Nursing: Somali Community In Minnesota Sample College Essay

The national and civil wars have a pervasive effect on the common life of Somali people, which tormented them to an extent. The majority of people are migrated to America, Middle East, and European countries. Civil war leads to their dreadful situation. Under the warlords, the Somali people lead a suffocated life. A large number of people went to the USA for better life and security. The majority of people in Somalia are staunch believers of Islamism. They admit the only god Allah. They strictly follow five-time prayers a day. The Minnesotans believe in God and Satan. They also believe in fate.

New political changes and social reformations made some changes in the life of the Somali people. These social reforms were helpful for the emergence of a new family system. The influence of western culture especially America is visible in Somalia. It also has been affected their communication process. Their social values are similar to Americans. They keep the values like independence, friendship, Cooperation, and individualism.

According to them, family is the center for personal development and personal security. They develop a healthy family system and they protect the family loyalties extremely. In recent decades Somalis give more importance to education.

Without racial discrimination and nationalism, the people follow a strict and systematized education culture. Abigail F. Castle and Susie Kurata’s comment makes it clear when they rightly put it as: “In addition to the normal stressors involved in going to a new school, a refugee must also deal with learning a new language and a new culture. Here it is clear that there is a gradual development in communication pattern”. (Journey Into the Somali CultureBy Abigail F. Castel & Susie Kurata).

This led the people into a status of literacy. The established pattern of emotional or behavioral responses affects the educational and developmental performances of people. The emergence of the all-University Consortium on children, Youth, and Families at the University of Minnesota made drastic changes in the field of the communication pattern. It includes educational institutions, social service organizations, individual groups, private companies, mass media, religious organizations, and higher education representatives.

One of the most important and notable developments in the field of communication is the Consortium’s Electronic Clearinghouse (CEC) It is an easy way to communicate with people. It paved the way for drastic development in communication. The working of CEC connected with internet, Anyway this electronic world lead the whole nation into the world of knowledge. Even though a large number of Somali students studying in American schools, “most Somali children who are 16 years old or younger have not received any formal schooling”. It really shows the pathetic state of Somalis in the modern world. In each year number of young professionals are created, a large number of people reaches the teaching profession. It provides the chance to spreading knowledge about Somalia into the world.

Both verbal and nonverbal communications are a vital part of communication. Autism (disability to communicate) is a lifelong phenomenon or a developmental disability that prevents the natural growth of verbal and nonverbal communication. It was mainly caused by their inability to communicate socially, educationally, and culturally. In Somalia, the region provides a rare chance for social interactions and leisure activities. At the time of the spreading of educational institutions, a gradual change happens in the field of verbal communication. The emergence of television and other visual media communication has been brought some changes in the social and cultural life of Somali.

The Somalis follow a traditional healing system that takes away the nursing practices of the modern world. Firstly the traditional healing emerged as a religious practice. ” Although historically, the phenomenon of spiritual healing emerged as a religious practice, within the context of specific religious traditions and has traditionally been ascribed only to mystics, saints and holy persons, in modern times a variety of spiritual healing practices unconnected with traditional religion have entered mainstream professional healthcare. ( Healing at the Borderland of Medicine and Religion: Regulating Potential Abuse of Authority by Spiritual Healers, by Michael H. Cohen © 2002 Journal of Law and Religion, Inc..

The older men of their community were aware of many treatments and they did the roles of “traditional doctors”. They could even treat some kind of infectious diseases, hunch-back, facial droop, and broken bones. They also believe in spirits and thought that spirits reside in human beings. Fever, headache, dizziness, and weakness, etc are the result of the spirit’s temper. For the healing, they suggest the reading of the Koran, special provisions, and burning incense. Somalis are generally superstitious and they believe in the “evil eye”. They don’t like the praising of others because they strongly believe that it will bring an “evil eye” and will ultimately lead to the ruin of the person praised. The mothers don’t like even the doctors commenting about their babies’ weight and fear that it is harmful to their babies.

Most of the Somali women do not depend on hospitals for delivery and generally, it takes place in the home itself. They know the treatments regarding the new mother and the baby. They give enough coaching to their children about neatness from a very young age itself. Circumcision was common in men and women of Somalia before age five. It is connected with their religious belief and regarded as a ritual of passage that is necessary for marriage.

