Operational Deviation Definition Homework Essay Sample

Any frequent flyer can say that it is very saddening to find out that the flight has been cancelled or delayed just after reaching the airport. The passenger sees this as an impact on his or her time of travel and inconvenience they suffer. However, the airlines, suffer a greater loss this occurs, facing the potential for consequent network wide effects. The reason behind this is the complexity of the scheduling squeezed into the hub airports and additionally combined with the variations among the three airline system schedules, for passengers, crews and the aircrafts. Even a tiny disturbance in any of the three systems can lead to a problem of rescheduling for the airline. Any change in the schedule of saline system can bee called ad operational deviation.

This includes the flight delays large enough which enables missed connections or cancelled flights, in the passenger schedule. In the crew schedule, this consists of any alterations in scheduled order if flights of the crew members. Lastly, variation of planned rotations of aircrafts leads to irregular operations as well, in the aircraft rotation schedule. The difference between time deviations, and irregular operations is that time deviations don’t necessitate rescheduling. Time deviations don’t affect the airlines in a negative way, whereas irregular operations makes the airline to change a thing or two in the system schedules.

The main aim of the AOCC has been to make the operational passenger schedule obey the schedule already published. This way the airlines shows their customers that how much they are being taken care of. For high customer satisfaction and more future business with the airlines, it is necessary to maintain an on- time performance and can’t be risked with the cancellation or the missed connections. Trying to make an intact passenger schedule is one the largest problem.

One of the greatest problems faced by AOCC is the cascading effects of the operations deviations. Cascading effects mean the further delays or deviations because of a resource which might be anything like crew members of the aircraft not being in the proper place at the desired moment for the next flight due to a variation on one operation.

This effect quickly propagates in all of the system schedules. One operational deviation cascades to further or consequent operations on the passenger schedule and as well so other schedules till the AOC is able to correct that deviation. There are various methods by which AOCC try to make the passenger schedule right in time like reducing the time taken by the aircraft to turn, varying flight speeds, replacing the aircrafts ad crew and cancelling some of the flights.

The most common reason behind the deviation is the passenger schedule is the weather which impact many flights at multiple airports. Weather which causes the deviations can be grouped into two, one being the severe weather due to which often airports are closed for an extended period of time and the other is less severe weather that just causes delays and the operations tends to run at a slower pace.

The visibility problems, high winds or the conditions of the runway surface might not allow the airline operations run smoothly. At many a times, it is possible that there are no outgoing flights and only landing is possible at a slow rate or vice versa due to the factors like visibility and surface conditions of the runway. Here also, cascading effect on the schedule of consequent flights comes into play when the inbound flights are too delayed that are not possible to cancel and fly severely delayed.

Another reason the deviation in the passenger schedule is the problems caused by the ground service of the airline. This can b named as ground deviation. The ground support staff is responsible for baggage handling, moving cargo, refuelling of the aircrafts, handling of passengers and also equipment failures.

At the hub airport the process of baggage handling becomes much more complicated than that at a spoke airport as the majority of the passengers travelling through the hub airport are ought to catch the connecting flight and their luggage needs to go the process of loading, transferring and loading again to their connecting flights in so much less time. The problem gets even more complex when the same process is taking place for over a hundred flights simultaneously. From this, it is pretty much clear that, not only the equipment failure is responsible for the deviation, but the process of baggage unloading, pre-sorting and loading is also equally responsible for causing the deviations.

Scheduling of gates and the taxi time are two other potential sources for deviations. There are different types of gates and not each gate is capable of capacitate each and every aircraft. In some situations, even if an aircraft is on time, but some other aircraft is occupying its planned gate, and since due to there are no any other available gates to accommodate the particular aircraft, it can’t unload the passengers and the baggage in the specified or desired time thus causing the delay.

Taxi time means the time taken by the aircraft between pulling away from the gate and taking it off or between its landing and arrival at the gate. These vary based on the configuration of the runway, which might vary the distance to and from the gates. Usually, taxi times variation around 10 minutes is acceptable.

Difference Between Standard Deviation And Standard Error

Even if you aren’t a math genius, at least you should still know difference between standard deviation and standard error. Due to their thinly- separated meanings, the terms often confuse a lot of people. In fact, majority of men on the streets actually can’t tell the exact distinctions that part the terms. Well, ignorance isn’t an excuse. Just like how the earth rotates around the sun, good statisticians rotate around these terms, as if their lives depend on them.

