Nutrition: Nutrients, Dietary Guidelines, And Chronic Diseases Free Essay


Nutrition is the study of nutrients in food and the process through which the body accesses them, and how the nutrients affect our body. Foods contain micronutrients and macronutrients, which our bodies need for various needs such as bodybuilding, energy, and disease prevention. To obtain these vital nutrients, humans engage in a sequence of ingestion, digestion, absorption, metabolism, and finally, excretion of waste products. An ideal diet contains adequate energy and enough of each nutrient to prevent malnutrition. Malnutrition is a term describing deficiencies, imbalances, and excesses of one or more nutrients that, on their own or in combination with others, negatively affect an individual’s health (Sizer & Whitney, 2022, p. 4). A balanced diet promotes good health by providing the body with the necessary quantities of micronutrients and micronutrients to function correctly at all stages of life (Verma et al., 2018). This paper explores the importance of macronutrients and micronutrients in the data, the role of dietary guidelines, and the connection between nutrition and chronic illnesses, emphasizing the need for improved nutritional choices.


Macronutrients are the essential nutrients the body requires in large quantities for the proper functioning of the body. There are three classes of macronutrients, namely carbohydrates, proteins, and fats. Carbohydrates function as the primary source of energy for the body. When ingested, carbohydrates are broken down to glucose, which is the main energy source for cells, tissues, and organs in the body. The body obtains carbohydrates from grains, vegetables, fruits, and dairy products. Proteins are crucial in the growth and repair of body cells, tissues, and organs. During digestion, proteins are broken down into amino acids, which are used as the building blocks for the growth and repair of cells. Proteins are obtained from legumes, meat, and most animal products. Fats function as a crucial energy reserve for the body, for the protection of crucial organs, and for insulation from the cold. When the body runs out of carbohydrates, fats are broken down to provide energy (Feinman, 2020). Sources of fats include nuts, seeds, fatty fish, and oils.

Macronutrients are required in large quantities because of their crucial roles in the proper functioning of the body. Deficiencies in macronutrients are associated with adverse health effects predisposing the body to severe health outcomes in the short and long run. Carbohydrate deficiency deprives the body of a crucial energy source leading to weakness, fatigue, and dizziness. Long-term defects include low blood sugar and ketosis, in which the body breaks down fat for energy. Protein deficiency has a wide range of symptoms, such as weakness, muscle wasting, and hair thinning. Long-term protein deficiency causes serious health problems such as liver failure, stunted growth, porous bones, and skin cracking. Fat deficiency causes dry skin and hunger and a high risk of heart disease and colon cancer.

Similarly, overconsumption of macronutrients is associated with poor health outcomes. Excessive consumption of carbohydrates leads to high blood sugar, causing weight gain or metabolic health and a higher risk of cardiovascular diseases. Excess protein causes increased metabolic weight in the kidney and liver and weight gain since excess protein is stored as fats. Excessive fat consumption is associated with a high risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases.

For carbohydrates, a daily recommended intake is 130g from preferably complex carbohydrates instead of simple carbohydrates (Goldenberg et al., 2021). The recommended daily intake of proteins is 0.8 grams for each kilogram of body weight (2.2 pounds), with a minimum of 10% of total calorie intake (Sizer & Whitney, 2022, p. 196). Protein requirements vary due to growth, health status, occupation, body size, and protein quality. Approximately 20 to 35% of daily energy intake should be from fats, translating to about 45 to 75 grams a day (Sizer & Whitney, 2022, p. 152).


Micronutrients are nutrients required by the body in relatively small amounts. There are two main classes of micronutrients, namely vitamins and minerals. Together, these nutrients play crucial roles in crucial body processes, such as metabolism, immune functions, growth, and maintenance of the various organs. Vitamins are organic compounds required for a diverse range of processes in the body. They are named after Vitamin A-K. Within vitamins are two broad classifications of water-soluble, such as vitamin B complex and vitamin C, and fat-soluble, incorporating vitamins A, D, E, and K. Water-soluble vitamins cannot be stored by the body and have to be obtained through the diet. In contrast, fat-soluble vitamins can be stored by the body and may pose the risk of toxicity if excess amounts are stored.

