainable Project Management: Trends and Alignment. Theoretical Economics Letters10(06), 1276.

Hartono, B., Sulistyo, S., & Umam, M. (2019). Leadership profiles of successful project managers in Indonesia. Journal of Industrial Engineering and Management (JIEM)12(2), 274-301.

Park, H., Kim, K., Kim, Y. W., & Kim, H. (2017). Stakeholder management in long-term complex mega construction projects: The Saemangeum project. Journal of Management in Engineering33(4), 05017002.

Siraj, N. B., & Fayek, A. R. (2019). Risk identification and common risks in construction: Literature review and content analysis. Journal of construction engineering and management145(9), 03119004.

Thesing, T., Feldmann, C., & Burchardt, M. (2021). Agile versus waterfall project management: decision model for selecting the appropriate approach to a project. Procedia Computer Science181, 746-756.

Nike Sustainable Marketing Plan Sample Assignment


The development of a sustainable marketing plan proposal for Nike is the main topic of this paper. Nike is a global firm that designs, makes, and sells athletic clothes, footwear, and accessories (NIKE COMPANY, 2015). The growing need for sustainable business practices from stakeholders and customers has been cited as Nike’s problem (Vishwavidalaya, 2022). The chance for Nike is to take advantage of the rising demand for eco-friendly products, integrate its brand with sustainability, and respond to the shifting consumer preferences in this area. However, failing to address sustainability issues risks losing market share and consumer confidence. Two theories, Porter’s Five Forces framework, and the Marketing Mix (4Ps) theory, have been selected to analyze the theories and concepts of strategic marketing. The analysis in the study looks at how these theories might direct the design and execution of interventions to deal with Nike’s sustainability issues. Understanding how to optimize product, pricing, promotion, and place for sustainability is possible with the help of the marketing mix theory. In light of the review, Nike is advised to implement a marketing strategy that emphasizes sustainability and incorporates it into all four components of the marketing mix (4Ps). This entails using sustainable resources in the development and manufacture of products, establishing a sustainable supply chain, promoting sustainability in marketing materials, and setting product prices that take sustainability into account. The research also advises Nike to use the Framework of Porter’s Five Forces to recognize and deal with challenges provided by rivals and other external stakeholders who might be more sustainable. By implementing these measures, Nike can improve its brand’s perception and preserve its market advantage.


A well-known international firm, Nike, focuses on creating, promoting, and selling sports footwear, clothing, and accessories (NIKE COMPANY, 2015). Since its founding in 1964 by Bill Bowerman and Phil Knight, the company has become one of the world’s top manufacturers and distributors of athletic footwear, apparel, and accessories, doing business in more than 190 nations (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2023). Through a wide range of retail channels, including company-owned stores, online marketplaces, and independent retailers, Nike’s products are sold all over the world. The company is renowned for its ground-breaking designs, avant-garde goods, and market-specific marketing approaches.

1.1 Nature of Industry

Nike works in the fast-paced, competitive sportswear sector (Alonso, 2023). Rapid shifts in customer preferences and fashion trends, technological breakthroughs, and fierce competition among the major players define the sector. Along with other well-known sportswear companies like Adidas, Puma, Under Armour, and Reebok, Nike is in competition with them. Nike participates in the retail distribution channel and has online and brick-and-mortar locations (Encyclopedia Britannica, 2023). The corporation bases its pricing approach on premium goods, which can fetch more outstanding prices than many of its rivals.

1.2 Product Portfolio

Nike offers a wide variety of athletic footwear, clothing, and accessories (IvyPanda, 2022). The company’s footwear products are for various sports and activities, including running, basketball, football, and soccer. The apparel goods range from general activewear like hoodies and leggings to sport-specific attire like jerseys and shorts. Among the items Nike offers as accessories are backpacks, hats, and socks.

1.3 Target Market

Nike’s target market comprises passionate athletes and fitness enthusiasts (, 2022). Although the company caters to people of all ages and genders, its main clientele is young people. Various consumer categories’ unique requirements and preferences are considered while designing Nike’s products. The business frequently uses professional athletes and sports figures to appeal to its target population in its marketing campaigns.

