Nursing Process: Approach To Care Sample College Essay

Introduction

Such a severe disease as cancer often appears unexpectedly in a person’s life. Cancer treatment consumes significant biological and financial resources of a person. There is no universal cure for cancer, and cancer tends to recur. In this situation, the task of nurses is to make life easier for patients and contribute to their recovery. That is why a competent specialist needs to understand the nursing process and personalized care fundamentals and nuances. This paper aims to explore the topic of cancer patients’ care and nursing by answering several questions.

Description, Diagnosis, and Staging of Cancer

The Description of Cancer

While there are different types of cancer, they have a similar process of genesis. According to Roots Analysis (2018), “fundamentally, cancer is the result of the accumulation of a number of harmful mutations in the genetic code of cells, leading to the formation of abnormal cells” (p. 35). These abnormal cells, which may contain about sixty different mutations, divide uncontrollably, and create tumors. The researchers note that about five hundred cancer cells are permanently present in the human body (Roots Analysis, 2018). The immune system controls the number of existing cancer cells and their proliferation by detecting and eliminating them. However, specific accumulated mutations allow cancer cells to avoid immune system detection mechanisms.

The Diagnosis of Cancer

Cancer diagnosis includes many different screening methods nowadays. Diagnostic methods include lab tests, imaging tests, and biopsy. Lab testing is a procedure during which a specialist takes a sample of bodily fluids or tissue to find tumor markers that are indicatives of the condition (“How cancer is diagnosed,” 2019). Specialists determine a tumor’s presence and where it is located through imaging testing (“How cancer is diagnosed,” 2019). There are a number of different methods for scanning the human internal organs, such as x-rays, MRI, and ultrasound. A biopsy is one of the most often-applied testing approaches for cancer cases. It is important to note that “a biopsy is a procedure in which the doctor removes a sample of tissue” for further microscopy analysis and pathology report (“How cancer is diagnosed,” 2019, para. 23). The doctors use these diagnostic methods depending on the patient’s condition and type of cancer.

Staging of Cancer

The conventional cancer tumor staging system is called The TNM Classification. T stands for tumor; this parameter is used to describe the original tumor’s size and the adjacent tissue affected. N stands for lymph node and is “used to describe regional lymph node involvement of the tumor” (Rosen & Sapra, 2020, para. 4). M means metastases and is applied by doctors to indicate metastases presence outside the original tumor. These three parameters form a five-stage descriptive model, where Stage 0 is the possibility of cancer, and Stage IV is metastatic cancer.

Cancer Complications, Treatment Side Effects, and Methods to Lessen Them

Complications of Cancer

Cancer is an ordeal for any human body, and therefore such a condition creates various complications. According to Frowen et al. (2020), at least half of all cancer patients state that the most common complication they experienced is dysphagia for both liquids and solids. It is also worth mentioning such sequela as taste changes, xerostomia, also known as dry mouth, vocal changes, and thick mucus (Frowen et al., 2020). These problems are associated with psychological and biological factors such as severe stress and anxiety, a damaged immune system, and internal organs.

Side Effects of Cancer Treatment

Doctors use methods such as chemotherapy and radiation to treat cancer. These approaches directly affect patients’ DNA, which can cause side effects. According to Cameron et al. (2016), Modern chemotherapy can cause complications in patients such as “hypertension, thrombosis, heart failure, cardiomyopathy, and arrhythmias” (p. 852). It is due to the fact that both older drugs and new antiangiogenic components cause cardiovascular toxicities (Cameron et al., 2016). However, the very mechanisms causing such kind of complications have not yet been investigated.

Methods to Lessen Physical and Psychological Effects

As it was noted above, cancer patients experience significant physical stress and psychological discomfort. Medical professionals have developed a number of measures that can improve the condition of patients. Pudkasam et al. (2018) state that regular fitness may improve people’s mental and physical health with breast cancer. It is worth mentioning that dance movement therapy improves patients’ self-esteem and physical symptoms (Ho et al., 2016). Psychosocial interventions such as cognitive behavioral therapy, counseling-based therapy, narrative therapy, and music therapy also positively affect the mental well-being of patients (Teo et al., 2019). Further research in this area is needed because such measures influence the successful treatment of patients.