Minerals are inorganic compounds required by the body for various physiological functions. Minerals include magnesium, calcium, iron, zinc, sodium, phosphorous, and iron. They have to be obtained from the diet in the quantities required by the body. Most of the sources that provide the body with macronutrients also contain micronutrients. For instance, whole grains provide the body with carbohydrates, vitamin B, iron, and magnesium. There is a relationship between a deficiency of micronutrients and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, colorectal cancer, and anemia. Globally, iron, vitamin A, and iodine deficiencies are prevalent, especially in children and pregnant women in developing countries. Vitamin D deficiency causes rickets and bone weakness; calcium deficiency causes osteoporosis; vitamin A deficiency leads to impaired vision; iodine deficiency causes goitre and mental retardation; vitamin B12 deficiency causes anemia and impaired brain function.

Recommended daily micronutrient intake varies depending on age, health status, gender, and the body’s physiological condition. Each vitamin and mineral has a particular daily intake for each age and condition of the body. Intakes above the recommended limit could pose a risk of toxicity but are unlikely from dietary intake (Engle‐Stone et al., 2019). Sample daily intakes include 45 mg for iron, ∼3000 μg RE) for vitamin A, (∼100 μg) for vitamin D, 40 mg for zinc, and 2500 mg for calcium (Pike & Zlotkin, 2018). Older adults will typically have a higher requirement for calcium, while pregnant mothers have a higher requirement for iron. Ideal daily quantities will vary, with each recommendation requiring medical advice.

Dietary Guidelines

Dietary guidelines are dietary recommendations that provide evidence-based nutritional advice on healthy eating and physical well-being. These recommendations provide individuals with information to improve their food choices and meet their nutritional requirements. Currently, more than half of adults in the United States have one or more preventable chronic illnesses linked to poor diets and inadequate physical activity (DGA, 2020). By empowering people with information on healthy eating, it is possible to reduce the frequency and degree of chronic health illnesses. An empowered populace can make informed dietary decisions, thus preventing chronic illnesses in the long run. Springmann et al. (2020) found an association between national dietary guidelines and increased health outcomes and environmental sustainability. Crucially, many dietary guidelines are regularly updated to incorporate the latest scientific information on diet and address emerging nutritional issues. These guidelines are used to develop federal nutrition policies, support vulnerable communities strengthen disease prevention initiatives, and inform professional and individual decisions.

In America, the U.S. Department of Agriculture and the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services issue the Dietary Guidelines for Americans every five years. The role of government is to inform policymakers, professionals, stakeholders, and the general public of the importance of healthy diets. Poor nutrition is already a national health disaster that strains the medical facilities available. It would be best to prevent the preventable disease rather than wait until it develops. The government has to safeguard and forewarn the public against preventable diseases.

The Dietary Guidelines for Americans 2020 -2025 offer several recommendations for a healthy diet (Dietary Guidelines, 2020). For instance, added sugars and saturated fats consumption should be less than 10% of calories per day. Consumption of sodium should be less than 2,300 milligrams per day. Alcohol intake is capped at two drinks for men and one for women daily. Preference is given to various nutrient-dense foods such as vegetables, lean proteins, whole grains, and fruits. In addition, healthier sources of carbohydrates such as whole grains, fruits, and vegetables are preferred, with a limited intake of refined grains and sugar.

Chronic illnesses

Chronic diseases are diseases of long-term duration caused by a combination of genetic, physiological, environmental, and behavioural factors. The main chronic diseases are cardiovascular, cancer, chronic respiratory, and diabetes (Ojo, 2019). Nutrition has an important role in the development and management of these diseases. Poor nutrition predisposes an individual to develop chronic illnesses, while proper nutrition prevents and improves chronic disease management outcomes.

Obesity is one of the leading predisposing factors to chronic illnesses such as heart disease and hypertension. Obesity arises from consuming diets high in saturated fat and added sugars. Combined with minimal physical activity and low energy usage, this b. On the other hand, a diet of whole grains, vegetables, fruits, healthy sources of proteins, and physical activity reduces the chances of obesity and associated chronic diseases.

Diabetes type 2 is caused by the accumulation of blood sugar where the body cannot make enough or effective insulin. Excessive blood sugar causes damage to blood vessels, nerves, heart, eyes, and kidneys. Nutrition helps to manage diabetes, where a diet of non-starchy vegetables such as broccoli, minimal added sugars, and whole grains over processed foods is preferred. Carbohydrates should be consumed in complex forms and often along with protein, fat, and fibre to slow the spike in sugar levels. Micronutrients such as magnesium and zinc increase insulin sensitivity, thus helping manage blood sugar levels (Hamedifard et al., 2020).

