Operation Barbarossa In The Second World War Free Essay

Operation Barbarossa was a code name given to the German invasion of the Soviet Union in 1939 before the development of the Second World War. The attack came after Germany had defeated other European powers like Poland, Norway, Denmark, France, Luxembourg, Holland, and Belgium.1,2 Hitler believed that the only way to solve the dilemma was to invade the Soviet Union, although the two countries had signed a pact in 1939.3 The failure of operation Barbarosa was the first defeat to be experienced by Hitler which marked their weakness and the fact that they were heading towards losing the Second World War. Although German thought it was easy to conquer Soviet, the operation Barbarossa failed terribly due to reasons such as poor planning and underestimation of their opponents.

German did not have enough soldiers or resources to support the war making Hitler to rely on intelligence sources to shape his military and political plans. Hitler had learned estimated that the Soviet Union was not well-prepared for prolonged war since their economy could not handle it.4 Such knowledge, together with the victories he had gained in the east, gave him the confidence to invade the Soviet Union on June 22, 1941.5 He believed the invasion would last for a short duration, but despite his early success in the attack, the operation lasted several months.

Operation Barbarossa failed due to the various mistakes that Hitler made in addition to with the physical conditions in Russia. Among the factors that influenced the losses was the winter in Russia that halted the Germans’ attack outside the Moscow gates.6 The weather made it challenging for them as they were not preparing for such a climate.7 Hitler failed in planning for the war’s long-term impacts, which made the operation a total failure. Hitler underestimated the power of the Russian forces as they had planned to win the battles in six weeks, but the fight continued for six months which led to shortage of supplies.

Operation Barbarossa is considered a turning point in the Second World War. The Germans’ failure to conquer the Soviet Union led to new strategies to eliminate the Jews.8 After the failure, the Second World War took a new turn as the Soviet Union launched a counter-offensive mission at Stalingrad in November 1952. The Soviet armies encircled a German army of 220000 soldiers, and after a month of severe fighting accompanied by a large number of casualties, the remaining German soldiers surrendered.9 This aspect was contrary to Germany’s expectations as they had planned to win against the soviet and expand their territory.

The failure of the operation Barbarossa signaled the imminent defeat of German forces in the brutal Second World War. Miscalculations to delay attack on Moscow, unfavorable weather conditions and underestimation of soviet strength were among the factors that characterized Hitler’s downfall. Germans had to accept the fact that they were losing the war as they had lost strength owing to shortage of supplies and blunders.


Bartolini, Guido. “Italian Memory of The Invasion of The Soviet Union During The Second World War Reproduction By Division: Historical Parks “Russia Is My History”.” Historical Expertise 4 (2018): 224-241. Web.

Fuelling, Mathias. “Book Review-Operation Barbarossa.” (2022).

Wettstein, Adrian. “Operation Barbarossa and Urban Battle.” Military History Journal 66, no. 1 (2007): 21-44.


  1. Guido Bartolini, “Italian Memory of the Invasion of the Soviet Union During the Second World War Reproduction by Division: Historical Parks “Russia is my History,” Historical Expertise 4 (2018): 238. Web.
  2. Mathias Fuelling, “Book Review-Operation Barbarossa,” (2022):1. Web.
  3. Adrian Wettstein, “Operation Barbarossa and Urban Battle,” Military History Journal 66, no. 1 (2007): 40. Web.
  4. Adrian Wettstein, “Operation Barbarossa and Urban Battle,” Military History Journal 66, no. 1 (2007): 34. Web.
  5. Guido Bartolini, “Italian Memory of the Invasion of the Soviet Union During the Second World War Reproduction by Division: Historical Parks “Russia is my History,” Historical Expertise 4 (2018): 237. Web.
  6. Guido Bartolini, “Italian Memory of the Invasion of the Soviet Union During the Second World War Reproduction by Division: Historical Parks “Russia is my History,” Historical Expertise 4 (2018): 238. Web.
  7. Adrian Wettstein, “Operation Barbarossa and Urban Battle,” Military History Journal 66, no. 1 (2007): 33. Web.
  8. Adrian Wettstein, “Operation Barbarossa and Urban Battle,” Military History Journal 66, no. 1 (2007): 30. Web.
  9. Mathias Fuelling, “Book Review-Operation Barbarossa,” (2022):1. Web.

The Chinese And Russian Revolutions

Russia and China have undergone significant amendments during the 19th and 20th centuries caused by political riots. Both states have experienced a series of revolts, leading to major changes in the ruling system and the deaths of multiple civilians fighting for their rights. Although the seizure of power and the establishment of totalitarianism are the major features uniting the Chinese and Russian revolutions, these two countries have pursued different goals.

Both countries were exposed to European influence and attempted to align with their societal norms. As a result, China and Russia inherited the idea of the intelligentsia—the social elite layer that pursued revolutionary thoughts and desired to implement them in practice. These people were increasingly intellectual and sought to introduce a new order. Nonetheless, these movements developed throughout different time frames in the territory of each country.