This topic may involve a little bit of math, but don’t be scared. Since most students are curious about this topic, We are going to discuss and touch on salient points, but not to bore you with complex numbers and formulae. After the end of the presentation, each and every one would get to know how extremely simple this topic is. Difference between standard deviation and standard error of the mean will not be tricky again. Let’s get into it.

To give you a clearer picture and narrow down the scope, SD is a statiscal terminology. It’s a numerical figure which measures degree of scatter. Thus, it absolutely measures dispersion. Owing to its close association with other key terms such as means,, SD is frequently misinterpreted.. That is a big problem which needs to be addressed. It’s true that the terms are like twins, but they aren’t identical twins – big differences separate them.

Standard error of the mean and standard deviation difference is about to be captured by your fingertips. But let’s spend expend more effort in trying to decipher the definition. In the end, this knowledge will prove very beneficial in future math research works. The temptation to introduce a math formula here is really high, but we can still do it without writing long formulae.

When the variance is taken and raised to the power of a half (1/2), SD is obtained. Just to remind you of a basic math formula, SD = √(variance). When SD is calculated wholly, the sigma symbol ‘σ’ stands for SD. Previous knowledge of this fact is necessary when visualizing what is the difference between standard deviation and standard error?

Definition of Standard Error (SE)

It makes a lot of sense to say that SE can be determined from the SD. In order for you to grasp standard deviation and standard error difference, you have got to understand that, sometimes SD and SE get stuck to each and become virtually the same. Let’s take a look at a statistical scenario: Assuming you are undertaking a research project to find HIV infections in a community. You may not be able to individual test all the community members. But you collect samples of a fraction of the community. When you do this for different number of times, you end up getting different mean (average) infection rates.Having followed the above discussion, what’s the difference between standard error and standard deviation? Surprisingly, when you have good mathematical eyes or good statistical eyes, you would be able to see vast the differences here. SD and SE may have a lot (in common) to do with the mean, but they aren’t exactly equals. The latter is a more accurate way of estimating samples. When you carefully examine their mathematical formulae, one will quickly understand that SE = σ/√n.

This means that, SE varies proportionally (directly) with SD. This direct proportion relationship doesn’t necessarily make them to be equals. Putting that aside (keeping SD constant), SE varies inversely with the sample size (n). There you go! Never bow down to the complexities of the topic. When you take your time to revisit your basic math, you will realize that the difference between standard error and standard deviation is as easy as taking breakfast.

To further cast all doubts away, be reminded that the ‘mangrove may dwell in the river, but that doesn’t make it a crocodile’. Similarly, SD may hide its face by dwelling in the mean, but that doesn’t make it to be an equivalent of standard error. It’s so easy for anybody to understand that SD focuses on showing how data values are scattered (dispersed) about the mean value. SE doesn’t concern itself with the degree of spreading of data. Rather, it’s a more accurate method of drawing inferences. Further differences can be found by looking at their mathematical symbols. By their symbols, you can differentiate them. SE has the symbol σx̅while SD takes σ .

As outlined above, standard error and standard deviation difference isn’t as complex as most people see them to be. It’s said that chances favor the prepared mind. Never allow the information presented here to slip away because you may regret one day. This topic is one that can’t run away from, especially if you are into math or statistics.

The difference between standard deviation and standard error isn’t far-fetched. All it takes is patience and good will. One thing you shouldn’t forget is that, in most distributions, more than 90% of the values do not fall outside of 2 SDs. It will be a very bad idea for one to assume that SD or maybe SE has something to do with standards. Hell No! There is no relation of that sort. When mention is made of these terms, start tuning your mind to symmetrical values. Still confused about difference standard error and standard deviation?

Persuasion Is Part Of Every Characteristic Of Our Every Day Lives

In the world of psychology, an attitude signifies sentiments, beliefs, and comportment that habitually result of experience and can have a potent influence over behavior. Cognitive based attitudes are based primarily on people’s beliefs, knowledge, and thoughts about the properties of an attitude object. Affectively based attitudes are attitudes based more on people’s feelings, emotions, and values they hold regarding an attitude object other than on their beliefs. Attitudes are not stable; they frequently change. They’re not only molded by external influences, but also by persuasive communication. Persuasion is part of every characteristic of our every day lives. The elaboration likelihood model is one of the most frequently cited models of persuasion. The elaboration likelihood models’ goal is to strive for explanations on how individuals process stimuli differently and how using persuasive communications influences the process of changing attitude and behavior. Elaboration indicates the expanse of determination an audience participant has to use in order to process and appraise a message, and memorize it to then accept it or reject it. The level of elaboration will then define which processing route the message takes: the central or the peripheral route to persuasion.