Heart disease is a class of chronic diseases closely related to nutrition. Poor diets characterized by saturated fats, high cholesterol, and trans fats are some of the leading causes of heart disease. In addition, lack of physical exercise, excessive alcohol consumption, and smoking are significant predisposing factors. Consideration of total dietary patterns with nutrient-based targets is crucial in managing cardiovascular diseases (Bowen et al., 2018). Heart-friendly diets include large servings of vegetables, whole grains, fruits, lean proteins, and healthy fats. Such diets can help lower cholesterol levels and significantly reduce heart disease risk.

The Mediterranean diet is based on the foods eaten by people from the Mediterranean region who are exceptionally healthy and have a low risk of many chronic conditions. This diet comprises healthy doses of vegetables, fruits, nuts, seeds, whole grains, and seafood. Poultry, yogurt, eggs, and cheese are taken in moderation. Red meat, sugar-sweetened beverages, added sugars, and refined foods are rarely taken. The benefits of this diet include reduced risk of multiple chronic illnesses and increased life expectancy (Martínez-González et al., 2019). The DASH (Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension) diet is designed to treat or prevent hypertension. This diet has large portions of potassium, magnesium, and calcium with limited sodium, added sugars, and saturated fats. Guo et al. (2021) found that the Das diet can reduce patients’ blood pressure, waist, and triglyceride concentration. Top of Form


Nutrition is an umbrella term that describes the nutrient content of food and the way our body interacts with these nutrients. Macronutrients are the nutrients our bodies require in large amounts, while micronutrients are those we need in small amounts. A balanced diet involves sufficient amounts in each category to meet the body’s requirements. Overconsumption, underconsumption, and nutrient deficiency have negative outcomes on the well-being of an individual. Nutrition is intrinsically linked to most chronic diseases, such as diabetes, hypertension, and obesity. Each person is responsible for making informed and appropriate dietary choices to maintain well-being and prevent diseases. Many governments issue evidence-based dietary guidelines which improve the quality of dietary decisions and policies. Nutritional studies will focus on increasing awareness, reducing cost, and improving the availability of healthy diets characterized by few processed products and added sugars. Governments and public policy formulators will have to adopt bold policies to reduce the prices of foods and added sugars for the benefit of all.


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Feinman, R. D. (2020). The biochemistry of low-carbohydrate and ketogenic diets. Current Opinion in Endocrinology, Diabetes & Obesity27(5), 261-268.

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Guo, R., Li, N., Yang, R., Liao, X., Zhang, Y., Zhu, B., Zhao, Q., Chen, L., Zhang, Y., & Lei, Y. (2021). Effects of the modified DASH diet on adults with elevated blood pressure or hypertension: A systematic review and meta-analysis. Frontiers in Nutrition8.

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Ownership Structure – Elvern Essay Sample For College


Entrepreneurs should consider the business forms and underlying features. Through extensive assessment, rational decisions can be made. For Elvern starting the PPP operations calls for consideration of the business structures. Accordingly, they display unique advantages and disadvantages. Sole proprietorships, corporations and partnerships are viable options providing an enabling platform for operations. Assessing facets such as regulations to start the business, raising equity or additional finances and what occurs upon the demise of the entrepreneur should form the basis for selection. Therefore, an in-depth evaluation should highlight the best decisions.


Corporations are sometimes known as regular C-Corporation. It is different from sole business and partnerships because it is referred to as a legal entity separate from the parties who own them. For Elvern, the PPP company will be considered a person who can enter into binding agreements, buy and sell properties, and sue and be sued (Rashid, 2020). The business can be held accountable for its actions and taxed once the organization reaches a substantial size. Elvern should organize it as a corporation for its owners to limit their liability.

The beneficial aspect of the corporation is the limited liability for Elvern. He is protected from legal redress and defaults on corporate debts. Further, the owners can opt on how the taxes are paid. With most States not enforcing annual meetings, it is a prudent approach to allow flexibility in decision-making. Further, the shareholders are unlimited in number allowing for accessibility to finances. Elvern can relinquish ownership by diluting his ownership stake by enjoying a wide scope of finances.

