Online Privacy Research Paper Essay Example For College

Technological advancement and digital enhancement have increased the usage rate of digital devices. Additionally, digital devices have increased the use of the internet to enhance connections and facilitate transactions. The internet is the vast network that facilitates communication throughout the world by enhancing the connection of computers. The increase in internet usage meant that personal information and data were exposed to many people, possibly worldwide. Internet advancement and usage led to the discussion of online privacy. Online privacy protects personal data, information and activities while they are using the internet. This research paper discusses online privacy as a whole, the risks to online privacy, effects of online privacy, problems with website security and the measures that can be taken to ensure online security.

Online privacy refers to how personal, financial and browsing activities are protected while online. Additionally, online privacy entails the shopping habits, location of our devices and how the information is collected, used, stored and shared with other third parties. The online exposure has been a great worry to people due to the risk posed to personal data and browsing history. For instance, the United States publicly announced that the rate of data breaches in 2021 rose by 17 %. Many individuals don’t accord online privacy the importance it deserves (Barth et al., 2019). Still, the amount of information they share online and the number of activities they partake in during browsing should be of great concern.

Breach Of Online Privacy

The topic of online privacy can not be discussed without considering data privacy. We can secure our online information through security measures such as strong passwords. However, that is not guaranteed that our data is safe and secure. Some companies would breach the data protection agreements and illegally access our online information for selfish gains. Additionally, hackers and attackers are on their heels to invent new technologies that can help them bypass our security measures and access data and information (Barth et al., 2019). Consequently, various important information needs to be protected and are subjected to online breaches. Some of the information includes; behavioural information such as hygiene, smoking and drinking; confidential information such as disabilities, social security number and area of residence; marriage and educational documents such as medical records and school grades, emotional conditions such as traumatic events, family and financial information such as banking details, location and health problems, location, legal information such as criminal records, mail, hobbies, personal physical and political information, relationships, religious and safe space information, sexual behaviour and sex life social and spiritual information. Therefore, companies need to train their employees on the best methods to protect their data. Some of the breaches occur due to the ignorance of some employees of the importance of protecting their vital information from cyber attackers. Additionally, companies should implement the proper procedures, such as updating the current security measures.

Importance Of Online Privacy

Online privacy covers personal information and concerns and covers a wide range of entities. Every device and activity is now involved on online platforms, and it is essential to identify the function of online privacy in our society (Barth et al., 2019). The first importance is that online privacy keeps the family information and family safe from data breaches. Families share so much information on online platforms such as Facebook and Instagram. However, these platforms are not secure for individuals who share a lot of information that does not need to be shared. Online privacy tends to create a safe space for the members who use the platforms. Online privacy will also prevent attackers from exploiting the loopholes to gain access. Family members can implement online privacy by updating the social media privacy settings. Additionally, well-educated family members should create awareness of the dangers of sharing personal information through social media platforms and the process they can use while sharing information.

Online privacy protects our identity and privacy from theft. Numerous individual jeopardizes their identity online by exposing too much information while using unsecured websites. The websites expose the information which an attacker can use to portray themselves as individuals and use the information to cause damage. The websites should implement safety measures such as encryptions to safeguard individuals’ information. Additionally, individuals should refrain from using websites that are not secure. Consequently, online privacy protects the business. Businesses are facilitating the migration to implement online services to improve their market base (Anic et al., 2019). Therefore, numerous business information might be exposed on the internet, creating a significant threat from cyberattacks. However, organizations can prevent the attacks by; training employees on the importance of online privacy and showing the right actions to take in case of any malicious activities in the computer systems. Additionally, the businesses can install updated antivirus software that will protect the networked computers and protect against spyware and malware attacks.

