Nursing Role In Tackling Youth Obesity Sample College Essay

Background

Across America, childhood obesity has become a national crisis. It is estimated that among the children aged between 2 and 19, one in every three children faces the problem of overweight or obesity. According to CDC (2016), the children aged between 6 and 11 years had an obesity prevalence rate of 17.5% while for those aged between 12 and 19 years it was 20.5% in the period between 2011 and 2014. Obesity leads to many health challenges. For instance, overweight and obesity are leading risk factors for hypertension and diabetes. Also, it has great financial implications as state and federal governments spend billions of dollars on medical costs to manage conditions caused by obesity (Karnik & Kanekar, 2015). Obesity has adverse psychological effects on the children as they cannot actively interact with other kids during playtime. A case in point, among girls, it has been associated with low self-esteem.

Significance of the Problem

Among the pediatric population, the problem has become the greatest health concern as it has surpassed drug abuse. It is important to note that if the problem is not addressed, the children will grow with the overweight burden, and soon, the country will suffer economically as the people supposed to build the nation will be sick and most of the finances will be spent on health interventions. It is alarming that CDC (2016) pointed out that in a population-based sample of young people aged between 5 and 17 years, 70% of those who are overweight and obese have at least one risk factor for cardiovascular diseases. As a result, nurses have a vital role to play in addressing childhood obesity. This should be carried out at the community level as the nature of the problem requires a concerted effort between the key stakeholder such as parents and health professionals. For instance, a study by Traun, Flood, Meinen, Daniels, and Remington (2016) to determine the tools, strategies, facilitators, and barriers to effective childhood intervention at health facilities noted that for success to be achieved, there is a need for stronger connections between the key stakeholders, that is, the community, dieticians, and physicians. Thus, community nursing intervention is critical and should be designed by involving all the key stakeholders.

Statement of the Problem

Many factors have been attributed to childhood obesity such as behavioral and perception issues that enhance or hinder effective intervention measures. However, it has been found that sound health policies, advocacy, and concerted effort among stakeholders can be effective in interventions targeting children who are overweight and obese. For example, Visscher and Kremers (2015) pointed out that inclusive and comprehensive interventions are the basis for sustainable and effective health promotion programs. Prevention of obesity requires a change that will ensure that people adopt lifestyles that guarantee long-term good health benefits. As pointed out by a study by Visscher and Kremers (2015), the intervention should be based on comprehensive knowledge of the various determinants of health. To address obesity among children, an in-depth understanding of the context of the problem is needed to point out to the preferences of the consumers of the intervention. As such, the intervention requires participatory approaches in which stakeholders are involved in all the intervention stages.

Purpose of the Intervention

As indicated by CDC (2016) statistics, childhood obesity has become major stress for many American parents and has negative economic implications. Due to the high prevalence rates and the associated health risks it predisposes to the pediatric population, health professionals have the mandate to play. It is encouraging that despite the health risks, there are proven remedies to the problem. Therefore, the primary goal of community nursing intervention is to solve the problem of childhood obesity in order to improve the quality of life for the children and their parents. Due to the gravity of childhood obesity, there is a need for health professionals to design efficient and effective interventions to alleviate the problem. Besides, nurses have unique roles in preventing, promoting, and advocating for better practices; hence, the need for community nursing interventions to address the problem of childhood obesity.

Research Questions, Hypothesis, and Variables with Operational Definitions

Research Questions

The research questions will act as the guidelines for the design of the community nursing intervention to prevent childhood obesity. The following will be the guiding research questions.

  1. To what extent do nurses have a direct role in influencing the health status of a community?
  2. What are the key determinants of behavior that nurses should put into consideration to ensure the effectiveness and sustainability of the childhood obesity intervention program?
  3. Are there cultural perceptions in the community that affect the nutrition and well-being of children?
  4. Who are the main stakeholders in the health of children and what is their comparative effectiveness in the intervention?

Hypotheses

  • H1. Childhood obesity is caused by multivariate factors that have a direct or indirect influence on the weight of the children; hence, interventions should be drawn based on consideration of all the determinants.
  • H1.Parents’ cultural conceptions are the determinants of children’s health and can influence the outcome of the intervention.
  • H0. Nurses do not have a direct influence on community intervention to prevent childhood obesity; the outcome depends on the involvement of all key stakeholders.

