Nutrition Research With Reference To Colorectal Cancer Free Essay

There is a growing research interest in the Health aspects of Nutrition. Methods of alleviating the diseases or potentially life-threatening conditions without any side effects could be possible with Nutrition. The present description is concerned with evaluating the validity and reliability of Nutrition research with reference to colorectal cancer. This is a kind of multifactorial disease with various etiological factors connected to diet, physical activity and hormonal changes. In the recent period, there are certain discrepancies with regard to the efficacy of dietary patterns to minimize the risk of colon cancer. To this end, a large study was conducted to investigate the diet patterns associated with the risk of malignant and benign colorectal tumors among women (Emmanuelle, Françoise, & Marie, 2006). This study has a large sample size of 516 adenoma cases that has 175 high-risk adenomas and 4,804 polyp-free women and in 172 colorectal cancer cases and 67,312 cancer-free women. This could indicate that the investigators have better-grouped individuals in order to make a significant comparison between the cases and controls. Hence, the study design is very much reliable enough to make it worth fitting for significant data. Although cancer-free women outweigh the number of patients with characteristic signs of cancer, the sample design is still perfect. In addition, the study is cohort-based and involved a long period of data collection between June 1993 and July 1995. The authors were scientifically logical as they have categorized dietary patterns into four types as healthy that comprises of vegetables, fruit, yogurt, sea products, and olive oil, Western that has potatoes, pizzas and pies, sandwiches, sweets, cakes, cheese, cereal products, processed meat, eggs, and butter; Drinker that comprises of sandwiches, snacks, processed meat, and alcoholic beverages and “meat eaters that constitutes meat, poultry, and margarine. (Emmanuelle, Françoise, & Marie, 2006).

It is important to note that confounding factors were taken into consideration by focusing on total daily energy intake from the diet as a continuous variable, body mass index as a continuous variable, family history of colorectal cancer, physical activity, weekly tobacco status, etc.

The methodology followed in this study design has led to a significant finding at (95% confidence interval, p=0.003) where it was revealed that western dietary patterns are associated with increased risk of cancer. This study is very much in agreement with the standard research methodologies and suggests intervention strategies to minimize the effect of dietary patterns associated with the western style. However, there is also a need to explore the role of some of the diet constituents that may play an influential role in lessening the incidence of colorectal cancer incidence rates. Recently, it was reported that soy-based food products have cancer-fighting properties (Gong Yang et al., 2009). This was revealed where a large cohort study involving 68 412 cancer and diabetes-free women was conducted in the period between 1997-2000. Here, although the study period was less compared to the earlier study, a follow-up was implicated for two years between 2000 and 2002 (Gong Yang et al., 2009). The experimental design of this study is reliable as it involved a questionnaire on 11 soy food items. This strategy could better enable the collection of data on the efficacy of a range of soy products. As such, the article is having scientific cogency in validating the hypothesis that intake of soy and certain soy constituents may reduce the risk of colorectal cancer in women (Gong Yang et al., 2009). Further, in order to avoid the role of confounding parameters, the study group has excluded exogenous hormones on the effect of soy or soy isoflavone intake and in turn included potential effect modification by age, BMI, physical activity, menopausal status, other dietary factors such as intake of red meat, fruits and vegetables, fiber, calcium, and folic acid, as well as tumor anatomic subsite (colon versus rectum) (Gong Yang et al., 2009). This study has obtained significant (95 % confidence interval) results that indicated that soy could reduce the incidence of cancer. The experimental design is in agreement with the findings obtained and also supports the earlier study on dietary patterns with regard to the sample size. Hence, the consumption of soy may be largely recommended. The above-mentioned studies have better implications for modernizing the cancer treatment strategies and may need to be implemented in an evidence-based approach.