A cyber attacker can have power over and manipulate you to do malicious actions because they control your personal information. Online privacy prevents control over you by anonymous people and cyberattacks. Attackers can control you by blackmail and tarnishing of reputation (Anic et al., 2019). Therefore, when wrong people access private data, it can cause significant damage and loss of control of our lives. In line with control, online privacy can help us retain our reputation. When an attacker has our private information, they can use it to expose our deep secrets, affecting our image to society. Therefore, online privacy prevents the tarnishing of reputation. Social media has created an environment where people can monitor our activities. Without a proper understanding of online privacy, attackers can ruin social and personal relationships with friends and spouses and create massive misunderstandings. Therefore, online privacy safeguards our social boundaries. Privacy breeds a sense of respect for personal space. Therefore, online privacy helps other internet users respect individuals because they have some private information that needs to be respected.

How To Protect Your Online Privacy

There are various ways to ensure that we subject our devices and online activities to be secure. The first and most vital tool to protect against cyberattacks is general knowledge about malware and malicious acts. Phishing is the primary method used by hackers to facilitate attacks on systems. Hackers develop malware that attacks the computer systems and gain passwords that grant them access to our systems and personal information. Therefore, it is vital to train employees to refrain from clicking random links from unknown sources and installing them into the computers. Wi-Fi helps us to stay connected and use numerous platforms. Controlling and knowing the proper usage of the Wi-Fi can help facilitate the privacy of our information (Anic et al., 2019). Additionally, passwords control access to the Wi-Fi networks, and when an attacker gains the Wi-Fi password, he can control everything we do with the Wi-Fi. Therefore, it is essential to use strong passwords and change them regularly to help prevent cyberattacks on our networks.

Protection against cyberattacks is highly facilitated by personal responsibility. The applications on our phones and our computer systems are very vulnerable to attacks unless we boost our security. Consequently, regular updating of the software helps the system be up to date with the security trends, hence helping to boost security and protect our information. Additionally, it is essential to delete old files and applications that are not in use anymore. The files and applications are very vulnerable to attacks. The hackers exploit the loopholes in the files and target them to gran access to personal information. The digital world has led to the exposure of our information and activities. Nevertheless, it is essential to keep track of your digital footprint so that it can not be used in the future to bring damage to your reputation (Anic et al., 2019). Online privacy involves the protection of devices and denying access to the systems. To protect the systems, it is recommended to protect all our devices. The devices are exposed to the internet and are prone to attacks. Securing the devices involves installing good anti-spyware and anti-malware software that protects against several cyberattacks. Additionally, use solid passwords to prevent any form of social attacks and ease access to our passwords.

Data encryption techniques are an advanced form of data protection. Online transactions are precarious, and applying data encryption helps secure the data while in transit. The encryption process involves using secure websites that have encryption features installed. A secure website will change from HTTP to HTTPS when providing personal information (Barth et al., 2022). Additionally, a lock symbol will appear to indicate that the website is secure. Cookies are a form of storing data and monitoring our movement while using the internet. Many websites provide pop up messages that prompt us to accept the cookies. However, cookies can pose a significant threat to our online data. Therefore, it is essential to know the cookies you accept to be stored in your computer system. The cookies keep track of the websites you visit and the activities you undertake and keep the details to themselves. The information can be used by organizations to cause damage to users. Therefore, it is advisable only to accept the cookies when necessary.


Technology advancement has exposed numerous details to the whole world, which begs for online privacy. Therefore, online privacy has been developed to help online users know how to protect their activities online. The activities include collecting, processing, and sharing information over the internet. The most crucial aspect of online privacy is that it helps people implement the necessary precautions to ensure their safety while online.


Barth, S., de Jong, M. D., Junger, M., Hartel, P. H., & Roppelt, J. C. (2019). Putting the privacy paradox to the test: Online privacy and security behaviors among users with technical knowledge, privacy awareness, and financial resources. Telematics and informatics41, 55-69.

Anic, I. D., Škare, V., & Milaković, I. K. (2019). The determinants and effects of online privacy concerns in the context of e-commerce. Electronic Commerce Research and Applications36, 100868.