The central route to persuasion involves an elevated level of elaboration. This is when people “elaborate on the messages they hear, carefully thinking about and processing the content of the communication,” (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2016, p. 201). That is the outcome of the high motivation level. People know what is important to them, therefore investing time into examining the message, remaining focused and ignoring the distractions as they seek their goals. For a central route to persuasion example, I have selected an advertisement from Woman’s Day magazine that is advertising the American Cruse Lines “Rolling on the Mississippi.” I suppose it is attempting to persuade the audience through this route because it is a decision you have to carefully make and think about the facts presented. The persuasive communication takes place as the advertisement informs the audience it is a 5 to 22-day cruise along the grand Mississippi River. The page displays a cut out part of the map that guides you through the route it will take. The advertisements’ description enlightens the audience with what the cruise line offers: historic destinations, historical treasures, cultural traditions, gracious service, delicious cuisine, and their brand new paddlewheelers. As a central route example, the propositions listed above would be something the audience would pay very close attention to. The advertisement also contains strengths like awards they have been recognized for, “2017 Magellan Gold Award,” “World Travel Award Winner 2017,” and “American Best Cruise Line for Solo Travelers.” The audience will then continue the research, find out the price for this cruise, and verify if this cruise is really the best as mentioned and if this purchase is worth it.

The peripheral route to persuasion involves a low level of elaboration. This is when the “people will not be swayed by the logic of the arguments…instead swayed by more superficial cues,” (Aronson, Wilson, & Akert, 2016, p. 202-203). The audience isn’t examining the message for its efficiency, instead they are examining other factors and elements of its design which are influencing them, including distractions. For the peripheral route to persuasion example I have selected another advertisement from Woman’s Day magazine that is advertising Pond’s, a cold cream cleanser. I believe it is attempting to persuade the audience through this route because it isn’t an elaborative argument with facts and details of why people should cleanse their face. Instead it uses a beautiful model who is demonstrating half of her face with make up, giving her a leopard look and the other half bare and flawless. The advertisement mentions the cold cream cleanser cleanses deeply, removes make up, and leaves skin moisturized, and claims it is uniquely created not like any other make up removers. It announces, “remove and improve to reveal spotless skin” along with instruction on how to use it. As the audience examines the photograph of this model they get persuaded into buying this product, especially for those who use make up. This type of persuasive communication increases the want and need of this particular product.

Persuasion using an emotional appeal relies on the subconscious mind to process and evaluate information to make a decision. When decisions are made at the subconscious level, they are based on emotions and instincts. For the emotional route to persuasion example I chose a health related advertisement from Woman’s Day promoting the benefits of OPDIVO, a “prescription medicine used to treat people with a type of advanced stage lung cancer that has spread or grown and you have tried chemotherapy that contains platinum…” that was not effective or is no longer working. I consider this as an emotional appeal simply because it contains the word “cancer,” a very delicate topic. The advertisement shows an elderly couple holding hands, with family around them. There is a bold quote on the mountain implying “A chance to live longer,” persuading the lung cancer audience that this medicine will increase the chances of living versus chemotherapy. OPDIVO is definitely trying to get an emotional reaction from the audience rather than trying to win an argument. For example, think about a family who has a relative who’s having a rough time in life and has lung cancer. However, the chemotherapy is no longer benefiting their body. Emotionally thinking, you want your loved one to continue living life and remain by your side. People often make decisions based on emotions, and this advertisement appeals the brain and the heart.

Advertising play a significant role in our media-saturated diverse world and we are surrounded by it everywhere. The process of persuasion is serious in order to achieve victory in convincing the audience to obtain certain products, goods, or amenities. From the knowledge gained by reading chapter 7, in the book of Social Psychology, the power of advertising definitely affects change in behavior and attitude. Exaggeration is used in these advertisements to persuade people, but at the end of the day it all depends on what the audience takes from it and how confident they feel in the arguments they heard or saw.

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