References

  1. Emmanuelle Kesse, Françoise Clavel-Chapelon, Marie-Christine Boutron-Ruault.(2006).Dietary patterns and risk of colorectal tumors: a cohort of French women of the National Education System (E3N).Am J Epidemiol,164,1085–1093.
  2.  Gong Yang, Xiao-Ou Shu, Honglan Li, Wong-Ho Chow, Hui Cai, Xianglan Zhang, Yu-Tang
  3. Gao, and Wei Zheng (2009).Prospective Cohort Study of Soy Food Intake and Colorectal Cancer Risk in Women. Am J Clin Nutr.89, 577–583.

The Super Smart Jacket In Use

The Super Smart Jacket is a wearable computing deivice that resembles an average casual jacket
Figure 1. The Super Smart Jacket is a wearable computing deivice that resembles an average casual jacket

Figure 2
Figure 2

Introduction

According to the UK drink driving statistics (2010), over 3000 people are either killed or seriously injured in accidents related to drink driving. The problem with alcohol is that the more an individual consumes, the more confident he or she gets and consequently the more risks he or she is willing to take on the road. Most people when sober would outrightly condemn the act of driving under the influence of alcohol but once they go out ostensibly to have fun, the temptation to personally drive back home is usually overwhelming. This was the main criterion that guided the design of a jacket that would not only serve the purpose that a jacket is supposed to but would also help protect individuals from making the irrational decision of driving under the influence. This paper analysis the concept of the design, gives a scenario of the jacket in use and analyses the advantages and disadvantages of the jacket here-in referred to as the Super Smart Jacket.

Design concept (Fig. 1)

The Super Smart jacket is to be made of normal clothing material with washable computing fibers integrated into the meshwork. This is because of the fact that as much as the aspect of creating a technologically savvy piece is the main idea, functionability has to be considered as well (Mann 1996). The key components which are to be embedded into the jacket include the sensor unit, the processor and the USB interface port. Sensors will be incorporated within the material to serve the purpose of detecting changes in various body functions and direct the data obtained to a processing unit. For instance, a tiny microphone will be installed in the jacket to record all aspects of speech such as pitch, volume and the amount of slur. A stability sensor will also be installed to record the resistance to change in position of the individual hence determine the stability of the wearer. With technology coming in, a micro-breathalyzer will be installed preferably at the collar and this will detect the amount of alcohol consumed. At a separate corner of the jacket, a processor is fixed to handle the process of analyzing the data before sending out a desired response wirelessly to another system that will make the wearer’s car unusable for a certain amount of time. To link the processor to the sensors is a system of fibers forming a data bus. A micro-USB port will also be included in the system to serve as an interface between the wearer and the computing system.

Operation of the Super Smart Jacket (Scenario) (Fig. 2)

An individual owning a Super Smart Jacket can wear it on a night out. Since the computing systems are very small, they don’t change the level of comfort that one expects from a casual jacket. The wearer then goes ahead to indulge in consumption of alcohol. Meanwhile the breathalyzer, the voice sensors and stability sensors are picking up every detail that they are designed to. The collected information is sent to the processor via the data bus. The processor analyses the levels of change in speech patterns, the levels of alcohol consumed and the stability in the walk of the wearer and compares it with preset installed data for calculating the amount inebriation. Once the levels reach a mark that indicates the inability of the individual to drive, a signal is sent via satellite to another electronic system pre-installed in the car which is designed to lock the ignition completely. Another signal is sent to the mobile phone of a close confidant of the individual in the form of a text message requesting transport assistance and revealing the location of the wearer using the global positioning system, GPS (Mann 1997). A third signal is continuously sent wirelessly to a computer at home and the wearer can log in to analyze the information. Once the individual has been picked up by his friend or by a taxi and has arrived home safely, he can plug in the jacket to the computer via the micro-USB interface and send a signal that will unlock the car which can be picked up at a later time.