Barth, S., Ionita, D., & Hartel, P. (2022). Understanding Online Privacy—A Systematic Review of Privacy Visualizations and Privacy by Design Guidelines. ACM Computing Surveys (CSUR)55(3), 1-37.

Risks Of Open Banking Free Writing Sample

Open banking is becoming a new source of innovation that is aimed at shaping out traditional banking. Open banking is the method of banking where third-party financial service providers have access to consumer transactions, banking, and other financial information from non-bank and bank institutions. These third parties access the information through the application programming interfaces (APIs) (Zachariadis & Ozcan, 2017). It allows the control of clients’ financial and banking accounts through third-party applications. Clients need to consent to share their information mainly by ticking a box on the online mobile applications. The third parties then get banking and financial information of these clients then use to give financial service options to the consumers, create marketing profiles, make changes to the account, and conduct new transactions on behalf of the customers. The introduction of open banking is likely to have several gains and disadvantages while, at the same time, it is likely to have severe risks. This paper will discuss the various risks of open banking and how they can be avoided.

The main concern of open banking is the security and the privacy of the clients’ finances. Unlike the traditional banking methods, open banking is diverse (Zachariadis & Ozcan, 2017). It includes digital banks, third-party providers, fintech firms, credit bureaus, data aggregators, healthcare firms, retail stores, telecommunication firms, and payment networks. Some of these firms do not follow the standard privacy protocols or the rule and regulations governing healthcare data. Additionally, some of the firms use the client’s data for the wrong purposes. Additionally, it is difficult to pin data breach to any single party with this many parties in the open banking process. Failure to select the right partners may lead to poor legal agreements concerning the sharing of data, leading to reputational risk.

Open banking involves complex transactions that are more prone to process risks. The less complex transactional process may be faced by the risk of misuse of consumers’ data by third-party providers. Some of the third parties may misuse the information handed to them by the financial institution and use it for the wrong purpose. Additionally, it is difficult to trace the manner in which the client’s data has been used as well as failure to control the process execution. Some third-party providers may also illegally get their hands on the clients’ information, and there is a lack of accountability between all the involved parties. Since open banking involves the use of devices such as phones and computers, it is prone to risks as a result of poor data security in these devices (Zachariadis & Ozcan, 2017). The more complex transactions take time and have the open status for days, and they need a large number of data transmittals and the support of several analytic models.

Open banking brings together parties from different sectors of the economy, such as healthcare and retail. Different sectors have separate governing bodies with different regulations. Therefore, it isn’t easy to apply all the governing bodies’ regulations when these firms come together. It also becomes challenging to decide what regulations and the transaction’s point will be considered. Also, it is difficult to determine which party will incur the losses of wrong data usage in any particular transaction. Finally, open banking has several technology risks. Executing open banking requires the use of technological developments to make it efficient and high-performance (Zachariadis & Ozcan, 2017). However, it is a challenging task to come up with a properly functioning system that is user-friendly. Furthermore, the system needs to accommodate all the parties involved and keep up with the increase in the volumes of consumers and third-party providers.

For open banking to be successful, all the risks mentioned above should be considered to develop a working model. The next few paragraphs will discuss solutions to the dangers posed by open banking. Governments should form governing bodies that oversight all the fintech and banks that want to be part of open banking. The governing bodies come with regulations that govern these firms and the whole process, as well as constantly review if the firms meet the standards required to be part of open banking. The banking regulations should also enforce the rule and regulations and maintain a high level of security (IFC, 2017). Banking firms should also make good use of modern technology and Artificial Intelligence. Banks already have systems in place to identify and verify their customers before they carry out any transactions. They should, however, use more thorough systems that are user-friendly for this purpose. Additionally, banks should take advantage of AI to monitor illegal activities and unusual patterns in the client’s accounts. AI becomes more knowledgeable as they get more information making them the best solution to security risks of open banking.