Identifying and Defining Study Variables

Different determinants should be considered in order to achieve success in childhood obesity intervention. Therefore, for the current intervention, the main variables include the health-related behavior, health history of the child, and demographic factors.

Demographic factors: The education and occupation of the parents/guardians and the age of the children.

Health history: This is detailed information about the way the child has been gaining weight since birth and the dietary patterns of the child.

Health-related behaviors: This includes the health practices of the child such as physical exercise and environmental health factors that contribute to obesity. This variable will expound on the determinants of the dietary patterns and the conceptions of parents about obesity.

Operationalizing Variables

The health history will be operationalized by examining the well-child cards, the use of Head Start Records, and any other relevant information provided by the parents. The current weight will be measured using weighing scales and tape measures for the height. This will be used to compute the obesity status of the children. Dietary patterns will be estimated by the use of 24-hour recall which will be provided by the parents. Also, health-related activities will be provided by the parents and operationalized by the use of a Likert Scale to rank the practices as either healthy or risky.

References

CDC. (2016). Childhood obesity facts: Prevalence of childhood obesity in the United States, 2011-2014. Web.

Karnik, S., & Kanekar, A. (2015). Childhood obesity: A global public health crisis. International Journal of Preventive Medicine, 3 (1), 1-7.

Traun, B. D., Flood, T. L., Meinen, A., Daniels, M., & Remington, P. (2016). A qualitative pilot study of pediatricians’ approach to childhood obesity. WMJ, 115(3), 134- 139.

Visscher, T. L., & Kremers, S. P. (2015). How can we better prevent obesity in children? Current Obesity Reports, 4(3), 371-378.

“Culture Wars? The Myth Of A Polarized America”

The Author’s View

The book, under consideration, dwells upon the so-called culture wars in the USA. The author stresses that there is not such a process in the US society, as culture wars ceased to exist in the early 2000s.1 The author notes that now Americans are more concerned with political and economic problems rather than such cultural issues as homosexuality, gay marriages, abortions, and so on. Fiorina stresses that recent surveys on a public opinion show that there is little difference between views of people living in the states that were seen as culturally and politically polarized.2 Importantly, he states that researchers have often confused the political preferences of people and their views on culture. The so-called 50:50 society does not reflect Americans’ views on cultural matters but simply reveals people’s attitudes towards some politicians and political parties.3

Critique of the Argument

The writer articulates his argument in a clear and concise way. He explicitly expresses his position on the matter. In each chapter, he underlines his argument and provides a detailed explanation of his view. It is necessary to add that the author provides numerous data to support his claims. Importantly, he provides new insights into the ways to see various sociological surveys. He provides a broader perspective and makes the reader think of many possible meanings enclosed in data provided by numerous researchers.

Personal View

It is possible to note that the author’s argument is quite well-grounded, and it is true to life. It is clear that Americans may have different viewpoints on many aspects of American life. However, it is clear that contemporary society is not as polarized as it used to be, and as some people want it to seem. Politicians often make use of the so-called culture wars, as they tend to focus on cultural issues and make people share their views.

It is now acknowledged that society had changed tremendously since the 1990s when the notion of culture wars acquired substantial popularity. Clearly, contemporary multiculturalism has made American society more homogenous when it comes to cultural values as new generations are less polarized than older ones.4 People having different backgrounds (ethnic, religious, social, and so on) have shared their ideas, and this contributed to a certain kind of cultural unity. New generations are working out quite a homogeneous culture. Of course, this does not mean that all people now have similar views on cultural matters. However, there are no two camps, but there is a diversity of ideas and opinions that are often quite similar when it comes to general points.

A Question and the Comment

To what extent do election results reflect Americans’ views on major cultural issues?

People’s choice of a political party or a politician to vote for has little to do with the cultural standpoints of the party or its leader. People often vote for personalities they like or hate.5 Of course, many people consider cultural standpoints expressed by politicians. However, this is only one factor among many others that affect the results of elections. Hence, it is impossible to say that the country is polarized in terms of cultural values. It is important to research this issue in greater detail, and it is essential to pay attention to younger generations as soon they will make up the nation.

Bibliography

Fiorina, Morris P. Culture Wars? The Myth of a Polarized America. New York: Pearson, 2011. Web.

Thomson, Irene Taviss. Culture Wars and Enduring American Dilemmas. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010. Web.

