Oil Prices Impacts On Consumer Behavior In Turkey Essay Example For College

Introduction

Increase in oil prices will influence on the economy negatively. Its effect on economy can be evaluated through the consumer behavior, i.e. high oil prices will scale the cost of living high since most people depend on the oil either directly or indirectly, as almost everyone uses fuel to reach the destination.

Hence the increased price in the market will influence consumers purchasing decision and power. Consumers have a realm they can spend their money on and which well dictates what consumers’ budgets entail. With an increase in prices of commodities being proportional to a decrease in purchase from the consumer population, the price elasticity, as dictated by the law of demand, will have an effect. (Assael 234)

Impact of oil prices on consumer behavior in Turkey

Since oil prices affect the overall prices of commodities in the economy, the purchasing decision of consumers will be generally affected, thus changing consumer behavior.

What generally dictates the consumer behavioral change with regards to change in prices?

4Ps (Product, Place, Price, Promotion)

Product: The kind of product will generally influence the buying decision of a consumer. For example, if a product is not necessary, then the consumer is likely not to buy it. But if it is a basic need, the consumer behavior is likely to be influenced by other factors such as knowledge, personality, motivation, attitudes, beliefs, feelings, experience, income level, personality, age etc. in making decision on whether to buy a specific product or not. The product may also be judged based on quality and quantity. (Mehra 231) Highly priced products and high quality products are likely to influence the behavior of consumers who are likely to opt for the same products at the expense of alternative products but of low quality.

Price: elasticity of a product may also be largely affected by price, the higher the price of a commodity the lower the purchase decision by consumers. Hence, price of a commodity will largely dictate the purchasing behavior of the consumer or alternatively, the consumer is likely to consider a substitute option for the product. But high price does not necessarily mean low purchasing decision. This is because from the consumer point of view, high price of a product may mean high quality, and a low price is relative to poor quality. This prompts the buyers to take to the high priced commodities with the idea that they are of a higher quality.

Place: The accessibility of a product may also influence the consumer behavior (Jorgenson 56) in that consumers are likely to purchase goods which are easily accessible. E.g. consumers in a particular locality are likely to be dependent on the products which are locally available than products that are likely to increase the expenditure at the time of their procurement. But this is relative to the income potential of the consumer. (Sorhone 2010)

Promotion: The available information on a particular product is likely to influence the consumer behavior in that a consumer is likely not to purchase a commodity which is not popular, for example, well known to the public due to publicity through advertising, promotion through sales; consumer public relations and personal selling are likely to influence the consumer behavior to purchase a particular product.

This can be represented in the graph below:

Quantity demanded and price

The graph explains three major aspects:

Income effect

Reducing the cost of a good, the purchasing tendency of the consumer increases. Thus, the consumer can buy the same measure of good with less money or may purchase more of the same measure with the same amount. Consequentially, if the price of the good increases, it is equivalent to decrease in income of the consumer as now there is an increased expenditure for purchasing the same measure as before, hence the income effect. (Ramahi 2012)

Substitution effect

With decrease in the price of a commodity, it’s relatively cheaper as weighed against commodities which prices are stagnant. Thus, the consumer behavior is likely to shift and consume much of the commodity at reduced price i.e. the commodity acts as a surrogate to other commodities which prices are still stagnant. (Krugman 132)

Diminishing marginal utility

It explains that as an entity, consumes are the components of a product, the utility benefited from it continues to decrease, and for outmost benefits, the consumer makes a decision to make a purchase to achieve cost benefit i.e. the utility level to be equal to the cost of the commodity. Hence, for a consumer to purchase larger quantities of a product, the price must be affordable to the consumer. (Mehra 67)

Although there are some exceptional situations

For goods which are bought mainly for their snob appeal e.g. air conditioners, lavish cars, old-fashioned paintings etc. which may be purchased to depict ones income or wealth, their demand increases with the increase in price and low demand which is a result of a decreased price.

Also, with the purchase of the inferior goods which income effect is stronger that substitution effect, an increasing price is proportional to high demand and vice-versa.

As it has been assumed, the consumers have a tendency to buy less and less of a given product with the assumption that the product’s price is likely to fall in the nearest future. But when the consumers have an assumption that the product’s price is likely to rise in the nearest future, the consumer will tend to buy more and more of that product.

