Operations And Service Management Sample College Essay

Executive summary

Toyota is a major player in the global auto industry. Products of greater quality and lower cost are the results of its lean manufacturing approach, which emphasizes reducing waste, improving productivity, and providing value to clients. This paper draws from both original research and secondary sources including scholarly articles and books. The introduction provides a brief overview of Toyota’s lean manufacturing process, and the rest of the paper focuses on the process’s efficiency, the technologies integral to it, and how they can be improved with the help of other supporting functions. Finally, a conclusion is included to summarize the report’s main points.


Management of an organization’s operations to improve productivity and maximize profits is known as operations management. Activities that require to be managed for an organization to work smoothly daily include manufacturing, shipping, managing the supply chain, financial management, and the direction of several divisions (Chambers, 2018). This report’s operation management practice is a study of Toyota’s Lean production method. The Toyota Production System (TPS) is the company’s standard operating procedure for building cars. Frequently referred to as a “lean” or “Just-In-Time” framework, this is a novel approach to production that prioritizes efficiency over other factors. In addition, this report intends to furnish readers with ample information regarding Toyota’s lean manufacturing process, including the effectiveness of the said process, its operation with the aid of other supporting functions throughout the organization, and the technologies that could be incorporated therein.

Operations management practice of Toyota

Lean manufacturing is a core part of the company’s approach to the management of operations. Toyota’s method of productive manufacturing is called TPS (Toyota Production System). TPS stands for the Toyota Production System, a manufacturing methodology created by the Japanese automaker (Lownal, 2019). For reasons of productivity and quality assurance, the firm adopted the system. Ultimately, the goal of TPS is to ensure that no waste is produced at any stage of the production cycle. JIT manufacturing and JIDOKA are two of its key tenets.

The Toyota Production System is based on three pillars:

  • The pursuit of perfection
  • The value of each employee
  • The incorporation of superior quality into every step of the manufacturing cycle

There is no doubt that the Toyota Production System is among the most efficient and effective in the world. Just-in-time manufacturing, continuous improvement through the application of the 5 Whys and the 3Ms, and the “House of Lean” are all integral parts of the framework as a whole (Bronze, 2016).


Toyota Production System (TPS)

Figure 1: Toyota Production System (TPS)

Source: (Bronze, 2016)

Just In Time (JIT) manufacturing

JIT manufacturing, frequently referred to as JIT manufacturing or the Toyota Production System (TPS), is an approach to streamlining production that emphasizes waiting as little time as possible between stages (Imai, 2017). It was first created by Toyota, a Japanese automaker, and has since been adopted by companies across a wide range of businesses.


When something out of the ordinary is discovered, manufacturing is halted, a process known in Japan as judoka. The point of jidoka is to eliminate the possibility of errors occurring in the first place. The principle of jidoka stems from the lean production concept, which places a premium on minimizing wastage in all its manifestations (Imai, 2017). When the manufacturing setting is subpar, companies implement judoka to spot and fix issues before they can lead to errors.


“Kaizen” is a Japanese term that means “improvements” or “alteration for the good.” Using a cycle of constant iteration and refinement, Toyota factory workers have learned to pinpoint and eradicate any sources of unnecessary waste. With kaizen, Toyota strives for constant, gradual advancement (Ansuini, 2012). Because of its ability to facilitate trash removal and quality enhancement in tandem, this development prepares the way for several advantages.

The 3Ms

Muda, Muri, and Mura are known as the “Three Ms” of the Toyota Production System (TPS).

  • Muda

“Wastage” in Japanese is (muda). The term “muda” is used to describe any element that does not improve the final result.

  • Muri

“Overburden” translates to “muri” in Japanese (Ohno & Bodek, 2019). In the Toyota Production System (TPS), muri are any activities that are taxing on the resources of the company, whether it be human labour or machinery.

  • Mura

In Japanese, this phenomenon is called mura, which means “unevenness.” Mura means “inconsistency” or “variation” in the framework of TPS.

House of Lean

The concept of kaizen, or continuous improvement, is central to the House of Lean. This means that organizations should continuously seek out opportunities to streamline their operations and cut down on waste. The House of Lean offers businesses a road map to success in this area (Carolla, 2014).

