Operations And Project Management-Luton Community Training Ltd – Case Study Data

Executive Summary

This study looks at the current operations and business procedures of Luton Community Training Ltd. (LCT), a non-profit company in Luton, UK. Senior management convened two companywide town hall meetings to address concerns about data storage and sharing, communication and teamwork, and the difficulties of remote work brought on by the Covid 19 epidemic. An effective project plan is offered at the end of this report, and it includes a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Network Diagram (N.D.), and Critical Path Analysis (CPA). Planning for and preparing to purchase hardware, software, and services like Slack and Microsoft Teams in a thorough and well-thought-out budget. Four apps: Zoom, Flow, Dock, and Discord. The British government has taken measures to prevent future data breaches, including using encryption for safety measures and entering into agreements with international firms to ensure compliance with GDPR. Security issues are increased since sensitive client data is housed on personal laptops. Staff members are trained in effective system operation and upkeep practices, which are in place continuously. These initiatives lead to increased customer responsiveness, reduced risk of burnout, fatigue, and long-term isolation among remote workers due to pandemic restrictions, improved morale, safe working conditions, the highest level of trust offered, constant provision of excellent support, quality service, and an overall boost in reputation and brand value. There may be new opportunities for LCT in the communities it now serves due to the company’s efforts to grow internationally.

1.0 Introduction

This report will discuss the operations and business systems of Luton Community Training Ltd. (LCT), a non-profit organization located in Luton, UK, with a mission to provide appropriate upskilling and training for local community members, focusing on vulnerable individuals. The current state of affairs within the organization reveals problems associated with data storage & sharing, communication & collaboration, and implications from remote working due to the Covid 19 pandemic, which was identified during two all-company town hall meetings initiated by the Senior management team. The findings provided throughout this report are based not only on Case Study information but also on external research so that advantages and disadvantages related to specific solutions could be discussed, ultimately leading to recommendations and a project plan proposing implementation strategy, thus aiming at improving existing operational processes.

2.0 Operational Recommendations

2.1 Key Area 1: Data Storage and Sharing

The data storage and sharing processes used by Luton Community Training Ltd need to be updated and more efficient and can be improved to help increase their productivity rate. Using separate systems for each functional team with email requests as the primary communication means is unsuitable in an efficient workflow environment when dealing with large amounts of information or multiple teams working together on shared projects. Additionally, confidential info held only on company laptops with personal coaches could be put at risk if those devices were compromised, contradicting requirements set out in data privacy regulations such as GDPR (Patel, 2019).

Therefore, there should be a switch from the current outlook-based system that utilizes Excel spreadsheets and Word documents towards cloud-based solutions optimized for collaboration between different departments, such as Microsoft Teams, mentioned during All Company Town Hall Meeting (Illag & Sabale, 2022). This platform would allow access to stored files across any device type, making remote work much more accessible, allowing file uploads directly into M.S. Team’s space which includes searchable Shared folders instead of offloading them onto emails reducing time wasted searching lost emails or attachments sent earlier, months ago (Singh & Awashi., 2020). At the same time, this software provides integration tools connecting commonly used office applications such as Excel, Word, and Outlook (Hubbard et al., 2021). This integration would benefit all teams within the organization, granting them access to files created in any of those apps even when specific departments use different storage systems, such as Sage One Accounting for the Finance Team. Moving towards cloud solutions is beneficial from a functionality point of view. It also increases security compared with local data hosting due to providers’ encryption, making it almost impossible for hackers or malicious software to take advantage of breached devices (Bhadauria et al., 2011).

2.2 Key Area 2: Internal Communications and Collaboration

The current communication system used by Luton Community Training entails email, where most internal communications occur through daily newsletters, which are often overlooked, meaning managers have to send reminder emails afterward, wasting more time during already busy schedules and contributing no added value whatsoever. Additionally, this lengthy process can cause issues, such as delays in receiving information from non-finance team members, leading to decreased flexibility. Some staff members may feel constantly connected and pressured to be available via email 24/7, resulting in unnecessary stress and potential mental health issues. The U.K. Government Mental Health at Work toolkit recommends that organizations reduce stress and concerns. As a result, an alternative method of communication should be introduced in the form of a web or mobile app, such as Slack, discussed during the All-Company Town Hall Meeting. This will enable flexible working patterns allowing teams to discuss ideas faster while maintaining control over tasks assigned using features like task due date reminders (Ross, 2019). If integrated correctly with the existing storage platform can unify collaboration efforts from different departments like Facilities Maintenance Team managed via the Office Amp cloud system.