It is considered as part of their hygiene. “Male circumcision may be performed by a traditional doctor or by a medical doctor or nurse in a hospital. Female circumcision is usually performed by female family members but is also available in some hospitals. The most common procedure in Somalia for female circumcision, known as “infibulations,” involves the removal and suturing of most genital tissue, leaving a posterior opening”. They depend on hospitals very rarely for these kinds of treatments and to an extent the nursing aid was unnecessary for them. Moreover, their religious belief often hindered them from depending on the hospitals. They preached many superstitious beliefs that curtailed their contact with Western medicine. But some of the Somalis living in cities were taken to hospitals affected with diarrhea, fever, and vomiting. Patients were distributed with antibiotics from the hospitals and oral medication is insisted to children affected with cold.

Somalis in modern times keep a fascination for learning and their interests in studies are increasing day by day. Now they are very much interested in university education and

“A great number of Somalis living in Victoria today hold passionate beliefs about the right to universal education and the value of a University qualification.” (p. 3). It is a welcome attitude found in the Somalis, which may foster their interest in the nursing field in the coming future. The attitude of the Somalis to religion, education, social life, etc has been subjected to slight changes in modern times. But even now they hesitate to come to the forefront of society as well as into the nursing field. Their traditional healing system and their diffidence to hospitals for pregnancy etc are the withdrawing factors of nursing practices in Somalia.

Minnesota nursing schools are not reaching the level of quality institutions. So the state offers new opportunities like online nursing CCNE (commission on collegiate nursing education. These institutions offer better chances for common people. The nursing shortage creates plenty of opportunities for current nurses and potential nurses. It leads to a gradual increasing the demand for home nurses and specialized people for nursing disabled people.

Racial and political factors create problems to the smooth running of healthcare activities today the majority of people say that a number of diseases are emerging among the children in the Minnesota region. A collaborative program promoted four major universities in Minnesota state named; DNP (Doctor of Nursing Practice). This offers advanced clinical, organizational, economic, and leadership knowledge to the students, it promotes evidence-based practice through professional leadership. Childhood obesity was an illness that needs treatment. The attack of chronic diseases also is a barrier to prevention methods.

Lack of patient motivation, effective prevention methods, and the absence of supporting services are the dominating problems in this region. The following comments make clear the above mentioning points:” However, several important barriers interfere with treatment efforts and will need to be addressed. There is also a need for increased training opportunities related to obesity prevention and treatment. The results of this study provide directions and priorities for training, education, and advocacy efforts”. Health organizations also point out that the influence of behavioral management strategies and guidance in parenting techniques are affecting the health care assessment.

Lack of transportation facilities and absence of modern preventive methods and equipment etc are also the withdrawing factors of the health care activities and nursing practices in Somali. To conclude it is inferred that the impacts of nursing practices in Somali and Minnesota are not so higher. The people of Somali are religious and they are incapable of retaliating against the superstitious beliefs that are deep-rooted in them. Though they live in a post-modern era, they preach old customs and traditions and are sticking to their own methods of treatment. The modern methods of treatment are to an extent exile to them and very often they are forced to depend on it.

But to their wonder, the organizations promoting home nursing- for disabled persons- are mushrooming in modern Minnesota. It also is helping in increasing the social value of Somali women and wins them wealth and acclaim. The main barriers of the nursing practices in the Somali region are; illiteracy, lack and proper awareness in modern medical equipment, cultural and social backwardness, religious ethics, etc. It is impossible for an illiterate person to handle the role of a nurse properly. Moreover, he should be well versed in handling the medical equipment. The religion and society of Somali always prevent them from being fully involved in nursing practices.

Works cited

‘(Journey Into the Somali Culture’, By Abigail F. Castel & Susie Kurata. Web.

(“AVETRA 2008: Somali students in VET- some factors influencing pathways”, Maree Keating and Bonnie Simons, Equity Research Centre, Page- 3. Web.

(Voices of the Somali Community – Concepts of Health Care and Medicine). Web.

(“Management of Child and Adolescent Obesity: Attitudes, Barriers, Skills, and Training Needs among Health Care Professionals”, Pediatrics Vol. 110 No. 2002. Web.

(“A Phenomenological Case Study of a Somali Immigrant Woman”, By Nura Dualeh. Arizona Education Review 2003/04. Web.

(“Healing at the Borderland of Medicine and Religion: Regulating Potential Abuse of Authority by Spiritual Healers”, By Michael H. Cohen © 2002. Web.

Perception Of Psychology In Society

Why do so many people associate the field of psychology with clinical issues rather than science?