In Russia, this stage was known as Kruzhkovshchina (“a little circle”), where groups of influencers discussed political reforms based on Marxist ideas. This movement turned into an active conspiracy, where the participants gained immense support from influential people even before they started using Marxist views. At the beginning of the 20th century, Marxists strengthened their position at the expense of the Populists. This was the turning point in the revolutionary movement in Russia as it led to strikes and revolts. In 1905, Bolsheviks and Mensheviks led people to riot against the political inclinations of people in power. After these events, the role of the intelligentsia decreased, leading to a surge in the number of working class representatives. Hence, the major strategy of the revolutionists was to displace social elites and collapse the administrative order.

Meanwhile, in China, Marxism did not seem to affect the revolutionary flow to the same extent, and yet its ideas were slowly penetrating the intelligentsia layer. It finally gained support in 1918 and played an important role in the Communist movement. Power is concentrated in the remote cities, unlike in Russia. All processes were also ruled by the intelligence representatives, who promoted patriotic warfare. They were highly respected because China was not as industrialized as Russia was; hence, they did not need the working class to be prevalent. The Chinese revolutionists stuck to the strategy of promoting Communism, and it is still thriving today.

The other difference is that the political circumstances of communism’s spread affected the regime in China. The country started moving towards totalitarianism as the Russians did. However, the Chinese order was tougher as the Russians were only pioneers in this government-ruling model. The Bolsheviks started imposing socialistic ideas to govern the country. After the revolutions, Vladimir Lenin promised more social justice to the people, allowing peasants to enter armies. The spread of totalitarianism was connected to the figure of Joseph Stalin, but it was scarcely possible in the time of revolutions. Later, this regime was introduced in Russia and was almost the same as in China.

In summary, the Russian and Chinese revolutions shared many similarities, such as the use of communist ideas and the seizure of power, but they differed in their ideas and strategies. While the Russians heavily relied on Marxist ideas, the Chinese did not. Nevertheless, China appealed to Marxism, relying on communistic ideas and changing its regime to totalitarianism. In the meantime, the Russians attempted to introduce a less strict governing model, implementing socialistic ideas.

Improving Police Morale And Community Communication


As much as the police are a critical element in the city’s life, this work shows those police officers also have many problems. Several other studies have been provided and analyzed to improve specific parts of the police system. This work examines the police department on street patrol. Several ideas for strengthening the department based on additional research are also discussed in the footnotes. The opinions and solutions to them presented in the study will primarily focus on improving the morale of police officers and only then on good communication with the community. This work also reveals the issue of mass dismissal of police officers. Accordingly, this study presents ideas about reforming certain things in the structure. Attention is paid to relations in the form and communication between the community and the police institution.

Keywords: police, morale, community, reforms, changes.


The police are an essential element of society and play a critical role. Carrying out duties daily, most officers get tired and lose motivation for work. They consider that most people dislike the police and try to avoid contact with the officers. There is a certain amount of pressure from society on police officers, regardless of whether they work in a small town or a large one. Over time, the activity of police work decreases due to the employees’ morale because when they are under pressure, they do not receive appropriate treatment. The main task in any department is to maintain confidence and motivate employees for effective results. The department regarding patrolling the streets and arresting petty thieves was considered. Therefore, all the ideas presented below will relate to this part of the police.

Improving the Morale of the Police Department on Street Patrol

Due to the large amount of work, employees of the police department often lose the desire to perform their duties well. Given that the public often puts pressure on such structures, it is an obvious fact that the motivation of employees will decrease. Most employees do not understand the importance of their work to the people in the city, so the main problem is increasing the interaction between the city population and police officers. The main task is attracting and organizing activities that improve police and community communication.

The problem of communication between the community and the employees of the police officer is one of the main factors related to practical work. The main idea is that it is worth raising awareness among the population about the results of the work of employees. And the police should understand for whom they do it and how vital their work is for people. Implementing these ideas can assume that work efficiency and employee morale will increase. In turn, the community will have a positive attitude towards what the police do.

It is worth organizing monthly reports on how the police work and how effective such work is. For this, it is worth applying various mass media used by people in the city. A large body of research shows that positive media coverage of the police affects employee motivation (Shjarback et al., 2017). Here it is worth emphasizing that the range of the results should be different. That is, not only positive events but also negative ones can help get citizens’ approval «changes in arrest behavior may be a function of changes in police behavior, citizen cooperation, or both» (Shjarback et al., 2017, p. 44). Truthfulness and openness will help improve the city’s state of affairs, as the quality of police work and public perception are direct factors.

Conducting training for citizens will improve communication between these two environments. Several studies show that community-police cooperation is a significant source of negative performance (Shjarback et al., 2017). Most cases happen because of the high tension between the police and the community. Thus, the motivation of the workers decreases. The racial factor often plays a vital role in the relationship between people and the office. It is crucial to develop conversations about race and conduct various training between the public and workers, establishing good cooperation.