Furthermore, this tool provides encryption methods ensuring a clear connection between staff members outside the organization’s premises, which is essential when dealing with sensitive data about vulnerable individuals. Personal Coaches handle this constantly, ensuring their information remains secure at all times, preventing any loss of confidential files protected by passwords stored on company laptops only accessible to authorized personnel. The real benefit comes from the app’s ability to manage conversations, letting the users define specific channels related to topics to reduce the burden massive volume of emails sent and received each day, increasing productivity across the organization as well as providing access to a specific contact, not a part of a team but are needed to exchange critical info rapidly, granting LCT high operational speed compared competitors’ business its sector (Menzies & Zarb, 2020)

Moreover, the platform offers video conferencing capabilities allowing staff members to join scheduled meetings saving time and sending reminder emails while reaching a visual connection absent in phone calls fostering closer team relationships. In addition, this software also provides further tools for integration with commonly used office applications such as Excel, improving workflows and erasing redundancies (Ross, 2019).

2.3 Key Area 3: Mental Health Support

The long-term implications of remote working have been heavily felt by most employees, with increasing stress levels from the Covid-19 pandemic leading to burnout among several individuals due to increased workloads combined with reduced face-to-face contact creating isolation feelings. To counteract these problems, it is necessary for LCT provides mental health initiatives addressing issues raised during Town Hall Meetings regarding motivation and intrinsic loneliness such that those suffering can talk freely without fear of repercussions hindering their dignity or professional status being damaged, having conversations recorded, monitored, and tracked by management. Possible solutions mentioned during the meeting include offering subsidized access to external professional services or even introducing flexible working hours that reduce rigid timelines while encouraging productivity achievements, allowing individuals more control over their schedules. Alongside this, providing adequate information on stress and mental health issues can develop a culture that encourages employees to speak up when needed (Dubbey et al., 2020), helping those suffering find support from colleagues’ peer-based groups without alienating themselves (Corrigan et al., 2013). In summary, these initiatives are necessary to counteract increased levels of loneliness and burnout among staff to minimize long-term damage suffered Covid-19 pandemic.

2.4 Key Area 4: Flexible Working Hours

Flexibility in working hours is increasingly becoming a necessity for effective operations of any business, especially considering the impacts of Covid-19 and work-from-home arrangements (Prasetyaningtyas et al., 2021). Organizations need to adapt their daily functions by allowing individual employees more control over when they can start & end their day due to personal issues such as caring responsibilities or other commitments like studying, thus accommodating different lifestyles without affecting overall productivity levels within companies.

Adopting flexible working practices will increase staff morale and engagement and create diverse teams with improved performance rates that are both productive & loyal to the organization’s objectives (Anderson & Kelliher, 2009). Concerning LCT, long commutes should be eliminated, which makes room for better use of resources available, cutting costs associated with transportation and affecting cost savings. Having full-time technology platforms worker well-being factored into the equation; providing mental health support regular basis help alleviate stress and uncertainty arising from the current crisis interventions tackling loneliness, preventing burnout, and creating a friendly environment; organization showing commitment enhances employee satisfaction resulting in a higher retention rate reducing turnover. Therefore, it is recommended senior management team implement FWC policies companywide, introducing a radical change to supplant the traditional 9 5 structure to facilitate workers’ further expanding remote capacity.