1.4 Target Customers

Nike’s target market is people who live an active lifestyle and are interested in sports and fitness (, 2022). The brand’s varied customer base is professional athletes, sports aficionados, and fashion-conscious consumers. Nike’s products are made to offer its customers comfort, support, and performance-improving characteristics (IvyPanda, 2020). The target market for the brand is also distinguished by its readiness to spend a higher price on superior and cutting-edge goods. In this article, Nike’s strategic marketing and business sustainability principles will be assessed, and a sustainable marketing plan will be suggested for the company.


The Nike brand aims to offer premium athletic and leisurewear products to consumers while making money for the business (HelpMe, 2019). Companies must now consider their impact on society and the environment in addition to their financial performance in the current business environment. This means that Nike, like many other businesses, must consider how its business practices may affect stakeholders going forward. Nike’s problem is the rising demand for sustainable business practices from stakeholders and customers (IvyPanda, 2020). This issue threatens Nike’s long-term viability by affecting market share, profitability, expansion, and customer retention. Failure to address sustainability issues could result in a decline in market share and consumer confidence, ultimately impacting the company’s financial success.

However, this difficulty also allows Nike to profit from the expanding market for environmentally friendly goods and to associate its brand with sustainability (IvyPanda, 2020). Nike may draw customers who prioritize sustainability in their purchasing decisions by incorporating sustainable practices into its business model and products. Increased market share, client retention, and profitability may result from this. By doing this, Nike can set itself apart from its rivals, enhance the perception of its brand, and draw in more customers who are becoming more environmentally sensitive. Nike may promote its sustainability objectives and products by utilizing its current supply chain, technologies, and marketing channels.

On the other hand, failing to address sustainability issues risks losing customers’ trust and market share (Lucchini & Moisello, 2019). Consumers and stakeholders concerned about social and environmental issues could criticize Nike and boycott the company. The increased demand for eco-friendly products, growing awareness of how the fashion and sports industries affect the environment, the emergence of social media and environmental activism, and other factors all contribute to Nike’s sustainability problem.


3.1 Porter’s Five Forces Framework

Porter’s Five Forces framework is a well-known and practical method in strategic management for examining the forces at play in a given industry and determining the variables that affect a company’s profitability (Bruijl & Gerard, 2018). The framework offers a thorough method for comprehending an industry’s competitive dynamics and the primary factors that affect profitability (Porter, 2008). In the case of Nike, the growing demand for sustainable business practices from stakeholders and customers is a substantial challenge that calls for a strategic response. The brand can cope with this difficulty in various ways by applying Porter’s Five Forces theory.

The framework can firstly assist Nike in comprehending the competitive dynamics of the market and the place of the company inside it (Dobbs, 2014). The corporation may be able to differentiate its products and improve the perception of its brand by using this expertise to spot possible prospects for sustainable marketing campaigns. The methodology can also assist Nike in identifying possible risks from rivals that have already embraced sustainable business practices and are increasing their market share due to their sustainability efforts (Dobbs, 2014). Second, Nike can evaluate the bargaining strength of stakeholders and customers urging the company to embrace sustainable business practices by using Porter’s Five Forces framework (MBA Skool Team, 2022). The framework can help determine alternative solutions to address these issues while preserving profitability and comprehending the effect of stakeholder pressure on the company’s profitability. Thirdly, the framework can assist Nike in identifying possible entry barriers for new competitors looking to take advantage of the expanding market for sustainable products (Rowland, 2017). Nike can create long-term marketing strategies that can help to fend off new entrants and maintain its market dominance by analyzing the factors that affect entry into the business.

Given its widespread acceptance and demonstrated efficacy in examining the competitive dynamics of businesses, Porter’s Five Forces theory was chosen as a tool for assessing the difficulties facing Nike (Indiatsy et al., 2014). The idea has been widely used in several sectors, including the sportswear sector, and has offered insightful information on the competitive forces that affect profitability. For instance, Adamkas (2022) used Porter’s Five Forces framework to evaluate the sportswear market. They discovered that the existence of well-known players like Nike and Adidas makes the industry’s competitive intensity high. The survey also found that a critical aspect influencing consumer loyalty and purchase choices is sustainability. Nike’s sustainable marketing techniques were examined in a different study by Eventige (2020), who discovered that the company’s emphasis on sustainability had improved its brand image and boosted customer loyalty. The report also noted the threat of new competitors as a critical obstacle that Nike must consistently overcome to maintain its market dominance.