Factors influencing elasticity of demand in Turkey in relation to increased oil prices and subsequent consequences on the market with regards to consumer behavior

Since oil prices will have a greater impact on the price of commodities in the market, the elasticity of demand may be influence by the following factors:

Availability of alternative products

Availability of substitute products is likely to influence the elasticity level which will be relatively high. E.g. with increasing price of a commodity, the availability of substitute products is likely to influence the consumer behavior and shift it to the alternative one, which has a relatively minor price. If there is no quick substitute of an increased price of a product, the demand will be inelastic and its substitution level will be low. (Mankiw 75)

Percentage of income

High percentage of income on the consumer side, which is proportional to the price of the product, will have the higher elasticity, this is because the consumers will be considered when purchasing the commodity, but when the price of the commodity affects only an insignificant percentage of the consumer’s budget, the income effect is negligible and results into the inelastic demand.

Necessity

The more basic a product is to a consumer, the lower the elasticity. This is because the consumers are tent to procure the product despite its price. E.g. basic foods are likely to be purchased by consumers regardless of the price unlike other luxurious products which affect the consumer life indirectly. (Mankiw 2006)

Duration

Due to the push among the consumers to find adequate time to get substitutes of a product, an increased rate of elasticity is anticipated (Szmigin 235). This happens for most products that are of utmost interest to the consumers.

E.g. when oil prices raise unexpectedly, the consumers will still be filling their tanks for a while, but if the tendency prolongs, the consumers will definitely find alternatives, for example, using economical means, such as communal transport incase of transportation, hence one elastic demand is likely to increase in the long run.

Definition of breadth of goods

A minor elasticity is experienced where there is a broader spectrum of services and products. E.g. companies manufacturing similar products are likely to face high elasticity level of demand, this is a result of the range of substitutes that are available. As compared to products such as food stuffs, they are likely to face low elasticity level because there is no the range of substitutes to it. (Blanchard 76).

Brand allegiance

The consumer may become less insensitive to the price change when he/she is strongly attached to a certain product. This is likely to result in more inelastic demands since they might be blinded by the attachment to a particular product.

This tendency may also occur when the market economy is monopolized by a particular product. The dominance of the product in the market may make the consumer’s loyal to that particular brand and be blinded from noticing the existence of other similar products in the market. (Baumol 2011)

Payment responsibility

Where the consumers are not directly involved in the payments for the goods they consume e.g. under business outflow accounts demand characteristic is likely to be inelastic. This instance happens when much of the consumption or the potential consumers of a particular product are corporate institutions/businesses. Hence, payment responsibility and elasticity demand are dictated by the composition of the consumer population. (Barro 2008)

Ideas of how to research and develop the thesis

Analytical approach

First, the research is aimed at understanding price elasticity, then how oil price impacts the aggregate economy when it is increased or decreased.

By looking at the factors that generally dictate the consumer behaviors with regards to increase in oil prices, the analysis will be looking into these factors and analyze some contributing factors that influence the consumer behavior in an economy when the price of the commodities increases.

Hence, by looking at these factors the research will be able to measure and determine factors influencing price elasticity among consumers. In addition, through the analysis the research will be able to determine both positive and negative price elasticity responses that affect the status of the aggregate economy either positively or negatively. (Assael 67)

Thus, the analysis of the research results will be arguable. In other words, the outcome of research of another person is likely to contradict this research; this is because price elasticity which is based on the consumer behavior influences the consumer behavior of a consumer in a different way as another consumer. Thus, the analysis will take a descriptive argument that favors both sides of consumer behavior. (Arnold 89).

Works Cited

Arnold, Roger A. Macroeconomics. Chicago: Cengage Learning, 2010. Print.

Assael, Henry. Consumer Behavior: A Strategic Approach. Pennsylvania: Houghton Mifflin, 2004. Print.

Barro, Robert J. Macroeconomics: A Modern Approach. Chicago: Cengage Learning, 2008. Print.

Baumol, William & Alan S. Blinder. Economics: Principles and Policy. Michigan: Cengage Learning, 2011. Print.

Blanchard, Olivier. Macroeconomics. Carlifonia: Pearson Hall, 2008. Print.

Jorgenson, Dale Weldeau. Welfare: Aggregate Consumer Behavior. New York: MIT Press, 1997. Print.

Krugman, Paul and Robin Wells. Macroeconomics. New York: Worth Publishers, 2009. Print.

Mankiw, Gregory. Macroeconomics. New York: W H Freeman-Usa, 2006. Print.

Mehra, Yash P. Oil Prices and Consumer Spending: A Reprint from the “Economy Quarterly”. Cambridge: DIANE, 2008. Print.