There are seven different types of production waste identified by the Toyota Production System. The following is a description of these trashes:

  • Overproduction

Products that surpass the total amount or quality requirements of consumers are considered overproduction wastage. For the purpose to keep the assembly line running smoothly, it’s often necessary to produce goods in advance or to supply more products than is required to fulfil current orders.

  • Waiting

Even if it doesn’t seem like it at first, waiting can have a major effect on how quickly things get done. There are many different kinds of waiting, such as resource waiting, machinery waiting, authorization waiting, etc.

  • Transportation

Any action taken in transportation that does not improve the product in some way is considered wasteful (Simpson, 2020). It’s everything that doesn’t have an essential role in creating the final result.

  • Motion

All non-value-adding human or mechanical activity is considered motion. Reducing unneeded movements in a manufacturing setting can have a major impact on output.

  • Defects

The Toyota Production System considers defects to be one of the seven primary wastages. Flaws refer to anything that falls short of the expectations of the buyer. There are four types of flaws: visible, invisible, hidden, and potential.

  • Inventory

Products that do not directly benefit the client are considered inventory (Simpson, 2020). Everything from raw ingredients to completed goods is included.

  • Underutilized talent

The skills of individuals go to waste when they aren’t used to their full potential, which happens when they’re underutilized. It can cause dissatisfaction among workers, greater turnover, and lower output.

wastes of TPS (MUDA)

Figure 2: 7 wastes of TPS (MUDA)

Source: (Takeuchi & Kimura, 2022)

Impact of Lean manufacturing practice on Toyota

Companies in industries other than automobile manufacturing have paid a lot of focus to the Toyota Production System over the past few years. Many businesses are interested in studying Toyota’s methods of manufacturing to boost their productivity and profits (Smalley, 2014). The Toyota Production System can benefit the organization in a few key manners:

  • The procedure Streamlining

The most prosperous businesses today are those that have figured out how to maximize the efficiency with which they generate their wares and operations. This is when the term “streamlined manufacturing” enters into play. If someone wants to maximize productivity in your factory, they need to streamline the process of manufacturing. Toyota’s legendary Toyota manufacturing Process has made the company a pioneer in the field of mass manufacturing efficiency for decades (Takeuchi & Kimura, 2022). To help companies optimize their manufacturing procedures, Toyota developed the Toyota Production System (TPS), which is a set of guidelines and procedures refined over many years.

  • Tighter Monitoring of Quality

Toyota employs a manufacturing approach to enhance quality assurance that might benefit the company as well. Toyota uses this approach because it is based on the philosophy of continuous improvement, indicating the company is always looking to better its procedures and goods. Toyota can reach this goal thanks, in part, to the use of a just-in-time manufacturing process that allows them to reduce wasteful runs of production. They can adjust swiftly to shifts in consumer demand thanks to this technology (Stewart, 2018). Structured directions for work are an integral part of Toyota’s assurance of the quality process. It makes sure that everyone does their job identical manner and adheres to the same policies. It facilitates the rapid detection and resolution of issues. Toyota has had enormous success because of these quality assurance processes.

  • Increased Versatility

The capacity of a production system to swiftly and readily respond to shifts in demand is what we mean when we talk about greater adaptability. Movable elements of manufacturing lines allow companies to quickly switch between making a variety of items. The advantages of greater adaptability are dual. As a result, firms can adapt rapidly to shifts in consumer demand. Furthermore, it saves businesses the time and money that would otherwise be spent revamping their manufacturing processes for each new product. The Toyota Production System is widely recognized for being both adaptable and effective (Ohno & Bodek, 2019). Since implementing this approach, the business’s operations have greatly improved; consequently, it is now offering the method as an offering to other businesses.

  • Improves Effectiveness and Output

The core tenet of the Toyota Production System is the complete eradication of waste. Excessive stock, travel, faults, and excessive processing are all examples. Companies may run more smoothly and provide better goods by reducing unnecessary expenses. The Toyota Production System can be adapted to fit a variety of corporate settings. But one common method is to utilize “kanban” cards to indicate when work must be done (Bronze, 2016). Employees are better able to maintain attention and are less likely to begin new tasks when the present ones are completed.