When Porter’s Five Forces framework is applied to the problems that Nike is facing, it becomes clear that the corporation is under intense competitive pressure from its competitors, suppliers, customers, and new market entrants. Competitive pressure on Nike to enhance its sustainability standards is increased because Nike’s competitors, including Adidas and Under Armour, are also making significant investments in sustainable business methods (Robinson, 2021). If Nike does not take aggressive measures to solve this issue, its suppliers may face increased pressure to enhance their sustainability standards, which could raise Nike’s expenses. In addition, consumers expect more sustainable goods, which could cause Nike to lose market share if the company does not solve this problem (Imran, 2017). Nike can create a sustainable marketing plan that focuses on lowering its environmental impact, enhancing its social and labor practices, and enhancing the sustainability of its products in order to address these issues. To lessen its influence on the environment, Nike may, for instance, invest in environmentally friendly materials and methods like recycled polyester and low-impact dyes.

Additionally, Nike might collaborate with its suppliers to enhance their sustainability initiatives and ensure they adhere to the criteria set by the business. Nike might also collaborate with organizations and advocacy groups to promote sustainable practices and inform customers about the advantages of sustainable products. According to earlier studies, sustainability can potentially be a significant driver of competitive advantage in the sportswear sector. According to a report by the Carbon Trust, businesses may boost consumer loyalty, cut expenses, and improve their brand reputation by investing in sustainability. According to a different Cone Communications study, 90% of consumers are likelier to trust and stick with businesses that practice social and environmental responsibility (Cone Communications, 2017). These studies highlight the significance of sustainability in the sportswear sector and the possible rewards of pursuing sustainable business strategies.

3.2 The Marketing Mix (4Ps) Theory

The Marketing Mix (4Ps) idea is exceptionally pertinent to Nike since it offers a foundation for creating a long-term marketing plan (Gregory, 2022). Nike must use a strategic marketing approach to meet the need for sustainable products, which is rising, while also addressing shifting consumer tastes. The 4Ps philosophy emphasizes product, pricing, promotion, and place and offers a methodical approach to matching marketing initiatives with client demands (Madhani, 2017). Nike can create a sustainable marketing plan by utilizing the 4Ps framework, which considers the environmental impact of its products, the customers’ price sensitivity, the most successful promotional channels, and the best distribution routes. One of the most popular marketing ideas, the Marketing Mix (4Ps) hypothesis, has been effectively implemented in various industries. Because the theory is adaptable and can be applied to various contexts and locations, Nike may benefit from it. Additionally, the 4Ps framework strongly emphasizes customer requirements and preferences, which is crucial for Nike’s effort to address the demand for environmentally friendly products that are on the rise (Ahmed et al., 2016).

Nike has already started moving in the direction of sustainability by introducing product lines like the “Move to Zero” (Novelship, 2020) and the “Space Hippie” (GORSLER, 2020) collections. Nike may further expand its sustainable marketing strategy using the 4Ps framework as follows:

  • Product: Nike can create sustainable products that satisfy shifting consumer preferences for sustainability by using the 4Ps approach. For instance, Nike might produce their goods with recycled polyester, a sustainable material. Customers who care about the environment will find this strategy appealing, and the brand’s reputation as a sustainable business will grow.
  • Price: Nike can set their product prices using the 4Ps framework to consider customer sensitivity to environmental issues. According to research, consumers are willing to pay more for sustainable items, but the cost must be fair (STAFF WRITER, 2022). Nike may profit by pricing its eco-friendly items competitively using the information in this article.
  • Promotion: Nike may advertise its sustainable products through various channels using the 4Ps framework. The business may promote its commitment to sustainability by showcasing its sustainable products on social media channels like Instagram and Twitter. Nike can also collaborate with environmental groups to advance sustainable business practices and build up its reputation as a sustainable brand. Finally, Nike may interact with customers by launching programs and advertising that promote sustainable behavior.
  • Place: Nike may use this idea to determine the optimal routes for distributing its sustainable products. For instance, Nike can sell sustainable goods to clients directly through its website and other online shopping platforms like Amazon. To expand the accessibility of its sustainable products, the corporation might also collaborate with eco-friendly merchants.