Interaction description (Fig. 2)

There are two ways via which the wearer can interact with the super smart jacket. These are the wireless system and direct connection to a computer via the micro-USB hub. Once the car system has been locked, it can only be unlocked from a specific computer that the wearer has chosen as center of operations. The wearer has to connect the jacket to the computer via USB cables and send in the necessary instruction to unlock the car drive system. The wireless system indirectly interacts with the wearer of the jacket by carrying out the most appropriate action for the moment on behalf of the individual. The wearer can also send information wirelessly to the system in the case a car robbery happens with the car still inside thereby rendering the car unusable.

Advantages of the Super-Smart Jacket

The super smart jacket, seeing that it is made of regular clothing material with microscopic installation of the computing system, is as comfortable and functional as any other jacket. However, it serves the very crucial function of keeping the wearer away from drink driving by automatically limiting the operations of the car. Since the individual has to first get home to a computer that has been installed with particular software that supports the jacket, he has no option but to wait for someone to come and pick him up or take the only other alternative, that is a taxi.

Since the jacket is constantly sending information via a wireless system to a computer at home, it will come in handy in tracking kidnap victims. This is because more often than not, kidnappers will discard their victim’s phone in a bid to shake off trackers but would almost never think of taking off the victim’s clothing. As such, once authorities have been notified of a kidnap case, appropriate equipment can be used to intercept the signal from the Super Smart Jacket and use it to locate the individual.

The system can also be used to intentionally render the car unusable should it be stolen in hijacking cases. All the wearer has to do is wirelessly send appropriate instruction to lock the car ignition from the computer at home. Once the car has been abandoned, the system can then be unlocked and the car collected appropriately.

The inbuilt microphone can also serve to record conversations which are then stored in a computer that is located miles away. This can be used by practitioners of the media profession when seeking to gather secret information that is relevant to the public from an area where they are not allowed to carry recording tools into. In a way, the jacket will serve as a spying device.

Limitations

The cost of producing one such jacket is quite on the higher side. In order to make processors, sensors and washable conducting fibers that are small enough to fit unnoticeably within the jacket material and at the same time carry out all the desired computing functions, a large sum of money has to be invested; a condition that will make mass production of the jacket an impossibility. As well, communication installations have to be made of wireless services supporting the specific needs of the jacket.

The jacket is only functional as long as someone is wearing it. From the scenario above, if the wearer were to feel hot and decide to take off the jacket earlier in the evening, the car lock system will not be activated and as such, he can freely drive home. The upside is that chances are on the higher side that the individual might take the jacket off while drinking but still wear it enroute to the car. In this case, the breathalyzer will automatically kick in and intervene before the wearer gets behind the wheel.

The jacket can also not work alone in this role of preventing drink driving. A specific system has to be installed in the car that will respond to the particular signal emanating from the jacket. This therefore means that while there maybe enough motivation to actualize the super smart jacket design, car manufacturers may not buy into the idea of spending extra money in the installation of a computing system within new cars that will only be useful to individuals who drink.

In the same way that the inbuilt sensors are helpful, they can serve to infringe on the privacy of the wearer. Since information is sent wirelessly from the jacket, the signal can be intercepted by unscrupulous individuals with the necessary equipment. These individuals can then easily listen in to private conversations and even track the movement of the wearer should they intend to inflict bodily harm (Kohler 1964).

Other possible uses of the ‘Super Smart Jacket’ concept

The concept of a wearable computing device can be put to use in many other different ways. For instance, sensors can be incorporated into the jacket to record the vital statistics of individuals with heart diseases. Once the heart functions reach an un desired level, a message can be sent wirelessly to the mobile phone of the wearer alerting him to address the situation on adequately. The same can be used in hospitals to monitor the conditions of ICU patients such that it does not require a person to stay in the room physically monitoring the vital details of the patient. A patient gown can be designed to alert nurses of a dangerous change in the patient’s vital statistics via short messages to their mobile phones.

