Obesity In The United States: Defining The Problem Essay Example For College

Introduction, Definition of Terms, and Purpose Statement

Obesity is a significant issue in many developed countries, including the United States. Obesity is defined as a health condition when a person has large amounts of excess fat (Brazier). This issue has become more prevalent in recent decades due to the high availability of foods rich in calories, saturated fat, and carbohydrates. Obesity is now considered to be one of the key public health concerns in the United States because it is linked to a variety of dangerous diseases, including hypertension, diabetes, stroke, and osteoarthritis (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention [CDC]). The purpose of this report is to examine the issue of obesity in the United States by reviewing its history, causes, and effects.

History

The history of obesity is connected to the availability of food. In the Stone Age, people had to search and hunt for food, and thus, they had little opportunity to gain excess weight. In the Middle Ages, however, the situation changed, and obesity became much more common. Buchwald explains that most upper-class persons had excess fat because they had enough money to afford food and employed servants to avoid engaging in daily activities, such as cleaning and gardening. Over time, obesity has grown in prevalence, leading the medical community to start addressing the issue in the late 20th century (Buchwald). However, this did little to stop the obesity crisis looming over the United States and many other countries. A recent report by Abarca-Gómez et al. shows that the rates of obesity increased at a steady pace between the 1970s and the 2010s (2629). As of 2017, almost 40% of Americans were obese, and this figure is expected to grow further (Healy). These figures show that the methods used by medical professionals to control the issue are ineffective, and innovative efforts are required.

Causes of Obesity

The direct cause of obesity is consuming more calories than needed by the body to sustain activity. The preference for high-calorie foods, such as burgers, fries, and pizza, or a sedentary lifestyle can both lead a person to gain excess weight (Braizer). Although most people are aware of this, many still fail to achieve and maintain a healthy weight. This trend requires accounting for the socioeconomic causes of obesity.

As evident from the previous section, the incidence of obesity is tightly linked to the availability of food. Hence, the introduction of high-calorie, cheap food products that can be bought anywhere played a significant role in the obesity crisis. Indeed, people today have access to multiple types of fast food, and meals in fast food restaurants are usually much cheaper than homemade healthy meals. As a result, fast food has become popular among people who cannot afford high-quality, nutritious meals or do not have time to cook. The growing demand and supply for fast food are thus the vital socioeconomic causes of obesity.

Effects of Obesity

Obesity can have an adverse influence on people’s health, longevity, and quality of life. CDC states that obesity decreases people’s life expectancy because it contributes to a variety of deadly diseases. These include hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, and certain types of cancers (CDC). Additionally, obesity increases the likelihood of type 2 diabetes, gallbladder disease, and mental health issues (CDC). People with obesity tend to find engaging in physical activity hard, which has a negative effect on their social functioning and leads to more health problems due to a sedentary lifestyle (CDC). As a person’s weight grows, it might become hard for them to walk or perform regular activities, such as shopping or cleaning, without experiencing pain or fatigue. Returning to a healthy weight helps people to feel more energetic and decreases the symptoms of health conditions connected to obesity.

Conclusion

All in all, obesity is a prevalent phenomenon in many countries of the world. In America, the prevalence of obesity is very high, which poses a threat to public health. Obesity is caused by poor nutrition and exercise habits, which, in turn, are connected to the increased availability of fast food. Obese people face a number of critical health risks, including cardiovascular, metabolic, and mental health issues. Finding practical solutions to the problem of obesity would help to enhance population health.

Works Cited

Abarca-Gómez, Leandra, et al. “Worldwide Trends in Body-Mass Index, Underweight, Overweight, and Obesity from 1975 to 2016: A Pooled Analysis of 2416 Population-Based Measurement Studies in 128·9 Million Children, Adolescents, and Adults.” The Lancet, vol. 390, no. 10113, 2017, pp. 2627-2642.

Brazier, Yvette. “What is Obesity and What Causes it?” Medical News Today. 2018, Web.

Buchwald, Henry. “A Brief History of Obesity: Truths and Illusions.” Clinical Oncology News, 2018, Web.

Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “The Health Effects of Overweight and Obesity.” U.S. Department of Health & Human Services, 2015, Web.

Healy, Melissa. “Nearly 4 in 10 U.S. Adults Are Now Obese, CDC Says.” Los Angeles Times. 2017, Web.

Plan De Iguala & The Declaration Of Independence

Each nation ever living in this world has always striven to be independent and in pursuit of equality, people fought for freedom and independence over the years. Being dependent on somebody else means that you are weaker and as nobody wants to appease with the fact that the hierarchical structure of this world is necessary for its proper functioning there will always be people who will stand up for inequality being dissatisfied with government or those who rule them. “Plan de Iguala” and “The Declaration of Independence” regardless of slight differences, have much in common as both the documents are the calling of people to unite and gain independence.