According to prior research, utilizing the 4Ps framework can boost the efficacy of marketing tactics. Using the 4Ps framework, for instance, has been found to assist businesses in improving their product design, pricing tactics, promotional efforts, and distribution channels, according to a study by LANGAT (2016). According to a study by Arseculeratne and Yazdanifard. (2014), the 4Ps framework aided businesses in creating sustainable products that satisfied consumer demands. These studies back up the application of the 4Ps framework in creating Nike’s sustainable marketing plan. Additionally, brand loyalty and customer behavior can be significantly influenced by sustainability, especially among younger consumers who are becoming more aware of the environmental impact of their purchases. For instance, a Nielsen survey discovered that 73% of millennials are prepared to pay more for sustainable items (Nguyen et al., 2020), while a Cone Communications study discovered that 87% of customers would buy a product because a brand supported a cause they care about (Lee & Cho, 2019). Nike can solve its sustainability issues while enhancing its brand image and market position by implementing a sustainable marketing plan.


In the 21st century, sustainability has emerged as a critical component of company operations (Horrigan, 2007). People all across the world are becoming more and more conscious of how business activities affect society and the environment. Customers are putting pressure on businesses to address how they affect society and the environment. Nike, a major sporting goods manufacturer, has come under increasing pressure from customers and other stakeholders to adopt sustainable business practices.

4.1 Feasible Recommendations

The following suggestions are doable and pertinent in light of the problem mentioned for Nike, which is the growing stakeholder and consumer pressure for sustainable business practices, and the chance to profit from the expanding demand for sustainable products:

  1. Implement a thorough sustainability plan: A thorough sustainability strategy that aligns with Nike’s brand values and long-term goals should be created and implemented. This plan should cover every step along the value chain, including sourcing, manufacturing, distribution, and end-of-life disposal. Nike’s activities should be run with less environmental impact, and there should be more openness and a focus on ethical corporate practices.
  2. Accentuate sustainable product innovation: To address shifting consumer attitudes toward sustainability, they should emphasize sustainable product innovation. To lessen the influence on the environment, this could entail creating new sustainable materials, utilizing renewable energy sources, cutting waste, and enhancing the durability of products. This will lessen the brand’s environmental effect and make it more appealing to customers who care about the environment. Nike can gain a competitive edge in the market by setting itself apart from rivals and implementing sustainable innovation.
  3. Strengthen stakeholder engagement: The business should interact with stakeholders, especially clients, consumers, and investors, to learn about their expectations and worries regarding sustainability. The business should collaborate with its suppliers to adopt sustainable behaviors, like cutting waste and turning to renewable energy sources. There should be open communication throughout this engagement as well as regular reporting and updates on Nike’s sustainable progress. This can assist in establishing trust with stakeholders and improve Nike’s standing as an ethical company. It should also inform its stakeholders and customers about its sustainability initiatives. The business should promote its dedication to sustainability using a variety of platforms, including social media, its website, and advertising campaigns. This will improve consumer trust in the brand and make it more appealing to those who care about the environment.
  4. Establishing collaborations with groups and activities that advance sustainability in the sector is something Nike should do. This could be working with suppliers to enhance their sustainability practices, engaging with non-profit organizations to create sustainable projects that benefit the environment and neighborhood communities, or joining sector-wide sustainability initiatives to bring about change on a bigger scale.
  5. Nike should spend money on employee education and training to ensure sustainability is included in the company’s operations and culture. This could entail educating staff members about sustainable practices, establishing sustainable goals for them to work toward, and developing rewards for sustainable performance.
  6. Measure and report sustainability performance: It needs to monitor and update its stakeholders on its sustainability performance. The business should monitor its sustainability performance using sustainability metrics, including carbon emissions, water use, and trash generation. Nike should additionally detail its sustainability record in its annual reports, sustainability reports, and other communications. By doing this, the brand will be able to show its dedication to sustainability and be held responsible for its sustainability performance.
  7. Nike can handle the issue of increased stakeholder and consumer pressure for sustainable business practices, take advantage of the rising demand for sustainable products, and reduce the risk of losing customer trust and market share by putting these ideas into practice. Ultimately, Nike can create long-term value for all stakeholders and secure its market success by implementing a robust sustainability plan.