Cancer Yearly Incidence and Mortality in the US

Lung and Bronchus Cancer

Cancer is one of the leading lethal diseases in the United States. According to Richardson and Dowling (2020), the deadliest type of condition is lung and bronchial cancer. The primary causes of such a phenomenon are social and environmental factors. According to de Grubb et al. (2009), they are poverty, smoking, and air pollution. It is important to note that the latter factor is more prevalent in urban areas.

Female Breast Cancer

Another factor affecting US cancer mortality rates is female breast cancer. Female breast cancer is the second leading type of lethal condition of all cancer patients in the United States (Richardson & Dowling, 2020). According to Rojas and Stuckey (2016), “breast cancer is more commonly associated with environmental, reproductive, and lifestyle factors, some of which are potentially modifiable” (para. 651). Heredity is another common cause of female breast cancer.

Prostate Cancer

Prostate cancer tumor is the third most dangerous and fatal cancer in the United States. According to Pernar et al. (2018), prostate cancer genesis influencers include such variables as “genetics, obesity and weight change, physical activity, smoking, lycopene and tomatoes, fish, vitamin D and calcium, and statins” (p. 1). Another important mention is that prostate cancer is the second most common type of cancer condition globally.

American Cancer Society Education, Support and Services

American Cancer Society Education and Support

The American Cancer Society (ACS) is an organization that provides support for people dealing with cancer. Interested people can find the necessary information and many scientific publications related to cancer issues on their official website (“How we’re providing support,” n.d.). It is also worth noting that Cancer Information Specialists are available day and night via telephone lines (“How we’re providing support,” n.d.). They have knowledge of all cancer types, treatment methods, possible side effects, and legal aspects of various healthcare programs. ACS specialists also provide financial, transporting, housing, social, and equipment support to all those in need through multiple services and programs.

American Cancer Society Services

ACS has a large staff of highly qualified specialists that provides many services available. One of the most important services is legal support regarding conventional and alternative treatment methods and their payment (“Finding and paying for treatment,” n.d.). Another important service is Online Communities, which provide patients with psychological support and constant communication (“Finding and paying for treatment,” n.d.). They are significant because they help frightened people calm down and begin the initial stages of treatment.

Nursing Care for Cancer Patients through the Five Phases of Life

Infancy, Childhood, and Adolescence

A practical nursing care process for infants, children, and teenage cancer patients involves many tasks. Qualified nurses check vital signs, perform physical assessments and lab tests, and prepare patients for treatment procedures (“Nursing and patient care,” 2018). Nurses also should feed and provide hygiene to infants and children both at home and in the healthcare facilities (“Nursing and patient care,” 2018). Another duty of nurses is prescribing the necessary medications. Caring for teenage cancer patients is slightly different in that nurses are required to organize social events that include presentations, therapies, and communication.

Adulthood and Old Age

Nurses should inform and educate adults and the elderly about cancer and related topics, thereby conducting prevention practices. Nurses provide screening and direct patient care routine (“Oncology nurse,” n.d.). Nurses also work in different healthcare settings depending on the patient’s financial and physical characteristics (“Oncology nurse,” n.d.). It is essential to mention that the nurses should always be prepared for the palliative care that may be required for a cancer patient of any age. However, it is most common for old age and adult patients groups.

Education in Liberal Arts, Science Studies and Nursing Knowledge

Liberal Arts and Science Studies

Education in liberal arts brings valuable elements of various humanitarian disciplines to nursing knowledge. According to Kooken and Kerr (2018), “liberal arts improve their skills to communicate, think globally, navigate diversity, make decisions, and improve their human selves” (p. 60). Humanities, especially philosophy and sociology, develop critical personal qualities such as empathy and compassion. Science studies provide nurses with an opportunity to review and reimagine the current nursing paradigm and caring approaches to improve their professional performance.

Mathematics and Physical Sciences

Knowledge of mathematics and physical sciences is essential for a wide range of professions, including nursing. As the researchers say, “… practicing RNs place high value on various science topics and the teaching of biological sciences generally” (Birks et al., 2018, p. 209). Mathematics also plays an important role, which significantly develops general mental abilities and professional ones such as numeracy (Gregory et al., 2019). Nurses apply biology and mathematics knowledge very often in diagnostics, lab testing, patient care, and prescribing.