Global position of TOYOTA

Figure 3: Global position of TOYOTA

Source: (Raghu, 2017)

Integrating machine vision and AI using Jidoka techniques in Toyota

The jidoka strategies of poka-yoke, 5 whys, and Kaizens, enhanced by machine vision and AI, are detailed below:

  • Poka-Yoke

The goal of “Poka-Yoke” is for creating a procedure more reliable by preventing errors from happening during its execution. It’s utilised during the procedure for inspection to make sure everything gets checked off. Non-contact computer vision and AI can simplify the inspection process because they are simple to implement (Bronze, 2016). It’s a plus that the velocity makes it more efficient than doing the work by hand. Machine vision and AI solutions can assess in milliseconds what would normally require a human around a minute to examine, with much greater precision.

  • 5 Whys

The “5 Whys” method is an ongoing series of questions used to investigate the root causes of an issue. The 5 whys method is intended to isolate the issue at hand and gain insight into its nature. Because of this, we can provide customers with trustworthy and consistent tailored solutions based on machine vision and AI.

  • Kaizen

“Kaizen” is a Japanese word made up of the characters for “change” (KAI) and “better” (ZEN) (Chambers, 2018). Kaizen refers to the practice of making steady, incremental improvements to a system. Kaizen focuses on improving processes. To get really good outcomes, you need to improvise on the entire procedure. It integrates novel ideas and persistent work towards the twin goals of always getting better and always keeping the same excellent standards.

To help businesses sustainably improve and preserve standards of quality, machine vision and artificial intelligence can be employed to automate inspections method and decrease fault outflow. There are four steps to accomplishing this, the first of which is taking photographs using a designated camera (Chambers, 2018). The second is the creation of answers using annotations and deep learning programmes. The subsequent step is to roll out an answer for continuous monitoring.

Lastly, keep an eye on things and adjust how precise your inspections are. For instance, our powerful optical system captures rings in specialised illumination with the assistance of a camera, verifies the number, and then displays the comparable outcome. Human ring counting examination would be imprecise because of the tiny rings if the machine vision method wasn’t employed (Newman et al., 2021). This would lead to an increase in flaws. A ring that wasn’t counted correctly would be useless because it wouldn’t fit the following assembly. Machine vision and AI solutions facilitate ring numbering by making it more accurate and quicker than human numbering methods.

Supporting functions embedded in the operations of Lean Manufacturing at Toyota

Lean manufacturing, often known as the Toyota Production System (TPS), is a methodology developed by Toyota to maximise productivity and minimise waste in manufacturing (Chambers, 2018). Although manufacturing and maintenance are TPS’s main concerns, the philosophy’s achievement also depends on several ancillary factors. The purpose of this reply is to investigate some auxiliary operations associated with Toyota’s Lean production method.

  • Management of People (HR)

Human resources (HR) is an integral back-office performance in any business, and the Lean industry gvumawof manufacturing is no exception. To put TPS concepts into practice, human resources play a crucial role in hiring, educating, and fostering workers with the necessary skills. Human resources are also accountable for fostering an environment of constant growth and development and facilitating staff participation and autonomy (Smalley, 2014). Human resources are also responsible for talent pipeline management, which involves maintaining a consistent flow of qualified people to back up lean manufacturing initiatives.

  • Supply chain management

The management of the supply chain is also an important assisting element for the implementation of Lean manufacturing. The Toyota Production System (TPS) emphasizes a streamlined supply chain that cuts down on unnecessary steps and delays. The supply chain group is in charge of maintaining contact with vendors, maximising the amount of inventory, and guaranteeing on-demand access to basic supplies (Monden, 2019). Toyota is capable to decrease expenditures, raising productivity, and enhancing quality by concentrating on streamlining and optimising the supply chain.