4.2 Why the feasible recommendations are suitable to deal with Nike’s challenges.

The suggestions made in response to the difficulty identified by Nike are appropriate for resolving the difficulties faced by Nike for several reasons:

First, establishing a thorough sustainability strategy is appropriate since it tackles the mounting stakeholder and consumer pressure for sustainable corporate practices. Nike can show its dedication to sustainability, improve transparency, and support ethical business practices by creating and adopting a sustainability strategy. This is consistent with the idea of corporate social responsibility (CSR) in strategic management, which calls for businesses to shoulder responsibility for the effects of their actions on society and the environment in addition to their financial commitments (Carroll & Shabana, 2010). This will also ensure that Nike stays relevant in a market where customers are placing an increased emphasis on sustainability, in addition to assisting Nike in meeting the sustainability requirements of its stakeholders. Second, the suggestion to focus on sustainable product creation is appropriate since it takes advantage of the chance to capitalize on the expanding market for sustainable goods and link Nike’s brand to sustainability. Nike can set itself apart from rivals and get a market advantage by concentrating on sustainable product innovation. This is consistent with the idea of product differentiation in strategic marketing, where businesses aim to develop distinctive and worthwhile products that distinguish themselves from rivals and satisfy the needs of their target market (CAROL, 2007). Nike can better satisfy the demands and desires of customers who are becoming more interested in sustainable products by focusing on sustainable product innovation.

Thirdly, the suggestion to increase stakeholder participation is appropriate since it fosters stakeholder trust and strengthens Nike’s standing as a socially conscious company. Nike can show its commitment to sustainability and earn the trust of customers, investors, and other stakeholders through interacting with stakeholders and systematically reporting on sustainability performance. This is consistent with the strategic management idea of stakeholder management, in which businesses try to comprehend and respond to the wants and worries of their stakeholders (Morsing & Schultz, 2006). Fourth, the suggestion to create partnerships for sustainable impact is appropriate since it enables Nike to work with other groups and projects that advance sustainability in the business world. Nike can influence change at a greater level and build a more sustainable supply chain by collaborating with vendors, NGOs, and other groups. This is consistent with the idea of strategic alliances in strategic management when businesses develop alliances to achieve shared objectives and generate mutually beneficial outcomes (Kale et al., 2000). These collaborations can facilitate the sharing of information and resources, allowing Nike to move more quickly toward its sustainability objectives.

Lastly, the suggestion to spend money on employee education and training is sound since it guarantees that sustainability is incorporated into the operations and culture of the business. Nike can ensure that its employees support the organization’s sustainability objectives by offering training on sustainable practices and developing rewards for sustainable performance. This is consistent with the idea of human resource management in strategic management, where businesses attempt to recruit, train, and retain talented individuals to help them meet their strategic goals by making sure that sustainable principles are applied to every aspect of their business (Lewis & Heckman, 2006). The practical suggestions offered, in light of their alignment with the fundamental ideas of strategic marketing and corporate sustainability, are appropriate for addressing the problems that Nike is currently confronting. Nike can build long-term value for all stakeholders and assure its ongoing success in the market by putting these suggestions into practice.

 4.3 How to implement the feasible recommendations

Nike must take the following actions in order to implement the suggested sustainable marketing strategy:

  1. Conduct a sustainability audit: The first step for Nike would be to carry out a sustainability audit to find areas where their operations, goods, and supply chain may be improved. Analyses of the company’s operations’ effects on the environment, society, and supply chain sustainability should all be included in this audit. The business will be able to prioritize areas for improvement and better understand the gaps in its sustainability initiatives as a result.
  2. Make sustainability objectives: Nike should establish precise, quantifiable, and time-bound targets for its sustainability initiatives based on the findings of the sustainability assessment. These objectives should take into account the worries of stakeholders and customers while also being in line with the company’s overall business strategy.
  3. Create a sustainability strategy: Nike should create a sustainability plan outlining its short- and long-term sustainability objectives based on the findings of the sustainability audit. This strategy should specify timeframes and goals for lowering the company’s environmental impact and raising social standards within its supply chain.
  4. Sustainability should be emphasized in brand messaging: This helps them appeal to customers who are more and more concerned about the environmental and social effects of the things they buy by tying their brand to sustainability. This message ought to be sincere and open, and it ought to show how committed the business is to sustainability.
  5. Engage stakeholders: In order to get feedback and insights on its sustainability initiatives, Nike should interact with its stakeholders, which include its consumers, suppliers, employees, and investors. By doing this, the business will be better able to comprehend the needs and expectations of its stakeholders and make sure that its sustainability activities meet those demands.
  6. Invest in sustainable innovation to create new products and technologies that are more environmentally and socially responsible. Nike should do this. This entails utilizing environmentally friendly materials, cutting down on waste, and increasing the energy effectiveness of their activities.
  7. Nike should routinely evaluate and track its advancement toward its sustainability objectives, making necessary adjustments. This will guarantee that the business stays on course and enhances its sustainability initiatives over time.