Organizational training is key to establishing an order between the police and the community and motivating staff. Implicit in this work is working with the community to support the officers and show it publicly (Shjarback et al., 2017). In this way, developing an understanding of justice and generally spreading support for the department among the public will help police officers do their jobs much better. Introducing a specific structure in work with the community will improve the attitude towards the police officer and give results concerning the set goals.

A favorable environment in the department is essential for self-development and self-realization. Research shows that self-fulfillment at the workplace is a significant obstacle for government employees. All this is since such people are usually under a certain pressure in their duties (Crilly et al., 2017). In this way, it is worth allowing the police officers to organize more work meetings and implement ideas. That is, the organization of one’s workplace is vital for employees to feel comfortable in the workplace.

The workload is also an essential part of employee motivation. Knowing how many officers work and are there, the department should organize a schedule the employees themselves could make. Considering this factor, officers can partially control and allocate their day (Crilly et al., 2017). That is, understanding partial control over their work can improve their understanding of their comfort and bring efficiency to their work.

Stress is also part of the work of police department employees. The creation of a police officer involves many stressful situations every day. Arresting criminals is part of their everyday life. As we know, stress has a very negative effect on a person’s work and overall well-being. Thus, taking care of the psychological state of its employees is vital for the department. That is a necessary part of the department because it is the most common reason for police officers to be fired (Hilal & Litsey, 2020). It is important to have weekly conversations with a psychologist so that employees can get rid of all their worries.

The department team must influence the morale of its employees. A study by Hilal and Litsey (2020) demonstrates that one of the reasons for the dismissal of police officers from municipal agencies is their lack of interest and disillusionment with their collective (p. 74). The team plays an important role not only in the motivation for a person’s work but also in the efficiency of each employee (Purba& Demou, 2019). If a team has good cooperation in the middle, mutual understanding and respect allow employees to improve themselves and their work experience accordingly (Hilal & Litsey, 2020). Therefore, it is crucial to organize work meetings correctly. And it is even more essential to organize joint vacation trips to improve communication in the middle.

In addition, the management of municipal departments must listen to their employees. After all, a person’s comfort means entire interest in his work. Therefore, it is necessary for government structures that managers allow employees to give ideas on how to improve the workspace (Hilal & Litsey, 2020). In addition, management must listen to how employees feel and what needs to be changed in the environment.

Regarding funds, the proposed ideas are not very costly. The only significant investment should be in meetings and planning vacations together. In this way, the costs will not be enormous, and small police departments will be able to afford to improve the environment for their employees. If we mention the meetings with the community, then the funding will go from two sides, and the investment of money by the police will not be significant. An important thing that will require a large amount of money is a psychologist. Still, it is essential to understand that such a person is necessary to improve a person’s emotional state. The rest of the proposed ideas do not cost much money, so that they can be easily applied now.

Consistency between management and employees is a critical stage in making changes to the policy agenda. It is vital that every employee has a say and can speak about what worries him and what prevents him from working effectively (Deuchar, Fallik, & Crichlow, 2019). Accordingly, the management should make changes and possibly reform their department’s system to allow the employees to function normally. In addition, it is vital that some of the proposed ideas are simple and do not require significant resources to implement.

Many of the proposed ideas are somewhat challenging to implement. However, here it is worth considering that employees will have the opportunity to realize themselves, which is necessary for a large part of the police administration and, in general, in most parts of state structures. Also, it the importance to look after your employees no matter how big your municipal facility is, they are all part of an extensive system, and it all needs to be well coordinated and well thought out.


Thus, the importance of moral development is vital for the development of the system itself. Employees interested in work are an essential and influential part of such a system. You have to listen to your employees’ leadership and follow their suggestions. In any case, it is crucial that if you want, you can change any system and make your adjustments.


Crilly, J., Greenslade, J., Lincoln, C., Timms, J., & Fisher, A. (2017). Measuring the impact of the working environment on emergency department nurses: A cross-sectional pilot study. International Emergency Nursing, 31, 9-14.

Deuchar, R., Fallik, S. W., & Crichlow, V. J. (2019). Despondent officer narratives and the ‘post-Ferguson’effect: exploring law enforcement perspectives and strategies in a southern American state. Policing and Society, 29(9), 1042-1057.

Hilal, S., & Litsey, B. (2020). Reducing police turnover: Recommendations for the law enforcement agency. International journal of police science & management, 22(1), 73-83.

Purba, A., & Demou, E. (2019). The relationship between organisational stressors and mental wellbeing within police officers: a systematic review. BMC public health, 19(1), 1-21.

Shjarback, J. A., Pyrooz, D. C., Wolfe, S. E., & Decker, S. H. (2017). De-policing and crime in the wake of Ferguson: Racialized changes in the quantity and quality of policing among Missouri police departments. Journal of criminal justice, 50, 42-52.

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