Nixon And Kissinger Foreign Policy Of Détente Sample Essay

            President Richard Nixon and his National Security Advisor and later Secretary of State Henry Kissinger implemented a realist approach towards the duration of the Cold War. Their strategy in the war consists of supporting governments of countries who are against the communist bloc. However, they implemented the policy of détente that would peacefully end the war. This policy was characterized by ceasefire on both sides as well as the open communication on both parties in establishing a framework that would control the production of nuclear arms and limiting offensive and defensive attacks (Hendrickson, 2008).

            However, most historians criticize Nixon and Kissinger’s policy as they perceived that this did not help in establishing a lasting peace in regards with the Cold War conflict. They say that Nixon only implemented détente in order to counter the negative approval rating that he was acquiring from both the domestic and international realm. Most people also say that it was due to the forthcoming election during that time that forced Nixon to create this policy. Basically, the main objective of Nixon for détente was not for the welfare of the country but rather for his own personal gain (“Détente and the policies of Nixon and Kissinger”, 2008).

            Moreover, an indicator of this policy’s failure is the relationship of the United States with the Soviet Union and China during those times. Even though détente was implemented it did not acquire substantial results with regards to the relationship of the country towards the communist bloc. The failed end of the Vietnam War only added to the mistakes made by Nixon, which was seen by the country’s division when it comes to this issue. Most Americans were no longer in favor of the Vietnam War due to the many casualties as well as the huge expenditure that the country was allotting for it (The Claremont Institute, 2008).

            The above discussions show that the foreign policy of Nixon and Kissinger was not successful because of the real intentions behind it and the way it was implemented. The weaknesses of this policy were seen in the dissatisfaction coming from America as well as from the international community (Encyclopaedia Britannica, 2008).

References

“Détente and the policies of Nixon and Kissinger.” (2008). Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

            http://academic.umf.maine.edu/~erb/classes/1fp4.htm.

Encyclopædia Britannica. (2008). International relations. Retrieved August 23, 2008,

from Encyclopædia Britannica Online: http://www.britannica.com/EBchecked/topic/291225/international-relations.

Hendrickson, D. C. (2008). All the President’s Acumen: The Paradox of Nixon’s Foreign

            Policy. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

http://www.foreignaffairs.org/19980501fareviewessay1394/david-c-hendrickson/all-the-president-s-acumen-the-paradox-of-nixon-s-foreign-policy.html.

The Claremont Institute. (2008). Policy and Principle: Reconsidering the Realism of Nixon’s

            Foreign Policy. Retrieved August 23, 2008, from

            http://www.claremont.org/publications/pubid.501/pub_detail.asp.

 

The Popularity Of Anthropologist In The Workforce

No Bone Unturned

Anthropology through out the years has extremely grown; anthropology is the study of human kind over the entire world and throughout time.  Over time, anthropologist have developed a variety of skills and answered many questions that have been unknown for many years in many other work fields. The popularity of anthropologist in the forensic workforce has been recognized and has given anthropologist another venue in the same type of field. In this paper I will discuss how the specialation of forensic anthropology exemplifies an applied anthropologist approach? Furthermore, I will also explain in detail how might a forensic anthropologist could be useful to a paleoanthropologist, archaeologist and a human rights investigation.

In the article of No Bone Unturned written by Patrick Huyghe described in detail the work life of Clyde C. Snow a physical anthropologist who later became famous in the forensic world.  “Clyde Snow is perhaps the world’s most sought-after forensic anthropologist” (Huyghe 28) Snow has inspected many hundreds of bones through out his life time. Because of forensic anthropology many body identifications have been made even after hundreds of years of decomposition.  Not only does forensic anthropology help the forensic work force but it also brings relief and closure to families that have been missing relatives for years. In the article No Bone Unturned, Snow explained how the janitor at his work one day did not come into work and was shortly reported missing after that.  Coincidentally after years have gone by, Snow was analyzing some bones that were found in a box and later discovered the dental records matched the missing janitors.