In conclusion, this paper has looked at the strategic marketing and business sustainability issues that Nike, a major brand active in the sports sector, needs to deal with. The recognized issue is the rising demand for sustainable business practices from stakeholders and customers, which offers Nike both a chance and a threat. Failure to address sustainability issues could result in a decline in market share and consumer confidence. Therefore, two strategic marketing theories that are pertinent to Nike and its opportunity/threat have been analyzed in this report: the Marketing Mix (4Ps) theory and the Porter’s Five Forces framework. The paper has supported the selection of these theories and shown how they have been used to address the problems that Nike has encountered. A sustainable marketing plan proposal for Nike has also been prepared in this research, along with workable suggestions to address the problems that have been highlighted. The suggested solutions are suitable for addressing the issues unique to each brand and promoting sustainability through the Nike brand. How Nike can put these suggestions into practice in order to meet its goals for sustainable marketing has also been covered in the report. Overall, this research has shown how fundamental theories and concepts of strategic management and business sustainability may be used practically in the context of a real-world brand. In order to match the shifting demands and preferences of its target customers, Nike can use the suggested sustainable marketing approach to address its sustainability difficulties and achieve its long-term sustainability goals.


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Otherness Through Spaces And Places In Kristiana Kahakauwila’s This Is Paradise Essay Example


Kristiana Kahakauwila’s This is Paradise adopts a native perception in describing the real Hawaii. Often marketed as a heaven and a paradise, with palm trees, the sun, and five-star hotels, locals have different experiences of the place they call home. In such a case, otherness describes the quality or state of being different, often related to race, social class, and other perceived or real differences. In Kahakauwila’s short stories, the indigenous women critique and refute the idealized image of Hawaii, offering a different picture of a suppressed and marginalized community. Hawaii is a paradise to the West, while to the East, it is a form of modern slavery. Subsequently, as demonstrated by the Surfers, otherness is a perceived or real difference that assumes various dimensions, including spaces and places, revealing underlying themes of the Hawaiians’ social, cultural, and economic marginalization, underscored by the East-West narrative of “us” vs. “them.”


The Surfers section describes otherness precisely, as perceived by the natives. In this regard, Kahakauwila paints a vivid image of the locals’ experiences and how they think of the tourists who visit Hawaii (Kahakauwila, pg. 9). Subsequently, it is midmorning in Hawaii, where lifeguards are placing precaution posts on the beach. Experienced locals exploring the beaches spot a tourist, whom they call white, as the main reference of her status. The girl is described as elegant with a pointed nose and a white bikini with red polka dots. In contrast, the local’s bikinis consist of cut pieces tied for convenience. While the tourist relaxes and enjoys herself on the Hawaiian beaches, the locals barely have time for such activities. The waters are rough, the winds wailing, the waves grimacing, although the same experience is different for the tourist girl, who appears to enjoy the sea.

The concept of otherness in space is apparent, described by the East-West narrative and the narrator’s point of view. Subsequently, Kahakauwila paints a strong image of dissimilarity: “So when we see her studying the warning, chewing the right side of her lip, we laugh” (Kahakauwila, pg. 9). The statement suggests a physical and mental space, perceived or real, depending on the viewer’s point of view. In such a case, the locals view the tourist from a physical distance, observing her behavior, with an apparent attitude of a foreigner or someone different from them. Although the girl is white, her racial or biological status is not the primary focus. Instead, the status of being a tourist in Hawaii, enjoying the waves, which bear suffering and a life of difficulty for the natives, is critical. Through space, otherness in the East vs. White perception emerges.