Conclusion

This work explores the topic of oncology and nursing care for cancer patients. The author of this essay has comprehensively researched the issues of oncology, the nursing profession, cancer treatment, and patients’ life cycle. Cancer patients are among the most affected populations under pressure from biological, social, and environmental factors. They need personalized, financial, and legal support. It is also was discovered that disciplines such as humanities, physics, mathematics, and science studies significantly complement and improve nursing knowledge and skills. These types of research show new perspectives for medical professionals. It is important to note that various scholarly articles and other sources support the essay’s thesis and discussion.

References

Birks, M., Ralph, N., Cant, R., Tie, Y. C., & Hillman, E. (2018). Science knowledge needed for nursing practice: A cross-sectional survey of Australian registered nurses. Collegian, 25(2), 209-215.

Cameron, A. C., Touyz, R. M., & Lang, N. N. (2016). Vascular complications of cancer chemotherapy. Canadian Journal of Cardiology, 32(7), 852-862.

de Grubb, M. C. M., Kilbourne, B., Kilbourne, K., Langston, M., Gittner, L., Zoorob, R. J., & Levine, R. (2017). Socioeconomic, environmental, and geographic factors and US lung cancer mortality, 1999‐2009. Family Medicine and Community Health, 5(1), 3-12.

Finding and paying for treatment. (n.d.). American Cancer Society.

Frowen, J., Hughes, R., & Skeat, J. (2020). The prevalence of patient-reported dysphagia and oral complications in cancer patients. Supportive Care in Cancer, 28(3), 1141-1150. Web.

Gregory, L., Villarosa, A. R., Ramjan, L. M., Hughes, M., O’Reilly, R., Stunden, A., Daly, M., Raymond, D., Fatayer, M., & Salamonson, Y. (2019). The influence of mathematics self‐efficacy on numeracy performance in first‐year nursing students: A quasi‐experimental study. Journal of Clinical Nursing, 28(19-20), 3651-3659.

Ho, R. T., Lo, P. H., & Luk, M. Y. (2016). A good time to dance? A mixed-methods approach of the effects of dance movement therapy for breast cancer patients during and after radiotherapy. Cancer nursing, 39(1), 32-41. Web.

How cancer is diagnosed. (2019). National Cancer Institute.

How we’re providing support. (n.d.). American Cancer Society.

Kooken, W. C., & Kerr, N. (2018). Blending the liberal arts and nursing: Creating a portrait for the 21st century. Journal of Professional Nursing, 34(1), 60-64. Web.

Nursing and patient care. (2018). Together.

Oncology nurse. (n.d.). Nurse.org.

Pernar, C. H., Ebot, E. M., Wilson, K. M., & Mucci, L. A. (2018). The epidemiology of prostate cancer. Cold Spring Harbor Perspectives in Medicine, 8(12). Web.

Pudkasam, S., Polman, R., Pitcher, M., Fisher, M., Chinlumprasert, N., Stojanovska, L., & Apostolopoulos, V. (2018). Physical activity and breast cancer survivors: Importance of adherence, motivational interviewing and psychological health. Maturitas, 116, 66-72.

Richardson, L. C., & Dowling, N. (2020). An update on cancer deaths in the United States. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Rojas, K., & Stuckey, A. (2016). Breast cancer epidemiology and risk factors. Clinical Obstetrics and Gynecology, 59(4), 651-672.

Rosen, R. D., & Sapra, A. (2020). TNM classification. StatPearls [Internet].

Roots Analysis. (2018). New frontiers in cancer therapies: Focus on transcription factors, GTPases, phosphatases and GPCRs, 2018-2030: Undruggable cancer targets. Roots Analysis.

Teo, I., Krishnan, A., & Lee, G. L. (2019). Psychosocial interventions for advanced cancer patients: A systematic review. Psycho‐oncology, 28(7), 1394-1407.

Akers’ Social Learning Theory

Summary

Akers’ social learning theory posits that individuals develop the urge to engage in criminal activities and the techniques to execute these acts through interacting with peers or within their social circle. According to Nodeland and Morris (2018), people master new deportments, attributes and aspirations through direct encounters as well as monitoring other individuals’ behavior through negative or positive impulses. Some of the concepts in this postulation include differential association, imitation, definition, and differential reinforcement.