In “Plan de Iguala” there are three main goals people were trying to reach. They were equality, independence and religion. The document expresses resentment to the country’s subordination to somebody else and its desire to be united and independent: “The moment has come for you to declare your uniformity, and for our union to be the powerful hand that emancipates America without the need of outside aid.” (Joseph S. Tulchin, p. 115). People wanted King Ferdinand VII to be their ruler as by choosing him they wanted to “prevent pernicious acts of ambition”. (Joseph S. Tulchin, p. 117). Unlike “Plan de Iguala” “The Declaration of Independence” presents the King as a tyrant who abuses his powers and does not let his people have the life they want to have: “He has refused his assent to laws, the most wholesome and necessary for the public good” (Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, p. 620) None of the peoples wants to have an usurper as a ruler this is why the attitude of the authors of this document towards the King was rather negative.

Furthermore, both the documents state that religion is what united people throughout their fight for freedom and independence, and they strive to preserve it and to make it common. Apart from independence, “Plan de Iguala” demanded “The Roman Catholic Apostolic Religion, without toleration of any other.” (Joseph S. Tulchin, 116). It should be admitted that when it comes to religion people are sometimes even more persistent and demanding that’s why religious disputes are something the government of each country is trying to avoid giving people the right to religious commitment. As far as “The Declaration of Independence” is concerned, it concentrates more on independence than religion, and perspective on religion is observed when speaking about the God’s giving people the right to stand out for their freedoms and to choose their rulers. There is no wonder that religion is not of prior concern in these documents as both of them speak about their people’s past under the colonial system and desire to live differently. For instance, in “Plan de Iguala” this past is mentioned as “unfortunate disorder, debauchery, and other evils in our fail land, impressed upon people’s minds” as well as “a horrible experience of so many disasters…” (Joseph S. Tulchin,  p. 116). In “The Declaration of Independence” the colonial past is represented by the description of the sufferings the colonies experienced when not being independent. Because of the “long train of abuses and usurpations” and ”absolute despotism” (Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison, 619) people just had to stand up for their rights, and for this, they compiled the declaration.

The main reason “The Declaration of Independence’ was compiled is the necessity to change the government system and to free people from tyranny and despotism. It states that all people have certain inalienable rights, liberty being among them, and one of the main rights to change or abolish the government which does not serve people rights. Like all other free nations, these people wanted to have the right to start the war and to conclude peace agreements as well as to have free commerce and everything that a free state may have. In other words, people wanted to choose the appropriate methods of ruling by themselves and be unlimited in making their country a mighty state.

Works Cited

  1. Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, James Madison. The Federalist Papers. Cosimo, Inc., 2006.
  2. Joseph S. Tulchin. Problems in Latin American History: The Modern Period. New York: Harper & Row, 1973.

Real Estate And Affordable Housing

Introduction

The recent financial crisis in the world has had negative impact on real estate development. Many people have suffered the consequences of the crisis financially. This crisis calls for a measure that provides shelter at a reasonable rent or price. This situation requires developers of real estate to come up with strategies that will help in mitigating the effects of the financial crisis.

Shelter is a basic human need, and everybody desires to have a home and real estate developers are under the obligation to provide better services to all people regardless of their income levels.

The slow down of the housing market severely affects the financial market, and the economy, slowing down the number of foreclosures may be the first step in the recovery of the housing market Sprague (2008). As a first step, Banks should tighten their lending requirements and increase the interest rates to discourage people from borrowing to purchase new homes. However, lending to eligible applicants has to commence again. A combination of these two actions will help reduce the inventory of homes on the market and stabilization of house prices. Drop in inventory of homes will spur increase in the construction of new homes, improving cash flows and employment, and increased spending on housing and private construction. However, realization of the benefits of such actions will take some time.

Statement of the problem

The present financial crisis has caused the rise and fall of housing market in most countries worldwide. Housing presents five to ten percent of the economy in most countries therefore the rising and falling of price in the world affects the liquidity of the market. The rise of house prices have led to collapse of mortgage homes and reducing consumer spending. A provision of reasonable housing to the people of mixed income has become a challenge of many governments and now it is up to developers to come up with structures that can sustain this housing problem.

There is a rise and decrease in low income housing causing house rent to go up consuming up to 70 percent of poor homes total earnings. Therefore availability of cheap and easy mortgages will enable real estate developers come up with cheap housing that will provide better housing to the poor people.