Introducing FWC policies would benefit LCT immensely, as it will create a better balance between the work and personal life of the employees. This is essential since long working hours can lead to fatigue, affecting performance levels in remote or office settings. Moreover, on the one hand, weekly dynamic shifts allow managers to assign tasks more efficiently, taking into account employee preferences while allowing full-time workers to engage in different roles, broaden horizons develop their skill sets, increase job satisfaction and commitment organization could also result in additional attractions in recruiting new hires, such as potential prospects salaries bonuses leading more excellent productivity rates enhanced customer service overall.

2.5 Reasoned Recommendations

All indications indicate that digitalizing document-sharing procedures through cloud collaboration platforms simplifies interaction. Consolidating processes with the use of correct integration solutions makes them safe, efficient, and team-work-streamlined, which in turn boosts overall performance rates and corporate security. Layered security provided by encryption given by the vendors of those programs prevented hackers from using sensitive user data kept in secured server ports to which they had continual, unfettered access. Issuing company laptops to specific departments, like individual coaches, is another means of enforcing the GDPR standards established by the British government, as is the practice of routinely erasing sensitive information to protect clients’ privacy and avoid legal trouble. Employees dealing with rising stress and higher workloads due to the pandemic may benefit immensely from introducing flexible working hours and other mental health programs. Employees’ morale is boosted as they gain access to opportunities, special support networks, and the expert services of other team members, all of which are provided by third parties, making the workplace a more understanding and empowering place for those dealing with burnout, loneliness, and depression. LCT faces internal communication cooperation operations that make the organization less effective and productive than before until the methods and processes built in response to Covid-19 issues are adopted. The situation has worsened, which might be disastrous for the company’s future.

3.0 Project Plan

3.1 Project Plan

The project plan for implementing operational recommendations includes a Work Breakdown Structure (WBS), Network Diagram, and a Critical Path Analysis (CPA) attempt. The WBS provides an outline to organize and divide tasks into manageable chunks easier to understand than one giant task. It is also used as a reference for progress tracking and identifying potential risks associated with various activities throughout different stages. The network diagram offers a visual representation of how tasks interconnect within the given timeframe enabling us to visualize interactions between each activity better and improving our understanding of time management. Regarding the recommendations above, the project plan aims to introduce a communications and collaboration platform for Luton Community Training Ltd. (LCT) to facilitate more effective communication, improved operational efficiency, and better customer support services. The platform will aim to improve internal processes and provide an easy-to-use system that can help LCT offer efficient customer service solutions remotely during lockdown restrictions due to the COVID-19 pandemic.

3.2 Scope Management

Scope management for the project will include managing and controlling all aspects of business processes to ensure that resources are utilized efficiently, focusing on communication procedures. The Scope also includes establishing a framework focused on customer service offerings and providing training and support services remotely during times of crisis or emergencies such as COVID-19, pandemic lockdown restrictions, and power outages. Scope management is crucial for maintaining an organized structure within the project. Clear boundaries must be established between departments and teams to ensure smooth operations.

All personnel should know their responsibilities and receive the necessary training to carry out tasks efficiently and minimize errors or delays. Another vital aspect is compliance with privacy regulations, such as GDPR, to prevent theft, scams, and cyberattacks. Proper security measures should be in place, including monitoring suspicious activities and providing software tools. Designated personnel should be appointed to handle security and ensure maximum efficiency. Regular updates and alerts should be circulated to keep staff informed. Disputes or grievances should be resolved amicably, with legal professionals representing clients when necessary. Maintaining professionalism, quality standards, and compliance with agreed terms and conditions is essential for successful project management.

3.3 Time Management

The project plan will consist of the following significant activities to be completed within an estimated ten weeks. The planned schedule is as follows:

Week 1-2 (Project Initiation): This week, time will be dedicated to selecting and finalizing a suitable communication and collaboration platform for LCT with its associated vendors to determine the best cost-effective solution that meets requirements needs. It includes meetings senior management team to make critical decisions regarding system features look security levels.

Week 3-4 (Requirements Gathering & Plan Execution): This phase involves gathering staff requirements from all operational teams and understanding various document storage tools they use daily to secure corporate documents developed agreements are stored securely. Also, integration systems facilitate a smooth transition of data across platforms. Devise training scheme members discussed earlier Town Hall Meeting to ensure no learning curve using the new system implementation process advances smoothly; however, it may require extra resources already shortage employees of the due pandemic, which could push slightly behind the timetable previously set out in budgeting guidelines.