Additionally, preferential treatment by the bank can prevail due to its existence as a separate entity (Sahasranamam et al., 2020). The owners are limited in their ability to engage in the irresponsible act in the company’s name. For example, the owners may not withdraw from the company coffers due to their fiduciary obligation to the shareholders and creditors.

However, a major drawback of the corporation for Elvern is the dilution of decision-making. His start-up requires independence in determining its path. Nonetheless, the minimal independence will lead to conflicts, especially in putting his ideas forward (Sahasranamam et al., 2020). The obligation to the shareholders leads to limits to risk-taking. Management authority can be taken from Elvern, which may impede his ideas.


A partnership is an organization owned jointly by two or more individuals. Rashid (2020) emphasizes that approximately 10% of US businesses are partnerships. Despite the majority being small, some can be extensive. Elvern should consider the value of partnerships since they provide an opportunity for professional synergy. Accordingly, at least four big accounting firms, Price Water House Cooper and Deloitte are partners (Sahasranamam et al., 2020). Therefore, it is relatively easy to form and operate a partnership. A partnership deed, agreement and contract are necessary for its formation. Elvern should consider the agreement’s details, such as responsibilities, conditions for formation, division of responsibilities and conflict resolution. However, the cost of forming the partnership varies depending on the degree of complexity.

Nonetheless, Elvern should be concerned by the basic drawback of the partnership of conflict of interest in decision making. Bureaucracy can impede major decisions, especially in starting his business PPP. Of critical additionally, in an unlimited liability partnership, the mistake of one can affect the others. Loss of a business can happen, leading to its collapse. Moreover, partners share profits and may feel they are being exploited for their diversity in input. The risks of losing the partnership mainly emanate from the lawsuit from disputes. With owners not always agreeing on decisions, Elvern should not consider the partnership.

Best option – Sole proprietorship

A sole proprietor is the best decision for Elvern since it allows for independence. As an entrepreneur, the value of sole ownership emanates from decision-making competence. Within the operational mandate is the control over operations. Responsibility for the daily operations should rest on Elvern since the PPP is his idea during its commencement. At least for six months, the authority should allow. Managerial oversight and the parameters of income management are flexible (Sahasranamam et al., 2020). The profits are also taxed as personal income, eradicating the liability from special federal and income taxes (Sahasranamam et al., 2020).

Even with this, the sole proprietorship can limit Elvern from accessing multiple forms of finances. From shareholder equity to banks sometimes fearing the sole business, limit to the loans can prevail. Elvern will bear unlimited liability for any losses detrimental to personal finances. The business incurs debts and may grapple with the financial irresponsibility of Elvern (Sahasranamam et al., 2020). When Elvern is sued for misconduct, liability can be transferred to personal property. Lessening the risk of liability through insurance can steal lead to substantial exposure.


Starting a new business requires diligence and extensive research on the best options. Elvern starting the PPP business requires consideration of the viability of the partnerships and corporations for their limited liability in some instances. However, as his innovative idea, managerial control and independence is a beneficial aspect that shapes its best option. The principles of flexibility in decision-making should translate into a business that he controls considerably.


Rashid, M. M. (2020). Ownership structure and firm performance: the mediating role of board characteristics. Corporate Governance: The International Journal of Business in Society20(4), 719-737.

Sahasranamam, S., Arya, B., & Sud, M. (2020). Ownership structure and corporate social responsibility in an emerging market. Asia Pacific Journal of Management37, 1165-1192.

Paradox Of Luxury Goods Essay Example

Atwal and Williams (2017) examine the importance of consumer experience in luxury brand marketing. The article discusses key themes and concepts in luxury brand management, such as the role of heritage, authenticity, and exclusivity in luxury branding, as well as the shift towards experiential marketing and the importance of emotional engagement with consumers. The authors provide a comprehensive review of previous research on luxury brand marketing, highlighting the need for a more customer-centric approach that focuses on building relationships with consumers and creating unique, memorable experiences that reflect the brand’s values and identity (Atwal & Williams, 2017, p. 52). The article identifies several gaps in the literature, such as the need for more empirical research on the impact of experiential marketing on consumer behavior and the need to understand better the role of technology and social media in shaping luxury brand experiences. Overall, this article provides valuable insights for luxury brand managers and marketers looking to create meaningful and engaging consumer experiences.