            The specialization in forensic anthropology exemplifies an applied anthropological approach by the amount of study and research that a forensic anthropologist needs to do on the remains of a human. Not only is forensic anthropology a branch of the forensic science but it also applies to other types of forensic anthropology such as: identifying war by the dead, victims of human rights and recovery of buried evidence in general. All the methods that anthropologist use when evaluating bones are the same methods that are used in modern cases of unidentified human remains. In the identification of skeletal remains the anthropologist will provide information to the law enforcement regarding the gender, age, ethnicity, height, length of time since death and evaluation of trauma seen on bones.  All these factors are extremely useful in determining who the skeletal remains belonged to and the cause of death.

            Forensic anthropologists are useful to many other branches of science such as paleoanthropologist, archaeologist and human rights investigation. Both paleoanthropologist and archaeologist are extremely useful in the specific realm of expertise of osteology and pathology.  Paleoanthropologist and archaeologist have specific fields of study where and a forensic anthropologist field of study covers more of the study of remains and can provide more information. With this type of expertise many discovery of bones have been identified, such as: the World War II graveyards and the remains found at the battlefields of Little Big Horn stated in the article of No Bone Unturned written by Patrick Huyghe. Forensic anthropologists are also very useful to a human rights investigation.  The comprehensive study of remains and reveal so much about how our history has evolved. Forensic anthropologist can determine whether a human was being mistreated before death and can identify how the humans died “There are human-rights going on all over the world.”(Snow 28) Though generations and generations have past human rights are always being violated and are kept a secret because of fear of punishment from the government. With the help of forensic anthropologist history will continue to be studied and continued to be discovered.

            In conclusion, the popularity and demand for forensic anthropologist has grown through out the years, with their help the bodies found are being identified and history is continued to be being told. In a sense, forensic anthropologist have become crime investigators with their comprehensive research and study of remains the final outcome of the information they are able to provide such as: Gender, age, height, cause of death and the length of time of death is extremely valuable to our forensic department and to our world on general.

“Work Cited”

Huyghe, Patrick . Profile of an Anthropologist No Bone Unturned. 1988.

 

No News From Auschwitz

“No news from auschwitz” by Abraham Michael Rosenthal

The extract under analysis represents the article taken from the “New York Times” and written by a well-known American columnist Abraham Rosenthal. He was born in Ontario, Canada, but moved with his family to New York City when he was four.  For many years he served with distinction as the executive editor of the “New York Times”. When he “retired,” he began a column for the Times called “On my mind.”

            In 1958, when Rosenthal was the “New York Times” correspondent in Warsaw, Poland, he visited the concentration camp at Auschwitz.  At that time, fourteen years after the camps were liberated at the end of World War II, mention of the atrocities of the concentration camps had virtually disappeared from American newspapers. There was “no news” to report from those sites, and Americans seemed all too willing to put the ugly memories behind them. Rosenthal’s piece for the “New York Times”, “No News from Auschwitz,” served as a powerful reminder of the dangers of forgetting what had happened in the death camps.  It has been reprinted many times. In November 1959 the polish government expelled Rosenthal for his “problem reporting,” for which he won a Pulitzer Prize in May 1960.

            Rosenthal’s article “No News from Auschwitz” is an example of objective reporting, written in publicistic style. Instead of giving his personal opinion and feelings towards Auschwitz, as in a subjective report, he explains in detail about the prison, prisoners, and tours they now give, in an actual sense. It expresses the location of Auschwitz prison, and the prisoners who suffered there. And his article also explains the people who witnessed a tour through the prison, and the horrors they saw – “Brzezinka is a couple of miles from the better-known southern Polish town of Oswiecim.

Oswiecim has about 12,000 inhabitants, is situated about 171 miles from Warsaw, and lies in a damp, marshy area at the eastern end of the pass called the Moravian Gate. Brzezinka and Oswiecim together formed part of that minutely organized factory of torture and death (metaphor) that the Nazis called Konzentrationslager Auschwitz”; “The visitors look pleadingly at each other and say to the guide, “Enough.” So, as we can see there a lot of facts and witnesses of that “most grisly tourist center on earth” (hyperbole).