Weeks 5–8(Development et al. Phase): This stage requires strong cooperation between technical departments. I.T. understands back-end specifications, builds a reliable user interface, effectively bridges the gap in vulnerable users accessing services safely at home settings, provides good online support, makes available contact during emergencies if downtime occurs, and updates software to add value.

Week 9-10 (Documentation Completion Final Testing): During this phase, the project team will develop and finalize user guides for implementing the system. Any remaining issues should be addressed to ensure all systems work as expected before launch. Test runs should also occur during this period, ensuring everything is ready to go live smoothly without any technical hiccups. This stage allows last-minute suggestions and user changes to be easily incorporated accordingly, reducing the chances of future bugs reoccurring upon launching the platform globally.

Week 11(Launch/Deployment): On completion, the testing process was finished, delivered risk management plans were approved budget was allocated correctly, and given the green light. Finally launched worldwide full force once scaled out, depending on size, company usage could increase steadily and slowly start getting traction with large groups of business customers within a few months, maintaining excellent relationships with vendors and good customer service practices enhance the reputation of LCT overall improves operational efficiency.

Week 12-14 (Post Launch Evaluation): This last phase requires evaluation of project success feedback from users through surveys to better understand how satisfied they experienced issues encountered while using the platform still needs to be improved. Good customer service reports are sent to vendors to help further develop the system.

3.4 Risk Management

Risk management is identifying potential risks associated with a given application or system and determining appropriate measures to mitigate those risks to maintain service continuity and minimize damage if an incident occurs. The project plan will require effective risk management to successfully implement a new communications and collaboration platform. The following steps outline how this can be achieved,

Identification of Risks – All potential risks associated with the project must first be identified and recorded, including any external factors which may increase or decrease their likelihood, such as COVID-19 restrictions. This should include an analysis of all financial resources needed for completion, the technological infrastructure required for implementation, and personnel involved who could present problems during the transition process.

Assessment Of Risk – Once risks have been adequately evaluated, they need to be assessed in terms magnitude of the possible impact on processes; therefore, adequate measures should be put in place to mitigate the negative consequences these pose operations budget proposed initially discussed meeting employees across different teams and facilitating communicative approach to help provide accurate representation response scenarios arise regarding introducing a system

Develop Strategies for Resolving/Minimising Risks- After identifying and assessing presented necessary strategies developed to reduce and minimize the probability of occurrence of certain events potentially causing a disruption life cycle. Consequently, thorough plans constructed to address the given issues evaluate if the feasible outcome desired objectives its development allocated funding comply industry regulations while maximizing cost-saving productivity value-added final result is monitored regularly.

External Resources & Subcontracting- Where appropriate, it might be beneficial to outside resources to subcontract parties to specialized areas such as legal privacy, compliance, and security. Contracts are carefully written and signed to ensure both sides understand contractual obligations, and open lines of communication are maintained between staff supervisor providers should a particular problem arise. External help is not available internally.

Risk Register- A risk register must be created to document risks along with respective mitigation strategies assigned to those responsible for ensuring the implementation of desired tasks adheres allocated timescale budget. Any new changes presented proposed contract are immediately recorded and incorporated plan.

Monitor & Review Risks – Once the implemented system will continue to be monitored and reviewed regularly, taking into account user feedback, successful completion strategies, and possible expansion addition technologies, including modifying existing already utilized orders to maintain optimization service delivery, the highest level of satisfaction to customers.

Risk Reporting – All risks associated project must be reported. Management orders to provide a detailed overview of events and update the organization and the stakeholders on any changes occurring. Progress stage risk should summarise from easy-understanding language reviews conducted regularly to ensure quality remains consistently high.

Risk Management Plan – A risk management plan should be created which outlines the steps taken by LCT to identify and address any risks associated with implementing a new communication and collaboration platform. The document must detail all procedures, strategies for resolving identified risks, and responsibilities assigned to those responsible for completing tasks required in their respective timescales.