Ramahi, Wadee. “The Impact of Oil Prices on Consumer Behavior.” Social Science Reseach Network. 2011.

Sorhone, L. Price Elasticity Demand. New York: VDM Verlag , 2010. Print.

Szmigin, Isabelle. Understanding the consumer. New York: SAGE, 2003. Print.

Grizzly Man By Werner Herzog Documentary

Introduction

Werner Herzog’s movie Grizzly Man (2005) was one of the best films during its period. In fact, it got much acclamation in the way it presented the life and subsequent death of Timothy Treadwell. As clearly demonstrated in the film, he was assumed to have lived among Grizzlies before one of them actually ate him.

This movie was typically interesting to many viewers, but did not pass without creating controversy and uncertainty as would be examined hereafter. Therefore, the essay outlines a number of issues about Werner Herzog’s intention in the articulating of his documentary film, “Grizzly Man.” It gives the distinction between reality and illusion that is central in the film.

Film Techniques

In the film, the narrator uses various techniques in outlining his sentiments and opinion about the movie. Some of the techniques are as discussed below.

Framing

According to Lapinski, the framing of the film depicted a dream that does not display a clear start and ending (Lapinski 4). This means it was relatively ambiguous. In addition, the vastness of the wilderness that limited the precision of the events recorded in the film.

However, the framing also brings the familiar nature of the environment where the bears normally live and Treadwell never wanted to kill any of them. In this respect, he said that “I love them with all my heart, I will protect them. I will die for them” (Stagevu 1). Although the landscape is familiar, it remained so spectacular due to the inhabitants.

Setting

In the film, the setting is the wilds of Alaska where Treadwell is seen to be wearing a black jacket, probably exaggerated to be too large than his size. In addition, he was wearing sunglasses (White 1). The attire was prominent on the camera used in shooting the video. The setting also became attractive, but frightening because Treadwell was squatting right in front of two massive bears. This fierce setting was probably the best in attracting the attention of the viewers.

Editing

In order to make the film interesting, Herzog used editing techniques to eliminate the unwanted sections of documentary. In this regard, the narrator edited most of the scenes in the movie so that only the parts he believed were useful remained. Editing could also be used to merge the matching episodes together.

Scene

The scene was so fierce to the onlookers, but not to Treadwell who was depicted as having carefree relaxation within the closeness of the bears. In portraying the scene in the film, Treadwell says, “I’m out in the prime cut of the big green. Behind me are Ed and Rowdy, members of an up-and-coming sub adult gang” (Stagevu 1).

However, he seems to be, and looks contented, though a bit frightened. His fear is depicted from his statements that “they’re challenging everything, even me”, and “If I show weakness, if I retreat, I may be hurt, I may be killed” (White 1). This was a clearly frightening scenario that could make the audience be glued to the movie.

Voice Over

This technique was also well articulated in the movie as the case of Treadwell’s utterances and those of the bears. For example, his voice could be heard over and over, though ridiculous, but exclaiming that “He is a big bear” (Stagevu 1).

Dialogue

In the film, the narrator also employs dialogue as a technique of clarifying the encounter between Treadwell and the bears. According to Prager, Herzog used dialogue in discussing the excitement that Treadwell had and the impacts of his wilderness adventure (Prager 26).

His Interviews with Treadwell’s Footage

In his interview conducted with Keith Morrison, Herzog explained Treadwell’s encounter with the bears (White 1). In most cases, he interviewed the people he was familiar with. Initially, he interviewed Sam Egli who argued that he helped in removing the remains of Hugenard and those of Treadwell. In this interview, Egli acknowledged that the remains filled four garbage bags, which were quite large enough in size (White 1).

He went on to argue that Treadwell deserved death for stepping close to the bears. In the interview he reiterated that the bears might have considered the person as insane, perhaps the reason for delaying with him. He also believed that Treadwell thought that although the bears were frightening, they were harmless (Sanders 1). In this case, the author wanted to reveal the deception that someone might have in mind about animals, thus warn other people on their interaction with the bears.

The other person who was also interviewed was Marie Gaede who believed that it was a religious occurrence. On the other hand, Marc who was also interviewed claimed that Treadwell’s actions could be attributed to a political experience (White 1). He equated the bear to a politician who uses the liberals in all his undertakings.

Larry Van Daele was also another interviewee, whose knowledge in bears was useful in understanding the occurrence (White 1). In his opinion, he only provided an assumption about the number of years that Treadwell spent with the bears in the desert, could have not resulted to his killing, were it not for a drastic change (Sanders 1).