Since its inception, Psychology has been widely taken as a clinical way of treating mental disorders or working out relationships (PsychNet UK) through counseling. Due to this reason, it is usually perceived to treat disorders related to the various states of the mind. However, over time, psychology has evolved from being a basic field of study to an amalgamation of many disciplines, medicine, philosophy, education, human development, sports, media, etc. Although still growing as compared to other matured disciplines, Psychology still remains primarily inclined to diagnosing and treating disorders of the human mind. All sciences are associated with rules that have to be followed and cannot be changed; however, the rules of Psychology vary in each case, since every mind is different.

Perception of psychology in this manner can be attributed to some reasons:

  1. Psychology is relatively a newer field of study
  2. Psychology relies highly on experimentation, identifying and explaining various phenomena through observations, interviews, assigning values to variables that are highly unquantifiable.
  3. Psychology is relative

Why invasive procedures are acceptable with animals but not human participants?

Organizations, for decades now, are working towards stopping invasive procedures on animals as well as human participants, their use permitted only under the boundaries of artifacts such as ethical policies or obtained legal consent to do so. In the case of human participants, students and physicians find it ethically objectionable to do so without informing the participant completely of the consequences. It is now widely believed and accepted that physicians and surgeons view the use of invasive procedures as dangerous and painful that can have adverse traumatic effects on human participants. Unless completely required, nurses and doctors advise against the use of invasive procedures on patients. Consent from the next of kin or contemporaneous surrogate consent is required to be obtained before performing any invasive procedure on the patient. Following are some of the concerns involving the use of invasive procedures on human subjects:

  1. Risk of complications, resulting in harming the patient
  2. Likelihood of failure
  3. Objections can be raised on these procedures being unethical

What role does perception play in the development of culture and taste preference? How do you believe culture guides perception and preference?

Perception, or the way of assigning meaning/interpretation to received information in light of past experiences and our physical environment, shapes how we see different societies and develop a positive/negative perception with regard to how something feels to our taste buds. Perception clearly depends on how information is presented to the user, consequently resulting in the similarity of the structure in which this information is stored, to match with the community or a group we belong to, therefore, creating a culture. An example would be the treatment of animals in various societies. In our environments, cats and dogs are friendly pets hence, as we grow in an environment, we develop an interpretation of loving these animals, thereby becoming a part of our culture. Other communities might have a different perception regarding animals we treat as pets, such as food in China, considered taboo in our part of the world.

A culture defines values uprooted in individuals particular to an environment, characterizations of that area identifiable in the individual beliefs, values, and attitudes. These values identify how individuals collect information, process it, compare it against previous information and create a new memory, based on a combination of past and present experience, commonly known as perception. For example, the Japanese values system seeks executives to meet gracefully, discuss the weather and other news in a casual manner, and after 30 – 45 minutes start off with the actual meeting. In cases where an American delegate is visiting, getting straight to business creates an experience for the Japanese executives that conflicts with their past and their values, thereby creating a negative perception. This negative perception would hence deter Japanese investors and induce a negative preference in doing business with American companies since it is their belief that greeting each other and being hospitable creates a more healthy relationship, whereas the American values system suggests that getting straight to business saves time.

Another example of how culture sets up perception and shapes preference is evident from the use of white color in different parts of the world. In the Western values system, white is a color of peace, strength, which creates a perception of positivity, however, in the Eastern parts of the world, white is perceived to be a color of death.

How your sleeping habits are (sleep enough or too little)? Using information from chapter 5, list possible consequences of your sleeping habits for your social, academic, and work lives?

The amount of sleep every individual takes in daily life varies greatly, depending on a number of different factors. As a student, I usually sleep five (5) hours a day, quite less as compared to the amount of sleep termed as sufficient. Although, in general, it seems fine, however, taking fewer amounts of sleep each day can affect an individual in a variety of ways. Lack of mood, irritability, and disinhibition (Office of Public Communications, American Psychological Association) is among the first signs of the person experiencing less amount of sleep. Other consequences are:

  1. Decrease in performance
  2. Attention deficiencies
  3. Reduced memory
  4. Weight gain
  5. Anxiety
  6. Depression
  7. Rebelliousness

Works Cited

Office of Public Communications, American Psychological Association. Why sleep is important and what happens when you don’t get enough. 2006. Web.

PsychNet UK. What is Psychology? Is Psychology a Science? 2008. Web.