Communication Plan – As part of the risk management plan, a communication and notification strategy should be implemented, which ensures all stakeholders are informed in case any significant changes related to the project occur. This will provide an efficient channel for timely updates on progress and identifying new risks that may have resulted from the introduction platform, thus enabling more effective resolution methods to reduce the likelihood of adverse occurrences.

3.5 Budget

The budget for the project plan will be outlined in detail below. The cost estimates are based on monthly fees, considering current and future team sizes and any additional services staff members have requested during all-company town hall meetings regarding remote working and collaboration systems.

Software Costs:

  • Slack – Approximate Cost per user is $6/month or $72/year when paid annually (based on 2,500 users): Total approximate annual cost = 18000 / $(2 500 x 6×12 months). Additional features such as extended search history ($3 per user), guest access permissions ($0.10), and two-factor authentication ($ 3 per user) can also be included at an extra charge if needed.
  • Microsoft Teams –Approximate fee varies depending upon different types of plans starting between free to a maximum Enterprise E5 Plan costing approximately 24$ USD /user/ month with added safety compliance certification; total estimated annual costs are dependent upon several users utilizing this service but should range from around 20 000 – 40 0000USD. (Based on 2500 employees)

Other external software tools may include video conferencing applications via Zoom, where use is discouraged due to fatigue.

  • Discord – Cost approximately $4.99/month or $50 per user annually when purchased in bulk (based on currently 500 users): Total annual estimated cost = 25 000 $(2 500 x 50).
  • Flow dock – Estimated fee of approximately USD 3/user subscribing to the pro plan with an added app subscription for team members not requiring all features available through desktop applications (Based on 2,500 employees): Total approximate annual cost= 7200 $(2 500 x 3×12 months).
  • Hardware Costs: Mobile devices and company laptops will need purchasing if staff cannot use their hardware at home; these costs vary depending upon any customized packages required for upgrading operating systems, but prices should range from around 150-350 USD per laptop. The total estimated overall costs depend upon the number of users utilizing this service but should range from 35000 – 80000 USD. (Based on 2500 personnel)
  • Training and Support Services: A consultant must be hired who can help design workflow processes, train personnel how to navigate new software tools, and well-set basic maintenance protocols alongside ongoing support once the system is running smoothly. These services, such as hiring additional I.T. specialists/teams consultants, mostly charge a minimum flat rate of between 500-1000USD per day for smaller organizations; total estimated annual costs depend upon several days of services used but should range from around 12000 – 240000 USD. (Based on 2500 personnel)
  • Maintenance and Infrastructure: Ensure the system remains secure and operates smoothly; this may involve additional hardware or software upgrades and an ongoing license fee. It is difficult to estimate an exact amount since the cost varies depending upon any current in-house infrastructure already available within LCT; however, expect these costs to be between 5000 -8000 dollars if external hosting/maintenance teams are required. (Based on 500 employees).

The overall budget plan is approximately $130,200 annually, which covers software tools such Slack ($18 000), Microsoft Teams ($20 000-40 0000), Discord (25 00$), Flow dock ($)7 200), Hardware Costs ranging from 35000 – 80000USD Training & Support Services ($12 000-$2400 0) and Maintenance & Infrastructure Costs possibly ranging up to 8000$. This figure does not cover additional expenses during the initial setup phase, where more funding may be needed.

4.0 Conclusion

To summarize, Luton Community Training Ltd. should consider implementing cloud-based collaboration tools and a remote working friendly digital platform to improve communication, operational efficiency, and customer support while complying with GDPR. Careful planning is necessary, including WBS, Network Diagram, Critical Path Analysis, Scope Management, Time Management, Risk Management, and Budget considerations. Potential disruptions and budget constraints should be taken into account. External software tools like video conferencing applications and hardware upgrades may be required. Hiring I.T. specialists and implementing maintenance protocols is recommended. By following these steps, Luton Community Training Ltd. can successfully implement a new communication platform, maintain efficiency, reduce costs, improve customer service, comply with privacy regulations, and enhance staff mental health initiatives.