Chailan (2018) explores the use of art to recreate luxury brands’ rarity and value, examining how luxury brands can use art collaborations to enhance their brand image and strengthen their market position. The author notes that luxury brands have traditionally relied on rarity and exclusivity to create value for consumers (Chailan, 2018, p. 418). Chailan’s study offers findings that contribute to this gap in the literature, specifically highlighting the potential for art collaborations to create a sense of exclusivity and rarity that aligns with luxury brand values. This article leads into a discussion of the implications of these findings for luxury brands seeking to use art collaborations to enhance their brand image and market position.

Chandon, Laurent, and Valette-Florence’s (2016) article introduces the special issue of the Journal of Business Research on “Luxury Marketing from Tradition to Innovation.” The authors argue that luxury is a complex and multifaceted concept that requires a multidisciplinary approach to understand its various dimensions and the motivations of luxury consumers. The article highlights previous research on luxury marketing, including studies on luxury’s symbolic and functional value, the impact of social and cultural factors on luxury consumption, and the role of innovation in shaping the luxury market. The authors also identify gaps in the literature on luxury marketing, such as the need for a better understanding of the symbolic and experiential aspects of luxury, the impact of digitalization on luxury consumption, and the role of luxury in shaping consumers’ identities and social status (Chandon et al., 2016, p. 300). This article provides insights into the challenges and opportunities in studying luxury marketing, and it calls for a more interdisciplinary and holistic approach to understanding the concept of luxury. These findings can inform future research on luxury marketing and provide a foundation for developing effective marketing strategies to meet luxury consumers’ changing demands and expectations.

Christodoulides et al. (2021) examine new forms of luxury consumption in the sharing economy, exploring how the rise of sharing platforms changes how consumers engage with luxury brands. The authors note that while luxury brands have traditionally been associated with exclusivity and ownership, the sharing economy challenges these values by allowing consumers to access luxury goods without needing ownership (Christodoulides et al., 2021, p. 95). The authors highlight the potential for these new forms of consumption to benefit consumers and luxury brands but also note the importance of managing the potential risks associated with sharing platforms. This article leads into a discussion of the implications of these findings for luxury brands seeking to navigate the challenges and opportunities presented by the sharing economy.

Christodoulides and Michaelidou’s (2022) article provides a guest editorial on advancing research on global luxury consumption. The authors argue that luxury consumption is a complex and dynamic phenomenon that requires a multidisciplinary approach and that current research on luxury consumption has limitations that must be addressed. The article highlights previous research on luxury consumption, including studies on the drivers of luxury consumption. The authors also identify gaps in the literature on luxury consumption, such as the need for a more nuanced understanding of luxury consumers’ diverse motivations and behaviors, the impact of cultural differences on luxury consumption, and the role of luxury in shaping social identity and status (Christodoulides & Michaelidou, 2022, p. 147). This article provides insights into the challenges and opportunities in advancing research on luxury consumption. It calls for a more integrative and multidisciplinary approach to studying luxury consumption in a global context. These findings can inform future research on luxury consumption and provide a foundation for developing effective marketing strategies to meet luxury consumers’ changing demands and expectations.

Cristina and Elena argue that the definition of luxury has evolved, and consumers now associate it with exceptional quality rather than rarity or exclusivity. They suggest that luxury goods manufacturers prioritize quality over quantity to maintain their brand reputation and justify their high prices. The authors provide examples of luxury brands that have succeeded or failed in preserving quality and suggest that consumers are willing to pay a premium for products perceived as genuinely luxurious (Cristina & Elena, 2018, p. 261). This article makes a valuable contribution to luxury branding by emphasizing the significance of quality in high-end products.

De Mooij explores the paradoxes and cultural differences in global marketing and advertising. The book focuses on how cultural differences affect communication strategies and highlights the importance of understanding cultural contradictions in developing effective global marketing and advertising campaigns. The author draws on previous research in cross-cultural communication and international marketing to provide insights into the challenges and opportunities presented by cultural differences (De Mooij, 2021, p. 63). The findings highlight the importance of adapting marketing and advertising strategies to local cultures and overcoming cultural paradoxes to engage with consumers effectively. This research could provide fresh insights by exploring specific cultural paradoxes in the context of luxury marketing and advertising.