Differential association

The differential association consists of two major dimensions: identification or affiliation with distant reference groupings and behavioral interactions. The latter elucidates deviance as an action triggered by the direct interaction or association with individuals participating in specific deportments. Within these social contexts, people become exposed to different definitions of unacceptable and appropriate behaviors and the pertinent models that reinforce non-criminal and offensive conduct. The nature, frequency, length, and timing of contact represent the crucial behavioral determinants.

Imitation

This conceptualization is based on the belief that people participate in a specific behavior after witnessing its execution by other individuals. The discerned behavioral impact observed deportments, and features of the model ascertain the extent to which particular conducts are mimicked. Nodeland and Morris (2018) further argue that witnessing other people’s activities, especially those close to us, can influence our involvement in both adhering and non-conforming deportments. Imitation also accounts for the performance and acquisition of novel conduct compared to the already established behavioral patterns’ termination or sustenance.

Definitions

The definition refers to an individual’s exclusive perspectives and values regarding acceptable and undesirable behavior. Nodeland and Morris (2018) identify the above conceptualization as the rationalizations, orientations, situation-related elucidations, and other moral and evaluative viewpoints that delineate the commission of an act as either wrong or right, bad or good, unjustified or justified. These values and attitudes are usually learned and fortified through the differential association mechanism. Aker links one’s morality and views on the impact triggered by specific and general definitions.

Differential Reinforcement

This concept is based on the assumption that an act’s perceived consequences ascertain the action to be executed by a person. Value, belief, and attitude reinforcement occur through imitation and differential association (Nodeland & Morris, 2018). Positive augmentation to criminal deportment occurs when one’s act is rewarded with positive outcomes and behavioral responses. On the other hand, negative reinforcement entails eradicating negative reactions or impacts to increase the probability of engaging in certain activities. The likelihood, frequency, and degree of occurrence are linked directly to the extent of differential reinforcement.

References

Bystrova, E. G., & Petter, G. (2015). Social conflict theory and white-collar criminals: Why does the ruling class punish their own? Pakistan Journal of Criminology, 7(1):1-15. Web.

Health Promotion: Community, Nation, And The World

Medical specialists have always called for maintaining and improving health. This process is referred to as health promotion and is a priority in many countries and regions. Its major benefit is obvious: it helps an individual eliminate the risks of diseases and positively influences the overall well-being of the nation. Even though health promotion remains a popular tendency, it still demands further research in terms of its strategies, role, and ways of raising people’s awareness. In this paper, health promotion is studied at the community, national, and global levels.

In America, health promotion is considered a solution to the problems of its healthcare system. For example, the National Prevention Strategy is a governmental plan to improve wellness (Health promotion strategy, 2011). Some of its principles can be applied at the regional level, namely, in Shasta County, California. In particular, it is possible to manage the policy of grocery stores of Shasta County and control the proper marking of unhealthy products that contain genetically modified organisms. Besides, changing the whole lifestyle of the community is essential, as, according to the national strategy, it may help reduce the risk of health deterioration in people of different ages.

In the case of Shasta County, public service advertising about the consequences of smoking, drinking, and substance use may change people’s attitudes towards their daily habits. For example, by promoting a smoking-free society, the local and state authorities can decrease the rates of heart diseases, lung cancer, strokes, and other related issues (Health promotion strategy, 2011). Finally, effective ideas suggested by the government that can be used in Shasta County are promoting outdoor sports, creating smoke-free parks, and educating people about the basic rules of hygiene (Health promotion strategy, 2011). To sum up, Shasta County authorities need to take comprehensive measures to influence the community’s well-being.

Even though the improvements mentioned above appear to be simple, they may have a significant impact on society. At the national level, health promotion allows identifying what problems a particular region or a social group faces and how to prevent them. For example, Japan is considered a country with a developed preventive healthcare system. Its public health centers focus on a range of different problems, including environmental health, mental conditions, sanitation, and other issues. Traditional preventive practices, such as acupuncture and herbal medications, are also widespread in Japan (Lovett-Scott & Prather, 2014). Together, these implementations influence the overall level of the citizens’ health, which would be especially important in the case of America, where preventive practices are not developed enough.