Complex authorization and verification systems should be utilized (Zachariadis & Ozcan, 2017). Unlike the traditional system that requires a password or pin to gain access to an account, more complex models have been developed. For example, in some cases, one is required to use biometrics to gain access, while in other cases, a text is sent to the holder of the account. These methods have helped reduce the security concerns of open banking. Additionally, APIs need to be more secure according to the given standards. They need to have the technical authorization, consent management, and user authentication (Zachariadis & Ozcan, 2017).

Fintech companies also have a role to play in minimizing the risk of open banking since they are significant players. The main problems associated with fintech companies or third-party firms are legal and reputational risks. To avoid legal risks, fintech companies should adhere to all the regulations of the governing bodies, especially those of data privacy. They should collect the client’s data only with their consent and use this data for the intended purpose only. Similarly, fintech companies can avoid reputational risks by getting into partnerships with firms that have good reputations and banking firms that adhere to the set rules and regulations.

Open banking is beneficial in the smooth running of transactions between consumers, banks, and third-party firms. However, for it to work, it is necessary to create safe, trustworthy, and honest relationships between all the involved parties (Bologna, 2019). This healthy relationship will make open banking the next banking system and help reap more benefits, especially to the consumers.


Bologna P., (2018) Banks’ maturity a transformation: risk, reward, and policy

IFC, (2017) Data Analytics and Digital Financial Services.

Zachariadis M., Ozcan P., (2017) The API Economy and the Digital Transformation in Financial Services: The Case of Open Banking

Opioid And Marijuana Free Essay


The opioid epidemic is reviewed as a public health emergency in the United States. Drug overdose, including the opioid prescription, has contributed much to the noticeable rise in mortality rate among middle-aged Americans. Both natural and synthetic opioids prescribed to people, such as hydrocodone, fentanyl, and morphine, are a core cause of the deaths caused by drug abuse. In recent research, it is seen that deaths caused by opioids are two-thirds of the total deaths caused by drug overdose (Singh et al., 2019). This paper gives brief information regarding the history, causes, and elimination methods that may help in reducing the negative impacts of the opioid on the general United States population.

Over the past two decades, increase in the opioid mortality rates has increased among various groups of people in the United States. Opioids evolved as the most relied-on medications after the Joint Commission set strict standards for managing pain in 2000 (Jalali et al., 2020). Since the lack of opioid prescription to a pain-suffering patient was regarded as inhumane, trainees were forced to rely more on opioid use. Opioid prescription rise became evident in the late 1990s as an acute and chronic pain manager, in the second wave that occurred in 2010 and another in 2013, where access and utilization of high-concentration synthetic opioids were recognized (Singh et al., 2019). Its management has been a challenge as the recent research done in 2017 showed that approximately 12 million people misused opioids and the resulting deaths were 47,000. The opioid sales rate has increased, as observed in the past about fifteen years, as the mortality rate has also grown largely. The epidemic affects people of all ages, including adolescents and youths. It has been seen that they are easily addicted to opioids, resulting in noticeable deaths of opioid overdose.

The misuse of opioid is related to several factors which has contributed much to the rise of the opioid epidemic. Firstly, opioids are used as pain managers, and this has led to overprescription by clinicians, and this has led to the misuse by people, thus causing a rise in the mortality rates. Lack of education on prescribing and also on intervention for patients on usage and treatment measures of the opioid has significantly caused an increase in its misuse, contributing to the growth of the epidemic (Singh et al., 2019). Secondly, unemployment and economic deprivation have been key factors in causing the rise of the drug overuse epidemic. A lot of middle-aged people lack employment opportunities which results in increased mortality rates. Lastly, recovering addicts have limited housing and an unfavorable environment that may help them stop opioid usage. They lack favorable treatment services as well as programs that provide recovering services to the patients. Thus, the expectation of dealing with the epidemic becomes hard.