How Herzog Touches Upon

According to Herzog, he was optimistic that Treadwell acted as a movie maker, not in an ecological manner (Herzog 1). In fact, he was amazed with the tactical approach that Treadwell used in creating the story such as taking shots. Prager also revisited Herzog thought about Treadwell’s excitement on aspects dealing with the beauty of nature without fully being aware of its consequences (Prager 37).

In reality, he explored Treadwell based on the way the latter expressed self on the camera (Herzog 1). He investigated Treadwell’s innermost being, his exhilarations and his demons and the manner those attributes contributed to his interaction with the bears for many years.

The way this Movie is a Tribute

In one way, the movie was a tribute to Treadwell for his creativity and courage in shooting the film, perhaps knowing or assuming the dangers associated with the actions. As evidenced in the film, living in the wilderness with bears was due to Treadwell’s courage and ambition to leave legacy (Mayo 57). The film is also depicted a sense of courage as Treadwell’s said in this statement,

“I think the storm has actually gotten a little weaker, but in the course of it”

getting stronger, it crushed the wall in and dent some of the poles and you really can’t do much about it, because once they get like that, they stay just kinda bunged in and you’re screwed and all that” (Stagevu 1).

Whether the Movie is a Warning

Here, the film also had strong warning to the audience. For instance, in the movie Treadwell states, “I feel good about myself doing it. And I want to continue, I really hope I can. But if not, be warned” (Stagevu 1). Since he repeated this statement, it seemed he knew the severity of the consequences of his actions. However, his confidence carried him although the film. Sanders also established that “Treadwell was winning fans for the bears, and was being more careful to warn people not to attempt what he did” (Sanders 1).

Impact of the Film

Although this film has attracted many proponents and opponents, it created a huge impact on psychoanalysis and on issues relating to literary narratives, whether depicting a reality or mere fictitious (White 1). For example, Treadwell brought the perception that he was experienced about the lives of the bear despite the reality that he was merely a college dropout with limited knowledge concerning the animals (White 1).

His work also influenced the scientists who are specializing in the study of bears. Secondly, the film had numerous impacts on the future explorations, on the world of bears (White 1). In fact, this film would increase the social positioning of the scholars to unveil more issues the lives of the bears.

The other important aspect of the film is that it is likely to contribute to the people’s closeness to the wild animals. In this regard, Treadwell stated that “You can see the bond that has developed between this very wild animal, and this vary, fairly wild person” (White 1).

Being close to the wild animals is one way of understanding their lives and environment. As Peacock and Peacock indicated in their analysis of the film, it was only through enhancing the relationship between the animals and the people when they argued that “Treadwell hoped the film would increase education about the wild animals’ lives and environment” (Peacock and Peacock 64).

Despite the movie being so horrific, it was an educative film that cautions the people to be more vigilant and careful while interacting with nature, especially in the case of unknown environment and animals. The film would also help change the people’s mindset concerning the wild nature. The other impact was that the film would contribute to the rise of morality in society, by referring to the fall of Treadwell (White 1).

Conclusion

In summary, Werner Herzog’s movie “Grizzly Man” (2005) was one of the best films among the many, he had done. It utilized different techniques in communicating the message of courage and adventures into the world of unknown. The effective framing, setting, editing, clarity of the scenes, voice over and the use of dialogue created a meaning in the movie. To this extent, it depicted the reality and fiction about the occurrence.

The narrator effectively used Interviews with Treadwell’s footage to collect information that he thought would be useful in making the movie. According to the issues, which Herzog raised in the movie, it sounded as a tribute to Treadwell for his creativity and courage in shooting the film. On the other hand, the movie had warning to the audience about adventuring to the world of unknown. Finally, the film had a lot of impacts on psychoanalysis, education, future literature, and movie making.

Works Cited

Herzog, Werner. Grizzly Man (Documentary). 2007.

Lapinski, Mike. Death in the Grizzly Maze: The Timothy Treadwell Story. Guilford: Falcon Publishers, 2005. Print.

Mayo, Matthew. Cowboys, Mountain Men, and Grizzly Bears: Fifty of the Grittiest Moments in the History of the Wild West. Honky-tonk: Two Dot Books, 2010. Print.

Peacock, Doug and Peacock, Andrea. The Essential Grizzly: The Mingled Fates of Men and Bears. New York, NY: Lyons Press, 2006. Print.

Prager, Brad. The Cinema of Werner Herzog: Aesthetic Ecstasy and Truth. London: Wallflower Press, 2007. Print.