As for the global importance of health promotion, special associations and programs contribute to improving health on the international level. For example, the World Health Organization is the most well-known advocate for preventive healthcare (Lima et al., 2016). By establishing healthcare principles and informing people about the ways to ensure their well-being, it makes health-related knowledge available to everyone. The significance of global health prevention is in helping people achieve a better quality of life and physical and spiritual balance, regardless of their country of residence.

It is also necessary to understand that the government plays a vital role in addressing and implementing health promotion. According to Lovett-Scott and Prather (2014), the first task of the country and local leaders is to determine the flaws of the national healthcare system and the ways to eliminate them. Then, it is important to address the existing problems to communities and healthcare services. Since the government is a power that determines and controls many health-related policies, one of its tasks is to establish rules and regulations aimed at health promotion. For example, according to Mozaffarian et al. (2018), the government is responsible for defining the quality standards of the food and agriculture sector. Some financial interventions may also be effective: increased taxes on unhealthy products, such as junk food and sweetened beverages, would reduce the rate of their consumption. At the same time, the American government is notorious for the uneven distribution of resources. As a result, some regions enjoy better opportunities for maintaining health, while others demand wiser use of fiscal and other resources.

At the same time, the government alone is not able to guarantee the well-being of the nation. Every individual needs to make wise decisions in choosing their lifestyle and maintaining their health. Since health issues and the immune system of every person are different, people themselves should define their health behavior. According to Nutbeam et al. (2018), it is necessary to educate society about the benefits of preventive practices. For example, health literacy allows underlining the importance of maintaining health through educational, organizational, and other interventions (Nutbeam et al., 2018). Indeed, people, who are aware of the advantages of a healthy eating, active lifestyle, and other preventive practices, would be more responsible for their health and would contribute to the well-being of the whole community.

Finally, a question that many healthcare specialists still cannot answer is whether the strategy of health promotion brings significant results. Some people consider it ineffective to spend more financial resources on prevention programs, rather than treatment. However, the research by Lima et al. (2016) confirms that investment in preventive healthcare has already proved its effectiveness. The evaluation of several health promotion programs demonstrated the positive results of most of them. The improvements include the increase in general physical health and physical activity, changes in lifestyle, and the increased frequency of preventative actions (Lima et al., 2016). Therefore, the advantage of health promotion is that it allows reducing various risk factors and even influences the social behavior of people. Moreover, self-conscious people who have enough knowledge about health maintenance practices are more careful in their everyday activities.

At the same time, the most important disadvantage of the preventive healthcare system is that health promotion requires a long-term investment. It is not possible to see the results of preventive healthcare programs immediately. Moreover, health promotion interventions can be rather expensive, and many governments prefer spending their resources to treat diseases that already exist (Lima et al., 2016). Therefore, the main disadvantages of the whole practice are connected with financial issues and the need for comprehensive long-term planning.

In conclusion, it is fair to say that health promotion is a complicated but significant task for local and state governments. Preventive healthcare practices in Shasta County, California, may include raising the awareness of the community about the benefits of a healthy lifestyle and introducing certain regulations and changes concerning people’s everyday choices. However, overall health starts with the habits and decisions of an individual. By promoting accessible health literacy and engaging people of all ages, it is possible to influence health and wellness both inside and outside the country.

References

Health promotion strategy [Video]. (2011). C-Span. Web.

Lima, K.C., Caldas, C.P., Veras, R.P., Correa, R. de F., Bonfada, D., de Souza, D.B., & Jerez-Roig, J. (2016). Health promotion and education. International Journal of Health Services, 47(3), 550–570.

Lovett-Scott, M., & Prather, F. (2014). Global health systems: Comparing strategies for delivering health services. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Mozaffarian, D., Angell, S.Y., Lang, T., & Rivera, J.A. (2018). Role of government policy in nutrition—barriers to and opportunities for healthier eating. BMJ, 1-11.

Nutbeam, D., Levin-Zamir, D., & Rowlands, G. (2018). Health literacy and health promotion in context. Global Health Promotion, 25(4), 3–5.

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