Another indicator of publicistic style is the reiteration of the same idea, the idea of terrifying and frightening events that happened there – “And so there is no news to report about Auschwitz. There is merely the compulsion to write something about it, a compulsion that grows out of a restless feeling (metaphor) that to have visited Auschwitz and then turned away without having said or written anything would somehow be a most grievous act of discourtesy (metaphor) to those who died here. The guide does not say much either, because there is nothing much for him to say after he has pointed. There are visitors who gaze blankly at the gas chambers and the furnaces because their minds simply cannot encompass them, but stand shivering before the great mounds of human hair (metaphor) behind the plate-glass window or the piles of babies’ shoes or the brick cells where men sentenced to death by suffocation were walled up.”

The author points that visitors could hardly understand all the horrors that the prisoners experienced in Auschwitz. It’s difficult to talk about it but it’s also difficult not to feel all prisoner’s suffering who were there. The setting of the barracks, the chambers, and the dungeons make very oppressive impression – “Into the suffocation dungeons the visitor is taken for a moment and feels himself strangling. Another visitor goes in, stumbles out, and crosses herself. There is no place to pray in Auschwitz.” The author underlines that every person experiences that depressive and hopeless atmosphere. This all proves the belonging of the text to publicistic style.

The general aim of this style is to exert a constant and deep influence on public opinion, to convince the reader or the listener that the interpretation given by the writer is the only correct one and to cause him to accept the standpoint expressed in the article not only by logical argumentation, but by emotional appeal as well. Generally it’s achieved by use of words with emotive meaning, the use of imaginary, and other stylistic devices as in emotive prose – “it all seemed frighteningly wrong, as in a nightmare” (comparison); “factory of torture and death” (metaphor); “last batch of prisoners was herded naked” (metaphor); “a compulsion that grows out of a restless feeling” (metaphor); “a most grievous act of discourtesy” (metaphor); “row of faces stare from the walls” (metaphor); “one picture, seized the eye and wrenches the mind” (metaphor) – through these stylistic devices Rosenthal describes the horror of what happened to the prisoners.

The author explains in great detail about the prison, and expresses the physical features, which back up why Rosenthal’s “No News from Auschwitz” is a subjective report. His facts are focused on the past and the present. Fourteen years later, there are now tours through the remains of Auschwitz – “another visitor goes in the suffocation dungeons, stumbles out, and crosses herself”; “one visitor opened his mouth in a silent scream simply at the sight of the boxes” – through this he expresses the shock of the tourists and their fear of what happened to the prisoners.

The composition of this extract can be logically divided into four parts: The exposition (the author introduces readers to his first impressions of Auschwitz), the specification (the explanation of the location of Auschwitz prison and the prisoners who suffered there), the development (the author describes people’s attitude who witnessed a tour through the prison, and the horrors they saw), and the outcome, the logical conclusion represented in parallel construction – the same idea was showed in the beginning of the article and its end (the beginning – “it all seemed frighteningly wrong, as in a nightmare, that at Brzezinka the sun should ever shine or that there should be light and greenness and the sound of young laughter”; and the end – “it was a sunny day and the trees were green and at the gates the children played”). The author underlines and intensifies the idea of discrepancy between the nature and the beauty of that place with the horrors of those times.

 During the whole article, the author develops the idea of unfairness of those events, the importance of talking about this terror. But then again, Rosenthal shows that it’s very difficult for the people who were there to embody theirs emotional experience into the words – “the visitors gaze blankly, because their minds simply cannot encompass”, “look pleadingly at each other and say to the guide, “enough”, “there is no new report about Auschwitz”, “there is no place to pray at Auschwitz”.

            As we see, the language of the author is very rich and full of various kinds of stylistic devices and that makes his article more vivid and impressive. Summing up the analysis, it can be said that the text seems to become a striking example of mankind’s courage, the author’s attempt to describe all the terror that happened in Oswiecim while one visitor “flushes with shame”, and the other “opens his mouth in a silent scream” not being able to express their feelings and emotions and share this experience with others. Rosenthal arouses the problem of “shame silence”, when people just so impressed by being there that can’t embody their horror in words.

error: Content is protected !!