Conclusion

The Super Smart Jacket is a wearable computing device which if successfully integrated into the market, can help in reducing the number of drink driving incidents on the roads. This is because statistical evidence has proven that human beings are subject to time and again make unintelligible decisions; decisions that are mostly very hard to walk away from. The concept of the Super Smart Jacket once actualized will aid in making appropriate decisions even when the individual’s thought processes have been impaired by alcohol. Technology is a gradually changing field and with time the necessary electronic advancement will have been made to enable the realization of concepts such as the one that has been described above (Dolezal 1982).

Reference List

Dolezal, H, 1982, Living in a world transformed: Academic press series in cognition and perception, Academic press, Chicago, Illinois.

Kohler, I, 1964, The formation and transformation of the perceptual world, volume 3, Psychological issues, International University press, 227 West 13 Street.

Mann, S, 1996, ‘Smart clothing’, The shift to wearable computing, Communications of the ACM, pages 23—24.

Mann,S, 1997, The wearable computer and the wearcam, Springer, Web.

WCCL 2010, Uk drink driving statitstics.WCCL, Web.

The Role Of Media In The Courtroom

Introduction

Freedom is considered to be the principle concept in the democratic functioning society; the rights of free expression through the media are reflected in major aspects of social, economical and political life, as well as the system of justice. The role of media in the courtroom is merely determined through its influence on the public; it is a kind of instrument controlling social opinion and providing impact not only on people but also on the victims and the defendants. The problem of afree press and fair trial is considered to be centralized in the USA and other countries, where the government strives to protect national rights and freedoms. The introduction of a court media coordinator is one of the most appropriate ways out of the contradiction between the press and the system of justice, together with ‘voir dire’ process and hearings privacy, as these aspects are not aimed at rights and freedom pressure of both parties of the conflict, but protect them form prejudiced interference.

The solution to Problem: Media Coordinator

Media Coordinator is always appointed by general decision of the Supreme Court, selecting from a wide list of representatives offered by news media designated. It is necessary to underline the fact that the contact and productive cooperation of the court and the media are fulfilled through media coordinator; in such cases the Supreme Court usually designates the media coordinator jurisdiction. It means that in case the media coordinator is not entitled for the particular proceedings, he can be prohibited from the proceeding process.

‘Trying new technologies in the judicial process, questioning how things are done, and taking innovative approaches are all good things. But we must balance them with some thought about whether it is the right thing to do in the circumstances.’ – David Canton, a Business Lawyer, stated in order to support the idea of media coordinator introduction in the system of justice. The press is to be protected from freedom discrimination, as well as the court and all people involved into the hearings have the right to act in accordance with their social freedoms, deserving for fair trials without the pressure on the part of the society. The role of media coordinator is aimed at ensuring the court proceedings to be conducted in the most dignified manner preserving justice to all the members of the hearing. It should be noted that the coordinator is encouraged to cooperate with local court for the purpose of court’s expectations determination, taking into account the repercussions and decorum in case of media representatives fail to comply with the expectations.

The person being appointed as media coordinator, bear a great responsibility for his duties; he is to provide all personal information, name, address, etc., to the court clerk, presiding judge and jurisdiction media representatives. In accordance with the rule, this person is to identify whether the organization is referred to the educational television or news media; this aspect is performed in order to exercise the Court Operating Rule privileges. It is important to stress that the media coordinator presents a complete list of all jurisdiction media representatives to the proceeding members. Additional duties of the media coordinator are considered to be the following:

  • The meeting organization with the media representatives and alternate media coordinators in order to review their understanding of guidelines and Court Operating Rule #16;
  • The media coordinator is to discuss the location of microphones and camera, lighting adequacy and other logistical arrangements with local court officials and media representatives.
  • He is to arrange the equipment maintenance and acquisition for the purpose of pooling service facilitation.