Sanders, Kevin. Night of the Grizzle. 2008.

Stagevu, Grizzly Man (Video). 2005.

White, John. On Werner Herzog’s Documentary Grizzly Man: Psychoanalysis, Nature, and Meaning. 2008. Web.

Italian Art Of XII-XVI Centuries

Introduction

Due to the great changes in the Italian art in XII-XVI centuries, the world culture owes to the Italians much for their incredible contribution to all known spheres of art. Indeed, it is impossible to imagine a world without the specimen of the Italian art of XII-XVI centuries. Though full of controversial issues which numerous art historians still have debates about, the Italian Renaissance will always remain one of the greatest epochs in the history of the mankind.

Split in three main periods, the Trecento epoch, Quattrocento and the Northern Renaissance, this period is truly filled with the artistic innovations. Seized by the desire to see the world in the new way, people were searching for the other ways to reprint the world in their art.

Renaissance

The place known as the center of the Renaissance blooming, Florence was the place where the Italian art was shaping. One of the first people to introduce the new idea of art, Giotto di Bondane astounded the Italians with his incredible Cimabue creation. Disregarded further on in the epoch of Quattrocento (Periti 41), he is rehabilitated now as one of the most genial sculptors of the epoch.

Another creation of the peerless master was the Scrovegni Chapel. Casting a single glance at the incredible artwork was enough to understand that the new epoch was approaching.

It is peculiar that the fresco was created gar before the linear perspective was introduced to the world, yet great Giotto used the abovementioned perspective to create the chapel. Without knowing what he had discovered, Giotto opened a new page in the world art and science, which was truly incredible. It seemed as if the people of Renaissance took their inspiration from the heavens above.

Trecento epoch

Another integral part of the Trecento epoch which deserves mentioning were the magnificent Sienese paintings. Touching partially upon the art of Quattrocento as well, these pieces of art signify that the time came for the Italian art to change radically from the existing ideas of art to the everlasting classicism. It could be traced that the traditional shifting from classicism to baroque style was in motion again. Tired of the grotesque idea of art, people slowly resorted to the classicism ideas.

However, it was still too early to speak of pure Classicism epoch in Italy. Born in the atmosphere of the merchant Italy, the Renaissance art and the Trecento epoch were shaping in their own tempo and way, peculiar and unpredictable.

Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli

Although it is quite doubtful that one can single out the most influential person in the Italian Renaissance, two people contributed to the Italian art in such a way that they can be considered the founders of the Italian Renaissance culture as people know it now.

Leonardo da Vinci and Botticelli, the greatest artists and people of incredible sense for what is worth calling a masterpiece, the created the image of Italy of the Renaissance epoch – the spiritual, the beautiful, the magnificent. Once taking a glance at their artworks, it becomes evident that they were the most significant people in the Renaissance period.

It cannot be denied though that their vision of the Italian culture and the Italian art was quite different. Comparing their creations, one cannot help noticing that they pictured different realities – in fact, these were different worlds which they exposed to the eyes of the public.

It is well worth remembering that Leonardo da Vinci was mostly guided by his idea of paragon, which made him create his artworks in the precise and accurate style, making the paintings both with clear lines and soft palette, yet concealing certain mystery, suggesting much food for imagination.

Filled with secret sense, these pieces would always make people’s ideas shift to the sphere of the unknown and the mysterious. A perfect specimen of Italian Trecento epoch art, a crucifix from Duccio’s workshop (Kleinhenz 693) is a piece of the Renaissance epoch which is a clear evidence of the refinement of the epoch and the change in the attitude toward art.

In spite of the fact that the Renaissance was like a beam of light shed on the obscure medieval epoch, the paintings by Leonardo da Vinci rather evoke questions than answer them. Taking a look at his creations, one cannot help wondering if the people depicted by the great maestro are really willing to say more than they can.

Thus, in the picture Lady with an Ermine (1483-90) one can see the Compared to him, Botticelli looks more old-fashioned. With his specific manner of painting which presupposed that each detail must take its shape and place in the picture, Botticelli looks more traditional and even conservative. In spite of the fact that his picture, Venus, is breathing with the spring and with the birth of beauty itself, the picture is filled with numerous details which makes it look quite old-fashioned compared to the creations of da Vinci.