Delpal’s (2021) article examines the different determinants that drive consumers’ purchasing behaviors of luxury goods online across countries. The article provides a comprehensive overview of the critical drivers of luxury online shopping, such as trust, convenience, and risk. Previous research on luxury consumption has primarily focused on the offline market, and more research needs to be conducted on the online market. The study found that consumers’ purchasing behavior differs across countries and that cultural values significantly impact decision-making (Delpal, 2021, p. 32). The study provides valuable insights into the factors influencing luxury online shopping and highlights the need for companies to adapt their online strategies to cater to different cultural backgrounds. Thus, the article provides a fresh perspective on the determinants of online luxury shopping and highlights the need for further research in this area.

Elena-Iulia’s (2020) article examines the personal luxury goods market, focusing on luxury consumers’ motivations, preferences, and behaviors. The article discusses the growing importance of personal luxury goods in the global economy and the factors that drive consumer demand for luxury products, such as social status, brand image, and emotional gratification. The study also highlights previous research on the luxury market, including the role of globalization and digitalization in shaping luxury consumption. The findings suggest that luxury consumers value authenticity, craftsmanship, and heritage when choosing luxury products and are increasingly conscious of their consumption choices’ social and environmental impact (Elena-Iulia, 2020, p. 37). This article contributes to the personal luxury goods market literature by providing insights into the evolving nature of luxury consumption and the impact of global trends on consumer behavior. These findings can inform marketers and businesses in developing strategies to meet luxury consumers’ changing demands and expectations.

This study by Geiger-Oneto and Minton (2019) examines the moral halo effect to understand how religiosity relates to a high-end product purchase. The study finds that more religious individuals perceive luxury goods as more morally positive and attribute more excellent social value to them than less religious individuals (Geiger-Oneto & Minton, 2019, p. 2537). This suggests that religiosity plays a significant role in shaping consumers’ attitudes toward luxury goods and that a moral dimension to luxury consumption may not be fully explored. The authors call for further research to examine the implications of their findings for marketing luxury goods and services.

As a Master’s thesis, Henriques’ study aims to explore the digital marketing strategies of luxury brands. The author provides an overview of the current state of the luxury market and highlights the growing importance of digital channels for luxury brand marketing. Through a review of previous luxury and digital marketing research, Henriques identifies gaps in the literature regarding the specific digital marketing strategies that luxury brands employ (Henriques, 2022, p. 64). The author’s research seeks to fill this gap by conducting a case study analysis of the digital marketing strategies of four luxury brands, ultimately aiming to provide insights into how luxury brands can use digital marketing to enhance brand equity and customer engagement. This study can provide valuable insights into luxury brands’ evolving digital marketing strategies and may help identify new opportunities for these brands to engage with consumers in the digital age.

The article by Hietanen et al. (2018) explores the paradoxical relationship between knockoffs, counterfeits, and luxury brands. They examine how these imitation products can act as doppelgänger brand images, which mimic the characteristics of luxury brands while at the same time highlighting their flaws and creating a tension between authenticity and imitation. The authors draw on previous research on paradox and market renewal to explore how knockoffs and counterfeits can challenge and reinforce luxury brands’ legitimacy. They propose a framework for understanding this complex relationship (Hietanen et al., 2018, p. 759). This article provides insights into how consumers perceive and evaluate luxury brands and their imitations. In doing so, it stresses the significance of thinking about the function of fakes in the high-end market.

Hou et al. (2020) article discusses the problem of copycatting in the luxury market and proposes the concept of “fighter brands” as a strategy to combat this issue. The authors argue that luxury brands can create a fighter brand, which is a lower-priced and more accessible version of the luxury brand, to satisfy the demand of price-sensitive consumers while still maintaining the exclusivity and prestige of the luxury brand. The authors draw upon previous research on brand extensions, brand architecture, and pricing strategies to support their argument (Hou et al., 2020, p. 64). The article provides fresh insights into the potential benefits of fighter brands in the luxury market. It offers a new perspective on how luxury brands can maintain brand equity while expanding their customer base.