Objectives

The main aim of the research is to find out the effect of provides sector investments in price control in the housing sector. The paper shall also find out the impact of mortgages on development of housing sector.

Hypothesis

The role of the private sector and affordable housing in the market.

Research methodology

The method that will be used in carrying out this research will be put in quantitative and qualitative techniques. The data will be collected in internet and library research. These two methods will employ secondary sources and qualitative research will have a major role because this saves a lot of time and will give background knowledge of the required subjects before research is carried out. Former researches by various scholars will be consulted and this will give extensive information on the subjects.

This method that will be used for conducting this research will be mostly from websites, online libraries, and online books in gathering the data. Internet will play an important role because in the world of today it has become an important component in carrying out research. The greatest importance of using internet is to access a wide variety of information from various sources with little hassle.

Online books will also play an important role since they are easily available. A person goes to the search engine to access the books and one does not need to go physically to the library to access the material. Another source that will play an important role will be online library which plays an important role. Online libraries include academic government libraries. There are various websites which offer materials that can be available in libraries. This will be the method of collecting data for this research.

Significance of the Study

Regardless of the limitations inherent in this study, the significance of this study is important for several reasons: A). housing is no longer a problem that is restricted to a select few but is becoming a real crisis in the world, targeting rich and poor countries. In order for countries to realize the enormous implications of unstable housing price, they need to be aware of just how housing problem is affecting the society. B) The real estate developers need to be made aware of their impact on housing.

Limitations of the study

There are many limitations that will affect this research and make the research become very difficult. One of the limitations of this research will be lack of funds on part of the researcher that will enable the researcher carry out quantitative research. The other factor that will affect research is because the research is meant for academic purposes. The work may be designed for the purpose of passing exams and the paper may not be thorough.

Data analysis method

There are several methods that will be employed in analyzing this research. One of the methods that will be used is qualitative data analysis where data will be described since it will be received though a qualitative research designs.

The data after collecting was tabulated and evaluated using statistical applications. Data analysis was carried out by using regression, correlation, as well as econometric time series with the help of econometric soft ware. Correlation analysis was adopted to cater for problems connected with co-linearity relationship among independent variables to see if it was applicable for a combination of explanatory variable. Before starting to analyzed data collected, it is important to review the method of data collection – quantitative or qualitative. If the data collected is quantitative in nature, then statistical methods like mean, variance, standard deviation and frequency etc. are calculated.

Implementation Program

This research paper performs various tasks and processes ranging from literature review, literature survey, developing a method for analysis of collected information to the formal representation of the same. Few of the processes can be concurrently followed and some may warrant the completion of the previous tasks. A broad framework is conceptualized in the form of a Gantt chart to describe the activities, schedule and timeframe of the processes of this research proposal.

Research Project Schedule

Activities February , 2009 March , 2009 April , 2009 May , 2009 June, 2009
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23
Submission of Research Topic
Literature Review
Asses First Draft of Research D1
Final Research Proposal Submission D2
Assessment and approval of research proposal by supervisor M1
Data processing and analysis D3
Writing report
Submission of draft for initial assessment M2
Second draft revision
Final draft for critical evaluation
Final Research Proposal Submission M3

Deliverables:

  • D1 = First draft of research proposal.
  • D2 = Final draft of research proposal.
  • D3 = Collection of data.

Milestones:

  • M1 = Approval of Research proposal.
  • M2 = Final draft of research thesis submitted for evaluation.
  • M3 = Final draft of research thesis submitted and approval obtained.

References

Al Jazeera (2008): Housing Crisis Batters US Economy: Aljazeera. 2009. Web.

Allmendinger, P. (2009) Planning Theory (2nd Edition), Palgrave.

Altman, Roger C. (2009): The Great Crash, 2008: A Geopolitical Setback for the West, Foreign Affairs, Vol. 88, Issue 1.

Andrews, Edmund, L. and Calmes, Jackie (2008): United States Fed enters zero interest to fight crisis, New York Times.

Bishop, Cindy (2008): Virginia Housing Market Booming Despite Heavy Foreclosures. 2009.

Boone, Jenny Kincaid (2008): Valleys escape the worst of housing crisis: Foreclosure filings in Southwest Virginia are comparatively low. 2009. Web.

Haughton, G, Allmendinger, P., Counsell, D. and Vigar, G (2009) Integrated Spatial Planning, Devolution and Governance in the British Isles, Routledge.

Raghavan C. (1998) Globalization’s political economy and the role of the state, Third world economics No. 191, p.16-31,

Sprague, John (2008): Is This a Housing Crisis Or a Financial Crisis?. 2009. Web.

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