Otherness is also apparent throughout the place. As Kahakauwila narrates, the girl “wears a white bikini with red polka dots,” while the locals’ bikinis are “carefully cut pieces with cross-back straps and lean bottoms” (Kahakauwila, pg. 9-10). As illustrated, the tourist girl represents the West, while the natives symbolize the East. Although the scene is depicted in the same location, the main characters, illustrated by their behaviors, cultures, and dressing modes, indicate different geographical places. Besides, Indriyanto describes the local people as representing the brand image and symbolic labor, contrasted with the paradise of Hawaii in most tourists’ minds (Indriyanto, pg. 156). The place helps promote the otherness concept, owing to the perception of the foreigner or tourist against the locals. The natives perceive the tourists as others, originating from different places, having varying traditions, cultures, and dressing modes. Therefore, an East vs. West narrative is apparent.

The otherness mostly originates from the local Hawaiians and represents a negative perception of the tourists related to underlying marginalization. To illustrate, Kahakauwila reveals the otherness perception associated with race, as indicated by “They’re all white to us unless they’re black” (Kahakauwila, pg. 9). In such a case, racial identity is significant and contributes to the otherness assumption. Similarly, Indriyanto paints an image of oppression and marginalization, citing American domination associated with the indigenous struggles (Indriyanto, pg. 157). The assumption is that the negative image that the locals have is derived from the adverse experiences they have undergone under the American government. Despite the numerous benefits created by tourism in Hawaii, such visitors are perceived as the other, with spatial, temporal, and geographical differences persisting, whether real or imagined. A history of marginalization contributes to racial, social, and cultural otherness, with the Hawaiians as the victims of the perceptual consequences.

The locals perceive the tourists as invaders, with a negative attitude towards them. As highlighted, the perceived or real assumptions of space, time, and geography differences lead to unsolved conflicts, especially among the Hawaiians. Subsequently, Kahakauwila describes the locals’ witnessing the tourist girl approaching the ocean, refusing to “tell her to stay away from the retaining wall in front of Baby Queens” (Kahakauwila, pg. 10). Despite the potential threat, the locals do not alert the white tourist, leaving her behind. In this regard, Indriyanto highlights Hawaii’s depiction as a utopia, a concept that fails to incorporate the Indigenous struggles and tensions between the native people and the visitors (Indriyanto, pg. 166). In such a case, the otherness concept is apparent and associated with the past experiences and challenges that the Hawaiians experienced at the hands of the American government, the perceived perpetrator of the oppression and marginalization.

A significаnt thеme thаt emerges in Кristiаnа Каhаkаuwilа’s Тhis is Pаrаdise is thе сonсept оf culturаl othеrnеss. Каhаkаuwilа highlights how thе lоcаls’ pеrcеptions оf thе tоurists аre influenced by thеir culturаl diffеrеncеs. Тhe tоurists аre оften pоrtrаyed аs individuаls whо аre discоnnected frоm thе indigenous culturе оf Наwаii (Каhаkаuwilа, рg. 9). As suсh, thеy аre viеwеd аs outsidеrs whо do not undеrstаnd thе lоcаls’ wаy оf lifе. Тhe аuthor suggеsts thаt this culturаl othеrnеss is а result оf thе Westernizаtion оf Наwаii, which hаs lеd tо thе suppression оf thе locаl culturе. Through her stоries, Каhаkаuwilа chаllenges this pеrcеption оf culturаl othеrnеss by highlighting thе rich culturаl heritаge оf Наwаii. Once morе, аnothеr dimеnsiоn оf othеrnеss in Каhаkаuwilа’s Тhis is Pаrаdise is thе eсonomiс dividе between thе tоurists аnd thе lоcаls (Indriyаntо, рg. 157). Тhe tоurists аre оften pоrtrаyed аs аffluent individuаls whо hаve cоme tо Наwаii tо еnjoy thе luхury оf thе islаnds. Counter tо, thе lоcаls аre depiсted аs struggling tо mаke ends meet, working lоng hours tо рrovide for thеir fаmilies. Тhe аuthor suggеsts thаt this eсonomiс othеrnеss is а result оf thе tоurist industry’s exploitаtive nаture, which benefits thе weаlthy аt thе expense оf thе lоcаls. Каhаkаuwilа’s stоries chаllenge this pеrcеption оf eсonomiс othеrnеss by highlighting thе resilience оf thе lоcаls аnd thеir аbility tо survivе in thе fаce оf eсonomiс hаrdship.