Kapferer and Laurent (2016) investigate where consumers believe luxury begins by studying the minimum price points consumers associate with 21 luxury goods in seven countries. The authors explore previous research on the definition of luxury, its relationship with price, and how different cultural backgrounds shape how people think about luxury products. The study finds that the minimal acceptable cost of luxury goods varies significantly across countries and categories, indicating the importance of cultural context in defining luxury (Kapferer & Laurent, 2016, p. 338). The authors provide insights into the potential implications of these findings for luxury brands’ pricing strategies and positioning. While the study provides valuable insights into the perception of luxury across different countries, it needs to delve into the underlying psychological factors influencing consumers’ perception of luxury, leaving a gap for further research.

In an article by Kasztalska (2017), the author provides an overview of the economic theory of luxury goods. The main themes discussed include the definition of luxury goods, the factors affecting the demand for luxury goods, the concept of the Veblen effect, and the impact of income and wealth distribution on the market for luxury goods. The author highlights the previous research on the economic theory of luxury goods, including the works of Adam Smith, Thorstein Veblen, and Pierre Bourdieu (Kasztalska, 2017, p. 83). The article concludes with a discussion of the implications of the economic theory of luxury goods for marketers and policymakers. While the report provides a comprehensive review of the economic theory of luxury goods, there is a need for further research on the connection between luxury goods and profound economic development.

Kim (2019) investigates the ownership and collecting behavior of luxury fashion goods in an omnichannel retail environment among affluent consumers in the US. The study explores the relationship between the perception of luxury fashion goods and collecting behavior, the effect of social media on ownership and managing behavior, and the differences in behavior between online and offline shoppers. Kim’s study adds to previous research by examining luxury fashion goods in an omnichannel retail environment and highlighting the importance of social media in influencing ownership and collecting behavior (Kim, 2019, p. 73). The study’s findings suggest that luxury fashion goods are perceived as a symbol of social status and that collecting behavior is influenced by personal interests, emotional attachment, and socialization. Additionally, the study finds that social media positively affects both ownership and managing behavior and that online shoppers have a higher tendency to collect and own luxury fashion goods.

Kim et al. (2022) address the paradoxical relationship between luxury brands and cause-related marketing (CRM), which has been identified as a potential challenge for luxury brands in engaging in prosocial behavior. The authors propose a theoretical framework to help luxury brands increase their prosocial behavior and enhance their consumers’ well-being while maintaining their luxury image. They build upon previous research that has examined the effectiveness of CRM for non-luxury brands and explore how the paradoxical relationship between luxury and social causes can be resolved (Kim et al., 2022, p. 626). The authors also identify a gap in the literature on how luxury brands can balance their pursuit of profits with their responsibility to society. They also suggest their proposed framework can provide fresh insights into this issue. The article concludes by outlining the implications of their findings for luxury brand managers and highlighting avenues for future research.

Kim and Wingate (2017) investigated the influence of brand breadth on consumer perceptions and evaluations in the luxury market. They found that narrow luxury brands, which focus on a specific product category, are perceived as more prestigious and are associated with higher quality and higher prices than broader luxury brands that offer a wider range of products. They also found that broader luxury brands enjoy greater brand awareness and brand loyalty among consumers (Kim & Wingate, 2017, p. 462). Their study adds to previous research on luxury brand management and provides insights into the importance of brand breadth in the luxury market.

Krajnović et al. (2021) explore luxury product branding and the significance of brand identity and communication in building and sustaining a luxury image. They emphasize the role of elements such as exclusivity, heritage, craftsmanship, and consistent communication across various touchpoints to reinforce the brand image (Krajnović et al., 2021, p. 34). The article’s findings have important implications for luxury brand managers and provide a foundation for further research into the branding strategies of luxury products. This article adds new insights into the specific features of luxury product branding. Its findings are valuable to luxury brand managers and serve as a basis for further research into luxury product branding strategies.

The article by Mrad et al. (2022) focuses on understanding luxury experiences and the perspectives of both customers and managers. The study investigates the key elements that create a luxury experience and how they are managed to ensure customer satisfaction. Previous research has explored luxury consumption, branding, and the paradox of luxury goods, but this article aims to provide a more in-depth understanding of luxury experiences. The findings reveal that a luxury experience is created by carefully selecting tangible and intangible elements, such as the physical environment, employee behavior, and sensory stimuli (Mrad et al., 2022, p. 1342). The study also highlights the importance of customer feedback in managing luxury experiences. The research provides fresh insights into managing luxury experiences, a critical study area given the increasing demand for luxury experiences in the market. The findings have implications for luxury brand managers and practitioners, as they provide insights into managing and delivering successful luxury experiences.