Reference List

Patel, N., 2019. Your Personal Health Information May Have Been Compromised: Using Encryption to Prevent Data Breaches on End-User Devices. Hofstra L. Rev.48, p.563. https://heinonline.org/HOL/Page?handle=hein.journals/hoflr48&div=20&g_sent=1&casa_token=

Ilag, B.N. and Sabale, A.M., 2022. Microsoft Teams overview. In Troubleshooting Microsoft Teams: Enlisting the Right Approach and Tools in Teams for Mapping and Troubleshooting Issues (pp. 17-74). Berkeley, CA: Apress. https://link.springer.com/chapter/10.1007/978-1-4842-8622-7_2

Singh, R. and Awasthi, S., 2020. Updated comparative analysis on video conferencing platforms-zoom, Google Meet, Microsoft Teams, WebEx Teams, and GoToMeeting. EasyChair Preprint4026, pp.1-9. https://wvvw.easychair.org/publications/preprint_download/Fq7T

Hubbard, M., Bailey, M.J., Hess, D. and Hellebro, M., 2021. Mastering Microsoft Teams (pp. 57-74). Apress.

Bhadauria, R., Chaki, R., Chaki, N. and Sanyal, S., 2011. A survey on security issues in cloud computing. arXiv preprint arXiv:1109.5388, pp.1-15. https://acta.fih.upt.ro/pdf/2014-4/ACTA-2014-4-25.pdf

Ross, S.M., 2019. Slack it to me: Complementing LMS with student-centric communications for the millennial/post-millennial student. Journal of Marketing Education41(2), pp.91-108. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/full/10.1177/0273475319833113

Menzies, R. and Zarb, M., 2020, October. Professional communication tools in higher education: A case study in implementing Slack in the curriculum. In 2020 IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (FIE) (pp. 1-8). IEEE https://ieeexplore.ieee.org/abstract/document/9273906/

Dubey, S., Biswas, P., Ghosh, R., Chatterjee, S., Dubey, M.J., Chatterjee, S., Lahiri, D. and Lavie, C.J., 2020. Psychosocial impact of COVID-19. Diabetes & Metabolic Syndrome: clinical research & reviews14(5), pp.779-788. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.dsx.2020.05.035

Corrigan, P.W., Sokol, K.A. and Rüsch, N., 2013. The impact of self-stigma and mutual help programs on the quality of life of people with serious mental illnesses. Community Mental Health Journal, 49, pp.1-6. https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007/s10597-011-9445-2

Prasetyaningtyas, S.W., Heryanto, C., Nurfauzi, N.F. and Tanjung, S.B., 2021. The effect of work from home on employee productivity in the banking industry. Jurnal Aplikasi Manajemen19(3), pp.507-521. https://jurnaljam.ub.ac.id/index.php/jam/article/view/2162

Anderson, D. and Kelliher, C., 2009. Flexible working and engagement: The importance of choice. Strategic H.R. Review8(2), pp.13-18. https://doi.org/10.1108/14754390910937530

Poem Explication: ″We Wear The Mask″

“We Wear the Mask” is a profoundly impactful and poignant poem authored by Paul Laurence Dunbar, a highly influential African American poet who emerged during the late 19th and early 20th centuries. Dunbar employs vivid imagery, figurative language, and a notably evocative tone to examine the theme of identity and the masks that individuals adopt to obscure their genuine emotions and challenges within a racially oppressive societal context. The title itself, “We Wear the Mask,” sets the tone for the poem and establishes the central metaphor. The word “mask” symbolizes the facades people put on to hide their pain, anguish, and true selves. Though not an actual mask, Dunbar uses it to denote the outer portrayal people embrace instead of their true identity (Knol 10). The use of the plural pronoun “we” indicates a shared experience, which further supports the idea that Dunbar is speaking of a community-wide phenomenon when he discusses the issue of masking.