Footnotes

1. Morris P. Fiorina, Culture Wars? The Myth of a Polarized America (New York: Pearson, 2011), 8. Web.

2. Ibid., 57.

3. Ibid., 45.

4. Irene Taviss Thomson, Culture Wars and Enduring American Dilemmas (Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press, 2010), 94. Web.

5. Morris P. Fiorina, Culture Wars? The Myth of a Polarized America (New York: Pearson, 2011), 15. Web.

Chinese And Syrian Political Impact On Economy

Introduction

Politics defines a country. The difference between a developed country and a developing country is how politics in each particular country are carried out. Politics also determine various core aspects such as economy, history, culture, and geography. Weak political leaders typically lead to a country that is not economically and culturally fit. The history and geography of such a nation are also affected by poor leadership. Over the years, many countries have made tremendous steps due to the right politics that were steered by great leaders. This paper will compare two countries, Syria and China. More emphasis will be done on how politics has been used to shape the economy and power in these two countries.

Political Economy of China

The population of China is estimated to be 1,336,718,018 (Buzan and Lene 56). Its growth rate is 0.493%. This rate is far below many Asian countries and other developing countries as well. The growth rate has been this low due to the fact politics has made it mandatory for each couple to have only one child. The situation is so bad that subsequent pregnancies are terminated by government officials once it is proven that the couple is going to the set limit.

However, the economy of this nation is brilliant. Its GDP is estimated at $ 11.29 trillion. The economic growth rate and inflation rates are put at 9.2% and 5.4% respectively (60). The unemployment rate in China is at 6.4%. In other words, only a few Chinese are unemployed, especially in urban areas. This trend is remarkable. Very few countries in the developing world have such outstanding economic statistics.

China has many industries that range from processing, manufacturing, and automotive (Faye et al. 38). For example, many industries process ore, iron, steel, aluminum as well as food processing because various natural resources are found in China. These resources include coal, aluminum, iron ore, hydropower among others. However, it is the political strength that leads to the establishment of these industries in China. A majority of developing countries are endowed with numerous natural resources, but they have allowed foreign developed countries to import those resources and process them in their countries (40).

Usually, this does not contribute much to the economic growth of such countries. China, by the fact that it can process the majority of its natural resources, gets more revenue from the sale of the finished products other than the mere revenue it would have obtained from exportation of such resources to the developed countries.

Chinese exports stand at $ 1.898 trillion (Buzan and Lene 62). This is made from exporting various machinery, equipment, medical supplies as well as numerous plastic goods. Its principal trading partners are the U.S., Japan, South Korea, Hong Kong, Australia, and Germany. One can thus argue that China has indeed positioned itself well in terms of politics because countries such as the U.S. and Germany do not freely carry out trade transactions with countries that have been politically weak (63).

Some political reasons explain why China has developed economically over the years. For example, in 1993, the National People’s Congress encouraged all Chinese to embrace activities that will steer the development of the nation (65). The economic drive was supported where Jiang Zemin, the Communist Party Leader, was elected as the President of the country. In the same year, Li Peng was confirmed to be the Chinese’ Prime Minister for five more years.

These two leaders steered the economic development of China. It is believed that since this period, the economy of China has continually grown exponentially. Unlike many developing countries, China does not give room for corruption. Corrupt people, and especially leaders, are severally punished and in worse cases, such a leader can be hanged to death. These strong principles have resulted in a country whose leaders are dedicated to the delivery of services without asking for bribes. Besides, many developed countries are free and willing to partner with China due to its firm stand on being a non-corrupt nation (66).

Political Economy of Syria

Unlike in China, Syria’s economy has had many shortcomings. Power succession has had profound impacts on the economy of this nation. This is due to the fact each leader has his style of leadership which he deems superior as compared to other leaders who have ruled in the past (Perthes 145). There have not been clear strategies by political leaders that could have steered the economy of this nation forward. Only short-term goals have been set from time to time. This is worrying as the future generation is dependent on the decisions that current political leaders make as regards the economy of the nation. In 2010, the GDP of Syria was at $ 64.7 billion (UNdata 2).

Its growth, however, is at – 28.9%. This translates to a situation whereby the economy of Syria is dwindling with time. This is largely due to the civil wars that have hit the nation for some years. The unemployment rate is at 48.8%. This is close to half of Syria’s population (3). However, this country has numerous natural resources such as petroleum. There is also the processing of clothes and food products in this country. In 2013, its exports accounted for $2.70 billion.