Several measures need to be put in place to help eliminate the negative impact of opioids on youth and the general population. One of these measures is to come up with strategies that will be effective in teaching the consequences of its abuse to the young adults. Offering accessible and effective treatment services by the governments may help in reducing opioid usage as there is a provision of affordable treatment routes (Jalali et al., 2020). Also, families should make sure that they involve themselves in guiding the youths on substance use to help decrease the epidemic by reducing the ease of accessing the opioids, which be through disposing of those they have used. Additionally, finding alternative drugs for opioids such as marijuana and using massage and physical therapy as some of the physical activities are necessary for relieving chronic pain. In conclusion, there is much need to implement solutions and measures that will help curb the epidemic and curb its prevalence.


Marijuana is a widely used illicit drug that, as a result, leads to addiction to its users. The use of marijuana is associated with negative impacts on both direct and indirect users. Its intoxication has short-term effects as it leads to a short attention span, poor memory function, and poor psychomotor task ability. This section discusses the effects of marijuana and the different ways to reduce its abuse.

Individuals who abuse marijuana experience difficulty in thinking and solving current problems after consumption, and it also makes one experience anxiety attacks and has bad driving behaviors. It has long-term consequences for those who start consuming it in their adolescence stage as that is the stage where their brain is developing. This correlates with cognitive impairment, such as lowering the IQ and damaging the brain, mostly when one gets addicted (Memedovich et al., 2018). Regarding the body physiology, it leads to cardiovascular problems such as increased heart rate, which causes an increase in blood pressure. Additionally, marijuana is associated with adverse effects on the respiratory system that include pulmonary infections, tuberculosis transmission, and acute bronchitis. Lastly, indirect users such as unborn children are affected as they may have birth defects that may last in their entire lifespan.

My opinion on the use of marijuana to adolescents and young adults is that this drug has adverse effects, causes, and solutions. The effects greatly show their present and future dangers. Their studies, personalities, and motivation are affected in a way that they may negatively change their behaviors, and the studies’ performances drop. As a result, this makes them dependent users in their adulthood and have poor relationships with others. However, I feel that there must be reasons that contribute to its consumption, and if this is solved, the use of marijuana may reduce among adolescents and young adults. Some of these reasons are; family conflicts, relationships challenges, and also the pressures they get from their surroundings. Having close relationships between adults and young adults assists in understanding their concerns. This helps them solve the challenges they are facing, and this is a recommendable solution rather than the use of drugs. Additionally, educating them on the negative impacts of marijuana would provide awareness on what they should expect to go through when they use it and possible ramifications.

Succinctly, the use of marijuana is an issue that is ever-evolving and requires to be seriously considered. Having an effective exploration and coming up with possible solutions to curb its misuse may help reduce the abuse. Understanding the impacts of marijuana is also essential to everyone as this may help alleviate the risks related to them in a person’s body and brain.


Ghasemiesfe, M., Ravi, D., Vali, M., Korenstein, D., Arjomandi, M., Frank, J. … & Keyhani, S. (2018). Marijuana use, respiratory symptoms, and pulmonary function: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Annals of internal medicine169(2), 106-115.

Jalali, M. S., Botticelli, M., Hwang, R. C., Koh, H. K., & McHugh, R. K. (2020). The opioid crisis: A contextual, social-ecological framework. Health Research Policy and Systems18(1).

Memedovich, K. A., Dowsett, L. E., Spackman, E., Noseworthy, T., & Clement, F. (2018). The adverse health effects and harms related to marijuana use: an overview review. Canadian Medical Association Open Access Journal6(3), E339-E346.

Singh, G. K., Kim, Jr., I. E., Girmay, M., Perry, C., Daus, G. P., Vedamuthu, I. P., De Los Reyes, A. A., Ramey, C. T., Martin, Jr., E. K., & Allender, M. (2019). Opioid epidemic in the United States: Empirical trends, and a literature review of social determinants and epidemiological, pain management, and treatment patterns. International Journal of Maternal and Child Health and AIDS (IJMA)8(2), 89-100.