Dunbar investigates the hypocrisy that permeated his era. In the opening line, “We wear the mask that grins and lies,” Dunbar captures the inherent duality of the masks people put on for social interaction (Dunbar para 1). The “lie” stresses the act of deception that covers the wearers’ inner problems, while the “grin” represents the fake smile people project publicly to conceal their genuine emotions. Dunbar delves deeper into the mask metaphor by juxtaposing happy and sad pictures. It conceals our faces and casts a shadow over our eyes,” he explains. We owe so much to cunning people” (Dunbar para 1). In this context, the mask serves as a tool to hide one’s genuine emotions from the rest of society. The phrase “debt we pay to human guile” suggests that the mask-wearers are coerced into hiding their true identities by prevailing norms and biases in society.

Dunbar stresses the mental and emotional toll of hiding behind a mask throughout the entire poem. According to him, “with torn and bleeding hearts we smile,… And mouth with myriad subtleties” (Dunbar parag 1). This statement expresses the anguish felt on the inside by those who are coerced into hiding who they are. Their hearts may be “torn and bleeding,” but they keep on smiling and conforming while using a variety of subtle techniques to get by in social situations. The poem also alludes to the anxiety one feels while deciding to take off a mask for fear of ridicule. In “Why Should the World Be Over-wise,” Dunbar asks, “In counting all our tears and sighs?” (Dunbar para 2). This saying implies that people are too indifferent to the problems of those who wear the clothes to even try to understand them on a deeper level.

As the poem winds out, Dunbar injects a spirit of determination and fortitude. “But let the world dream otherwise,” he says, “We are the Masked Riders!” (Dunbar, paragraph 3). The wearers of such a proclamation are showing that they are unwavering in their commitment to shield their authentic selves and keep their pride intact, despite the turmoil going on inside their heads. Dunbar’s philosophy, which he worked to further with a group of notable African Americans including Coleridge-Taylor, is highlighted in this work (Hampton 36). In “We Wear the Mask,” Dunbar delivers a scathing indictment of the prejudice and double standards African Americans must endure in American society. The poem sheds light on the plight of people who, despite internal anguish, must put on a brave face for the outside world. Dunbar encourages reflection on the costs of hiding one’s true self and the complexity of identity in the face of adversity through the use of striking imagery and an arresting metaphor.

Works Cited

Dunbar, Paul Laurence. “We Wear the Mask.” Poetry Foundation, 2023, www.poetryfoundation.org/poems/44203/we-wear-the-mask.

Hampton, Makeda Danielle. “Songs for High Voice: An Annotated Guide to African Romances, Op. 17 by Samuel Coleridge-Taylor.” (2021).

Knol, Nancy, and Brian Karsten. Inspired Words: Devotions for Readers. Wipf and Stock Publishers, 2021.

The Development Of A New Policy To Allow For Earlier Sepsis Detection And Management Among Patients Who Are In The Intensive Care Unit (ICU)

Introduction to the Proposed Problem and its Significance

Sepsis is a life-threatening health condition that needs early detection and prompt patient intervention to avoid any adverse outcomes as it affects the systems of the body, which enhance response to infections (Evans et al., 2021). It occurs when the infection-fighting process turns on the human body causing the organs to work poorly, and may progress to a septic shock whenever there is a late diagnosis. Some of the symptoms associated with the disease involve changes in the patient’s mental status, fast yet shallow breathing, lightheadedness, shivers, and specific symptoms related to a certain type of infection, such as worsening cough due to pneumonia. In the UK, the disease has an incidence of 360 cases per 100,000 individuals annually and a mortality rate of around 20%. The patients who present early have a lower probability of dying from the condition than those who present late. There is also a greater likelihood of saving life since 1 in every 2800 to 1 in every 5000 awareness episodes can save the patients’ lives (Ni et al., 2019). This capstone project aims to develop a new policy that will allow for earlier detection of Sepsis and enhance its management within the intensive care units (ICU). The developed policy will focus on enhancing patient outcomes through early detection, lowering the mortality rates, and optimizing the delivery of healthcare services among patients at a greater risk of Sepsis or those with Sepsis. The new policy will also ensure the safety of the patients and lower the degree of complications resulting from Sepsis.