In an article by Parguel et al. (2014), the authors explore the impact of price display on consumer perceptions of luxury from a “masstige” (mass prestige) perspective. Key themes include the role of price in shaping consumer perceptions of luxury, the importance of balancing accessibility and exclusivity in the masstige market, and the potential for price displays to affect consumer perceptions of brand prestige. The article builds on previous research on luxury consumption and pricing strategies, highlighting the challenges and opportunities associated with marketing masstige products (Parguel et al., 2014, p. 95). The findings suggest that price display can significantly impact consumers’ perceptions of luxury and that marketers should carefully consider how to balance accessibility and exclusivity in their pricing and branding strategies. This article provides valuable insights into the paradox of luxury goods and the challenges luxury brands face in appealing to a broader consumer base while maintaining prestige and exclusivity.

Rathi et al. (2022) conducted a bibliometric analysis to trace the evolution of the luxury marketing landscape, identifying key themes and trends in scholarly research on luxury marketing over the past few decades. The authors found that research on luxury marketing has shifted from focusing on traditional luxury goods to including areas such as experiential luxury and luxury services (Rathi et al., 2022, p. 252). The study also identified several gaps in the current literature, including the need for more research on emerging luxury markets and the role of social media in luxury brand management. The authors suggest that future research explore these areas to understand the changing dynamics of luxury marketing better.

The thesis by Ribeiro (2017) explores the motivations behind consumers’ purchase of luxury shoes, bags, and watches, explicitly examining the link between the need for luxury accessories and one’s self-concept. The study reviews previous literature on luxury consumption, self-concept, and motivation. It proposes a conceptual model to investigate the relationship between self-concept, the need for luxury, and purchase intention. The findings suggest that individuals with higher self-esteem are more likely to desire and purchase luxury items for self-expression and identity construction (Ribeiro, 2017, p. 334). The study contributes to the literature on luxury consumption by examining the role of self-concept in consumers’ purchase decisions. There needs to be more literature for further research examining the role of self-concept in luxury consumption across various product categories and among diverse consumer groups.

Veloutsou, Christodoulides, and Guzmán’s (2022) article reviews the state of research on international luxury marketing, identifying key themes and gaps in the literature. The authors highlight studies on luxury consumption drivers, digital technologies’ impact on the luxury market, and cultural differences in luxury marketing. They call for a more comprehensive and comparative approach to studying luxury marketing across cultures and regions, emphasizing the need for interdisciplinary and collaborative research. This article’s insights inform researchers and practitioners in the luxury industry and guide future research on international luxury marketing.

Wong and Dhanesh explore the challenges of communicating CSR initiatives in the luxury industry. Wong and Dhanesh (2017, 110) argue that luxury brands face a “CSR-luxury paradox” because the values associated with luxury (such as exclusivity and indulgence) may conflict with the values of CSR (such as social responsibility). Through a case study of three luxury brands, Wong and Dhanesh investigate how luxury brands can navigate this paradox through acceptance strategies of coexistence and convergence, which involve communicating CSR initiatives in a way that aligns with luxury values. While this study provides insights into how luxury brands can address the CSR-luxury paradox, there needs to be more literature on how consumers perceive these communication strategies and their effectiveness in promoting good behavior among consumers.

Zaharia and Zaharia’s (2015) article focuses on the psychology of luxury goods consumers. The authors discuss the paradox of luxury goods, where consumers’ desire for exclusivity and status through luxury purchases is contradicted by the growing accessibility and prevalence of these products in the market. The article highlights previous research on the motivations behind luxury consumption, such as status signaling, self-expression, and hedonism. The authors also examine the impact of social and cultural factors on luxury consumption, including the influence of social class, income, and cultural values. The study finds that luxury consumption can serve both functional and symbolic purposes, with consumers using luxury goods to satisfy their needs for self-expression, identity, and social recognition (Zaharia & Zaharia, 2015, p. 203). This article provides insights into the motivations and behaviors of luxury consumers, addressing gaps in the literature on the paradoxical nature of luxury consumption and the impact of social and cultural factors on luxury consumption. These findings can inform marketers and businesses in understanding and targeting the luxury consumer market.


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