What made da Vinci’s paintings more winning compared to the style of Botticelli was the specific manner of leaving certain vagueness and incompleteness in the picture. This was obviously the ground for the famous sfumato style of painting which was to appear later on. Traced in Lady with an Ermine as well, this feature was exposed barefaced in da Vinci’s self-portrait. There was no doubt that da Vinci was to herald the new epoch which Botticelli had the chance only to have a taste of.

As the country was progressing towards a new culture and creating its own cultural path, the Renaissance was evolving into something completely new and thus extremely peculiar. Once the new styles and new genres were introduced to the society, people became gripped with the idea of the new art and the way the Italian reality could be interpreted in the creations of Renaissance.

Northern Renaissance

What happened then was further on called as the beginning of the Northern Renaissance. Gripping entire Italy and stretching far beyond its boundaries, the new culture was gaining popularity and influencing young and talented artists. Still the common inspiration with the ideas of Renaissance was to be controlled somehow, which led to conducting specific policy. Concerned with the moods in the society, the Pope took his control over the situation.

Although the Pope decided not to fight the new art, but, on the contrary, make it flourish, it was obvious that the Renaissance epoch was slowly filled with the spirit of Christianity. Once an isle of independent art and the sphere where artists could create despite the religion and the morals of the then society, Renaissance was gaining the features of a typically religious culture.

Further on, reaching the Northern states, Renaissance was changed completely. What was called the Northern Renaissance resembled a pious and quiet haven rather than a battlefield where cultures clashed to give birth to the most incredible pieces of art.

In spite of the fact that politics and art have always been considered two separate spheres of people’s activities, it would be a mistake to think that the Italian Renaissance did not trigged any changes in the policy of the state. From this time on perceived as the storage of the new art concepts, Italy accepted a number of students streaming there from all around Europe.

England, France and Germany sent their best students to Italy hoping that the new art will prove much more “contagious” and that students would bring a piece of Renaissance to the rest of Europe as well. However, the shapes Renaissance ideas took in the rest of the countries were way different from its original Italian idea.

Among the Europeans who managed to seize the very essence of the Italian ideas and make them evolve further on, intertwined with the typical pattern of the local art was Albert Durer. His manner of painting made one think of the Florence humanists, and at the same time reminded of Plato and his idea of art.

However, Durer offered a completely new idea of art, bearing very little resemblance to what had been created before; these were only tiny details that reminded of certain artists, yet each picture drawn by great Durer was a thing in itself, a piece drawn in a unique and inimitable manner. As Honour put it,

The reference to Plato recalls the Florentine humanists; but Durer’s attitude was essentially different. He was not concerned with Plato’s theory of ideas so much as with the God-given power of the artist to create. (Honour 393)

However, there was another man who could be a decent rival for Durer’s genius. Jan van Eyck, an artist of incredible talent and especial technique, belonged to the school of Flemish artists with their idea of shadowy contours and shapes – the famous sfumato which has already been mentioned above.

With help of the incredibly impressive new style the Flemish paintings gained the well-known and widely-spoken nowadays expressiveness and the sadness soaring in the air. Leading the art back to the beauty of the nature, its shapes and colors, van Eyck created his own style which featured the amazing transparency of the picture; as Honour said,

Jan van Eyck also rivaled his Italian contemporaries in rendering space. In the Madonna of Chancellor Rolin both the volume of the room and the extent of the view through the triple arches at its end are convincing. (475)

Belonging to the genius of van Eyck, the Ghent altarpiece also demonstrated that the Italian Renaissance reached its peak.

Conclusion

Crowning the cultural development of Medieval Italy, the Renaissance stretched far beyond the country boundaries and had a great impact on a number of other countries. In spite of the fact that the further manifestations of Renaissance in any form of art was somewhat shaped by the influence of religion and politics, there is still no doubt that the epoch was a new stage in the development of the mankind.

Creating new vision of the world, it let the imagination of people loose and opened new horizons in front of people. It cannot be denied that the impact of the Renaissance epoch is enormous. Without this stage of development, the mankind would have been left without a number of masterpieces and incredible ideas. Reborn and rising from the ashes of obscurity and ignorance, the mankind had a perfect start into the new epoch.

Works Cited

Honour, Hugh, and John Fleming. A World History of Art. London, UK: Lawrence King Publishing, 2005. Print.

Kleinhenz, Christopher, and John W. Baker. Medieval Italy: An Encyclopedia. Vol. 2. New York, NY: Routledge, 2004. Print.

Periti, Giancarla. Drawing Relationships in Northern Italian Renaissance: Patronage and Theories of Invention. Surrey, UK: Ashgate Publishing, 2004. Print.

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