PICOT

The PICOT, in this case, does the implementation of a new policy for early sepsis detection and management in comparison to the pre-existing standards of practice enhance the patient outcomes, lower the mortality rates and ensure optimization in delivery of care among patients admitted in ICU for Sepsis within a period of six months. From this PICOT, the population is the patients who have been admitted to the ICU as a result of Sepsis; the intervention is the implementation of a new policy to allow for early sepsis detection and management; the aspect of comparison is the pre-existing standards of practice, the outcome involves improved patient outcomes, lower mortality rates and optimized delivery of healthcare services among the patients diagnosed with Sepsis. The timeline for this is six months.

Vulnerable Population

For this project, the vulnerable population involves all the patients who have been admitted to an ICU because of Sepsis, and those who are at a greater risk of being diagnosed with Sepsis since they have a compromised immune system are at a greater risk of rapid clinical deterioration and being diagnosed with other health outcomes.

Effects of the Social Determinants of Health

Even though the social determinants of health influence the development of Sepsis indirectly, the primary focus of this project is the clinical aspects that enhance early detection and management of the condition instead of social factors.

Evidence-Based Interventions

The new policy will be developed based on evidence-based interventions that will inform the policy design, and this will be identified through a review of the existing literature, identified peer-reviewed articles, and other academic journals published within the last five years. Some interventions involve using standardized protocols to enhance sepsis screening, a detailed criterion for early detection, the appropriate labs and imaging investigation, an algorithm of diagnosis, and timely initiation of the interventions related to the health condition.

Proposal

In this case, the proposed intervention involves developing new policies that allow for the early detection of Sepsis and its management among patients in the ICU. This new policy is anticipated to offer clear protocols and guidelines for the assessment, identification, and management of Sepsis among patients who are in the ICU. The elements of the policy will involve a standardized sepsis screening mechanism for identifying patients who are at greater risk, the criteria for early recognition of septic shock and Sepsis among patients, the algorithms for accurate and timely diagnosis, and the recommended labs and imaging investigations. Furthermore, it will incorporate the protocols for the administration of the right antibiotics and fluids as required by the patients, implementation of the interventions of Sepsis, and monitoring and evaluation of the outcomes of sepsis management. This new policy will address the gaps in the present-day treatment approaches involving antibiotics (Martínez et al., 2020). Development of this policy will involve collaboration between various healthcare providers, including the ICU physicians, pharmacists, lab staff, nurses, and pharmacists, among others, and that means they will have to implement a highly effective communication approach for successful policy development and implementation.

Feasibility for Nurses in the Advanced Roles

The advanced practice nurse can play a vital leadership role in implementing and developing the new sepsis policy through collaboration with other healthcare providers. He or She can be at the forefront of ensuring accuracy in a literature review by guiding the other team members, developing the appropriate policy content, and ensuring that the policies are aligned with the existing evidence-based practices (Moran et al., 2023). The nurse may also offer the necessary training and education to the ICU staff, monitor compliance with the policies, and evaluate its overall impact on patient outcomes.

Timeline of Policy Development

Timeline of Policy Development

Theoretical Framework

This project will adopt the Promoting Action on Research Implementation in Health Services (PARHIS) framework as this framework greatly emphasizes the interactions between the available evidence, facilitation, and context in implementing evidence-based practices. Applying this framework will allow for developing a new sepsis policy tailored to ICU patients (Dryden-Palmer et al., 2020). the policy will also be supported by various effective facilitation strategies and guide the whole policy development, implementation, and evaluation process in the long run. Through the development of a new policy seeking to ensure early detection of Sepsis and its management within the ICU, this project will enhance patient outcomes, lower mortality rates, and optimize the delivery of healthcare services among patients who have Sepsis. This proposed policy is feasible and realistic as it falls within the semester’s dates, allowing for a meaningful exchange in the clinical environment.

References

Dryden-Palmer, K. D., Parshuram, C. S., & Berta, W. B. (2020). Context, complexity, and process in implementing evidence-based innovation: a realist informed review. BMC health services research, 20(1), 1–15. https://bmchealthservres.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12913-020-4935-y

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