Additionally, thе othеr dimеnsiоn оf othеrnеss in Каhаkаuwilа’s Тhis is Pаrаdise is thе generаtionаl dividе between thе tоurists аnd thе lоcаls. Тhe tоurists аre оften pоrtrаyed аs young individuаls whо аre sееking аdventure аnd eхcitemеnt (Indriyаntо, рg. 156). Counter tо, thе lоcаls аre depiсted аs оlder individuаls whо hаve lived on thе islаnds for generаtions. Тhe аuthor suggеsts thаt this generаtionаl othеrnеss is а result оf thе tоurists’ trаnsience аnd thеir lаck оf сonneсtion tо thе locаl cоmmunity. Каhаkаuwilа’s stоries chаllenge this pеrcеption оf generаtionаl othеrnеss by highlighting thе importаnce оf cоmmunity аnd thе bonds thаt tie thе lоcаls tоgethеr. Lаstly, аnothеr dimеnsiоn оf othеrnеss in Каhаkаuwilа’s Тhis is Pаrаdise is thе gеndеr dividе between thе tоurists аnd thе lоcаls (Каhаkаuwilа, рg. 10). Тhe tоurists аre оften pоrtrаyed аs womеn whо аre sееking romаnce аnd аdventure. Counter tо, thе lоcаls аre depiсted аs mеn whо аre working tо рrovide for thеir fаmilies. Тhe аuthor suggеsts thаt this gеndеr othеrnеss is а result оf thе trаditionаl gеndеr roles thаt аre prevаlent in both Western аnd indigenous culturеs. Каhаkаuwilа’s stоries chаllenge this pеrcеption оf gеndеr othеrnеss by highlighting thе strength аnd resilience оf thе femаle chаrаcters whо аre fighting tо overcоme thе obstаcles in thеir lives.


In closing, Kristiаnа Каhаkаuwilа’s Тhis is Раrаdise highlights vаrious dimеnsions оf othеrnеss, inсluding sраce, plасe, сulture, ecоnоmics, generаtion, аnd gеndеr. Тhe Surfers sectiоn, in pаrticulаr, contributes tо аn underlying thеme оf sociаl, сulturаl, аnd ecоnоmic mаrginаlizаtion оf thе Еаst by thе West, which leаds tо tensiоns аnd conflicts between thе two fасtions. Тhrough her stоries, Каhаkаuwilа chаllеngеs thе ideаlized imаge оf Наwаii аs а раrаdise аnd prеsеnts а different piсture оf а mаrginаlized аnd suррressed сommunity. Тhe аuthor suggеsts thаt thе concept оf othеrnеss is а result оf thе Еаst-West nаrrаtivе оf “us” vs. “thеm,” perpetuаted by thе tоurist industry’s explоitаtive nаture. Каhаkаuwilа’s stоries сhаllenge this pеrcеption оf othеrnеss by highlighting thе resilienсe, strength, аnd divеrsity оf thе loсаls who аrе fighting tо overcome thе оbstаcles in thеir lives. Underlying thеmes, such аs mаrginаlizаtion аnd oppression оf thе nаtives, аrе аppаrеnt аnd direсtly correlаted with thе negаtive pеrcеption оf Наwаii tоurism аnd thе tensiоns between thе loсаls аnd visitоrs. Afterwоrds: Каhаkаuwilа’s Тhis is Раrаdise еmphаsizеs thе imрortаnce оf recognizing аnd celebrаting divеrsity while chаllenging stereоtypes аnd рromoting а morе inсlusive soсiety.

Works Cited

Indriyanto, Kristiawan. “Deconstructing Paradise: We Narration as Collective Indigenous Voice in “This Is Paradise.” International Journal of Humanity Studies (IJHS), vol. 6, no. 1, 2022, pp. 155-168.

Kahakauwila, Kristiana. This Is Paradise: Stories. National Geographic Books, 2013.