The analysis of the media coordinator’s duties and rules helps to understand his role in the system of court and media contradiction. It should be noted that the media coordinator prevents accidental rule violations which prohibit demonstrating jurors through his appropriate camera placing. The court Operating Rule #16 and all the procedures set in it are to be carefully followed by the court media coordinator in order to handle media requests. One of the principle responsibilities of the media coordinator in the court is considered to be the designation of the media representatives and making pooling arrangements. Besides, in case of media request for the hearing, the media coordinator is to contact the judge being responsible for it, who can offer the proceeding equipment demonstration, and to coordinate equipment location. Sometimes the media coordinator does not schedule the demonstration of the equipment; so, the court has the right to prohibit the media coverage. The media coordinator is a kind of link between the court and the media; he is to identify the unobtrusiveness of the media equipment, such as still cameras, television and digital cameras, as well as audio equipment. The principle task of the media coordinator is a productive work with the court for the purpose of protecting the freedom of the press and rights of people. (Your Missouri Courts, 2009)

The analysis of court media coordinator obligations results in the following benefits provided for court-media cooperation:

  • Single broadcasting channel of the court proceedings – so, only interested people will watch them;
  • The organized meeting for journalists;
  • Single video camera and operator to be present at the hearings;
  • Less pressure produced on the victims.

It is necessary to underline the fact that the introduction of media coordinator is one of the most effective solutions to the problem of media-court conflict, as it was proved by the responsibilities and duties he perform. (Parsons, 2007)

The solution to Problem: ‘Voir Dire’ and Court Hearings Privacy

The system of justice has additional methods of problem solution which will not discriminate against the press freedom. ‘Voir Dire’ is considered to be the process of trial closing and jurors’ questioning. This method is an effective one, as the jurors inform directly as to possible potential prejudices. This method can allow avoiding mistakable opinion of the public through the recognition of misinformation threats. It is necessary to underline the fact that this process gives an opportunity for the press having access to the hearing, but this access is very limited and protect the proceeding from active participation of the press in verdict passing. It should be noted that this process is a king of truth guarantee; it is aimed at the expression of complete truth. The questioning of jurors gives an opportunity to avoid prejudices through the detail information given to the press by the court representatives.

The system of justice has the right to keep some hearings in privacy to the media, in accordance with the law of personal information confidentiality and protection of investigation process details. In such cases the court system acts in accordance with its regulations providing no limitations and discriminations for the freedom of the press. The media representatives are usually informed in the brief form about the proceeding aspects and are kept aside from the detail data about the defendant’s background and crime motives. It should be stressed that this helps to avoid pressure on the part of public opinion and false considerations as to the crime verdict, leading to the fair trial and privacy protection. (Bergman and Berman-Barrett, 2008)

Media interference with the court proceedings is considered to be lawful aspect in the life of democratic country, as it informs the publicity about the details of the criminal sphere. Nevertheless, this problem touches the limitation of personal rights and can lead to the unfair trial verdict. The solutions highlighted managed to disclose the effective methods of court-media conflict avoiding.

Conclusion

The research paper was based on the investigation of the system of justice sphere in its interference with media activities. The analysis demonstrated the central problem concerning legal aspects of the country that are the Bill of Human Rights and the law of free press limitations. The paper managed to show effective solutions to problem helping to avoid sharp contradictions; the introduction of court media coordinator in every local court will give an opportunity to control every step of media interference without limitations of its rights. Besides, the process of ‘vior dire’ and hearings privacy will inform the publicity as to the criminal case without affecting the defendant’s verdict in the court.

To change the conflict situation between the court and media and not discriminate against the rights of democratic society, the government is to work out measures and ways out of existing problem resulting in threats to legal state regulations.

References

Bergman, P. and Berman-Barrett, S. (2008). Represent Yourself in Court: How to Prepare and Try a Winning Case. Nolo.

Parsons, W. Media Guidelines. Media Procedures for Special Interest. 2007. Web.

Your Missouri Courts. (2009). What are the media coordinator’s responsibilities? Web.