Demand For Healthcare Services And The Related Factors

The provision of healthcare services to a population in a given country may be affected by the related factors such as the country’s expenditure for these services, technological know-how level, among other factors. For example, in the United States alone, it has been projected that healthcare expenditure would double by 2050 from the current 45% (Economist, 2004; qtd. in Denton & Gupta, 2008). Provision of healthcare services is not only tied to the demands for the services but also is influenced by the income of an individual and the country’s economic status, age of population, as well as other factors such as health status, societal norms, agricultural and industrial development. These factors may be linked in that one may result as a consequence of the other. For example, on a large scale, industrial and agricultural development are linked to employment of masses which would influence the income of the population resulting in poor or better access to healthcare services.

Assessment of self-health status and seeking means to alleviate dangerous future trends such as seeking health insurance have been found as positively linked in several studies. Although Self-Assessed Health Status (SAHS) measures have been questioned as adequate measures of health (Lindeboom and van Doorslaer,2004; qtd. in Condliffe & Link, 2006), they are easier to obtain than objective measures of health. The decision to obtain insurance services, for example, may be influenced by the individuals’s experience with the healthcare systems, the associated attitudes towards it and risk tolerance. Taking such a decision may lead to improved or deteriorated health provision. In addition, the providers of health services may favor individuals who have better health conditions and neglect those with poorer conditions.

The self-assessment to health status is linked to the actual seeking of these services through individual income status of an individual because access to such health care demands that they pay for the same (Condliffe & Link, 2006). Condliffe and Link found a strong relationship between private health coverage and SAHS in the United States in a study even after controlling attitudinal factors like rating of health care and risk tolerance among others. While assessment of health self-status is important in making health-related decisions, the actual access to these particular services will be influenced by the economic status of an individual. In some cases, health facilities may be too high to afford for people of low economic income even when the individuals demand these services after self-assessment.

Demand for post-acute care may increase with an increase in an aging population in a given country or the world as a whole. Hospitals may thus be required to adopt measures that take care of these needs. Currently, the United States federal and state governments have already found need for community-based and home-based services for those with disabilities and senior citizens as alternatives to nursing home placement services after a stay in hospital and are funding these initiatives (“Nursing Care Takes a Smart Detour,” 2007; qtd. in Donna, 2008).

There have been proposals to develop post-acute programs, bed study among other needs to embrace themselves to future health demands of the aging population. Therefore, a healthcare system may be influenced by an aging population in that more people would demand better and more health services. A country may not afford the stress on its health personnel and facilities or may require adjustments in terms of the number of equipment, number of service personnel, and technology (Donna, 2008). This again may be tied to the income of people because higher demands for health services may lead to increased cost of them especially in the private sector because many people require these services, and the public means may be inadequate.

Developments such as in the agricultural and industrial sectors may influence demand for health services because more of the working population resulting from increased employment is being exposed to dangerous scenarios like accidents and cancerous infections as a result of usage of more and highly advanced pesticides. These in turn may require the employee to provide insurance cover to the already increased working population. As a result, companies may incur extra costs which will be passed to the customer through employee-based insurance schemes. For example, such developments may result in formation of more small businesses whose employees in the United States according to research by the Commonwealth Fund are forced to pay more (up to 18% more) than employees in the bigger firms. The impact may be conceptualized further with the consideration that 80% of the United States’ employees work in these small business firms. Again, there are high expenses for the insurance cover to be taken care of by the employer firms (Wells Fargo Small Business Roundup, 2008).

Social status may be influenced by the economic status of families and individuals. Poor housing, poor access to medical care and education may be driven by economic hardships and poor income. Although the affected may demand careful and more medical attention as a result of poor hygiene and other implications, they may not afford the services or better services due to poor incomes. In addition, rating of health services, attitudes to healthcare systems may influence decisions for taking healthcare services and initiatives such as insurance, either positively or negatively.


Condliffe, S. and Link, C. R. “Health Status and the Demand for Private Health Insurance in the U.S.” 2006. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the Economics of Population Health: Inaugural Conference of the American Society of Health Economists, TBA, Madison, WI, USA . 2008. Web.

Donna J. Cameron “Postacute strategic planning: preparing for an aging population: is your hospital prepared to offer patients high-quality, cost-effective post-acute options? A post-acute strategic plan can prepare your organization to serve an aging population” Healthcare Financial Management. 2009. Web.

Denton B. & Gupta D. Appointment scheduling in health care: challenges and opportunities. 2008. IIE Transactions. Web.

Economist. (2004) A survey of health care finance. 372(8384), 3-14

“Nursing Care Takes a Smart Detour,” Philadelphia Inquirer, 2007.

Wells Fargo Small Business Roundup (2008). Reforming Health Care reform. Web.

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