The primary exports include crude oil, petroleum, fruits, vegetables, meat, and cotton fiber. The major trading partners in Syria include Iraq, Saudi Arabia, United Arab Emirates, Iran, Libya, and Turkey. In other words, this country has been trading only with a few Islamic countries. Syria’s inflation could be among the worst in the world. It stands at 193%. Among the Middle East and the North Africa region, Syria has been ranked as the fourth-lowest economy. This explains why its GDP is low despite the various natural resources that this country has (Faye et al. 37).

In recent years, it has been almost impossible to grade the economic status of Syria. Civil war has hit this nation from time to time. Many businesses have been brought down by the ever unending war. A significant number of buildings have been demolished as well. Besides, many professionals have died alongside the more than 200, 000 thousand people that have died as a result of the civil war (UNdata 4). The latest reports claim that the civil war has displaced several millions of Syrians.

There have been numerous extra-judicial killings and torture of innocent individuals. Women and teenage girls have been raped forcing the majority of them to seek refuge in neighboring countries. The government does not control a significant number of major cities in Syria (al‐‐Alkīm 420). It is the militia that collects taxes and dictates who to sell and buy what. As a result, the government cannot entirely lay strategies on how to salvage Syria from the current economic situation that it is engrossed in. This then explains why it is not possible to grade the economic position of Syria. It is estimated that it will take more than 3 decades to revive the economic status of Syria to the pre-civil war status (Perthes 150).

Apart from the civil war, Syria faces another worrying situation that keeps on deteriorating its economic status. Corruption is rampant in Syria (al‐‐Alkīm 430). Political leaders are the principal culprits of corruption. One has to part with some money to gain access to major services that are offered by the government. It has been confirmed that major economic sectors are controlled by family members and close allies of the President and his cabinet (432).

The Assad family controls almost every economic aspect of the country. This family has failed to deliver on the promises that they swore to give to the Citizens. The uprising that began in 2011 was met with strong resistance from this ruling family and this sparked civil war in the country. Therefore, it is not easy to root out corruption in such cities. Impunity and corruption further weaken the structural frameworks.

Trade restrictions have hit Syria since the beginning of civil wars. It has not been able to conduct trade with countries outside the Islam world (Perthes 151). As a result, this nation has been isolated from the outside world. The number of exports has also reduced. It can be argued that corruption has also led to trade bans and restrictions that Syria has faced over the years. A majority of the developed world does not entertain corruption. Poor political leaders have deteriorated the economic status of Syria. Oil production has gone down as so is its price. Inflation has further weakened the economy of this nation (153).

Conclusion

Politics is related to the growth of any nation. Leaders that have good strategies frequently lead to a country with high economic power. On the other hand, poor leaders do not lay firm strategies and result in a future generation that is stuck in a weak economy. China has had strong leaders that have dedicated themselves to developing China into a strong economic hub. Leaders such as Jiang Zemin and Li Peng were committed to driving the economy of China to greater heights. The firm stand on being a corrupt-free nation has made such nations as the U.S., Germany, and Australia to partner with China for trade purposes.

The result has been that China is now able to export various commodities and thus getting more revenue. On the other hand, the economic status in Syria has been deteriorating over the past 5 years. This is largely due to the civil war that has hit this nation since 2011. Many lives have been lost, millions displaced, while women and teenage girls have been raped in the war. Poor leadership by the Assad family has glorified corruption to such levels that one cannot get essential services without giving out a bribe. Trade sanctions have negatively impacted the economy of this nation. As a result, only a few Islamic countries have been willing to trade with Syria after the outbreak of the civil war. Exports thus reduced, and so is the GDP.

Works Cited

al‐‐Alkīm, Hassan Hamdan. “Challenges Facing the Arab World in the Twenty‐first Century: an Overview.” Contemporary Arab Affairs 1.3 (2008): 417-444. Print.

Buzan, Barry, and Lene Hansen. The Evolution of International Security Studies. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2009. Print

Faye, Michael L, John W. McArthur, Jeffrey D. Sachs, and Thomas Snow. “The Challenges Facing Landlocked Developing Countries.” Journal of Human Development 5.1 (2004): 31-68. Print.

Perthes, Volker. “The Political Economy of the Syrian Succession.” Survival 43.1 (2001): 143-154. Print.

UNdata. Syrian Arab Republic. 2015. Web.

error: Content is protected !!