  • Sales and marketing

It’s easy to overlook the importance of sales and marketing in guaranteeing the achievement of TPS, but they’re essential to the continued growth of any lean manufacturing operation. The team working on the project relies on the sales and marketing teams to ascertain what the consumer wants and then relay that information to them (Lownal, 2019). Toyota’s production is more efficient and wastage is cut down to a minimum thanks to the company’s keen awareness of customer needs. When it comes to educating consumers, vendors, and other partners on the benefits of lean manufacturing, sales and marketing personnel additionally have an important role.

  • Information technology (IT)

When it comes to the achievement of lean manufacturing, IT is an additional vital assisting element. Obtaining and analysing data is crucial in a Lean manufacturing setting to reduce inefficiencies, increase productivity, and foster a culture of constant advancement. For information to be gathered, analysed, and reported, IT must supply the required infrastructure and capabilities. These include anything from MES to ERP (Alvira, 2022). Toyota improves productivity and cuts costs by using data to inform its Lean production practices and modern technology.

Technologies Used in Lean Manufacturing Practice

Figure 4: Technologies Used in Lean Manufacturing Practice

Source: (Alvira, 2022)

  • Accounting and Finance

The process of lean manufacturing relies heavily on the finance and accounting departments for assistance. To keep a Lean manufacturing setting going strong, it’s crucial to comprehend how every choice could affect money. A company’s financial health can be monitored and reported on by its finance and accounting staff, who should also look for ways to cut costs and maximise productivity with the assets at their disposal (Carolla, 2014). Toyota can make investments in lean manufacturing practices and refine its business processes because it has a solid economic footing.

Several ancillary processes are essential to the success of Toyota’s Lean manufacturing approach. Included in this category are human resources, management of supply chains, sales and marketing, information technology, and accounting (Ansuini, 2012). Toyota can foster a mindset of continuous enhancement, as well as increase productivity and cut down on waste material, by utilising these auxiliary processes in service of TPS objectives.


The report concludes by praising Toyota’s Lean manufacturing approach, which is widely regarded as one of the strongest and most efficient methods of production worldwide. The three main tenets of Lean manufacturing are “wastage elimination,” “continuous improvement,” and “the empowerment of staff members for bettering manufacturing procedures” (Stewart, 2018). Just-In-Time manufacturing, Kanban, and Kaizen are just a few of the core tenets of Lean manufacturing that have been shown to boost productivity, save costs, and raise the quality of products. Due in large part to Toyota’s pioneering work in the field of Lean manufacturing, the technique is now widely used in a wide range of sectors. Yet, an important cultural shift is required for a company to effectively apply Lean manufacturing, and its advantages may not be immediately obvious. Toyota’s Lean manufacturing process has improved the organization’s efficiency and earnings despite a few setbacks.


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Supplier Development, Customer Development, And Customer/Supplier Co-Development University Essay Example


Quality, affordability, and efficiency help manufacturing companies succeed. Supplier and customer development are often disregarded in this success. This study examines how supplier, customer, and customer/supplier co-development affect manufacturing company success. Supplier development helps suppliers enhance their capabilities and processes to produce high-quality goods and services on schedule (Alawag et al., 2023). consumer development, on the other hand, focuses on consumer demands and preferences to create products that meet them. Customer/supplier co-development involves enterprises working with customers or suppliers to create goods that fulfill their needs (Moisander, Närvänen, & Valtonen, 2020). This study will examine how manufacturing organizations like Toyota might adopt these three methods and how they affect success.


Supplier development

For the benefit of both the consumer and the provider, supplier development emphasizes teamwork to boost the competitiveness of key suppliers in terms of price, quality, delivery time, and technology (Wiratmadja & Tahir, 2021).

Customer development

The goal of a Lean Startup’s customer development process is to gain an understanding of the problem at hand. This can be achieved by verifying that the client’s needs are being met by the suggested solution. Instead of starting with an ideal solution and working backward to achieve it, as in conventional product development, customer development works in reverse (Tristiyanto et al., 2021).

Customer-Supplier Co-Development

Customer-supplier co-development is a joint effort to create a new product or service. Co-development goes beyond standard supplier-customer partnerships where the client orders and the supplier deliver. Customers identify a need or problem and collaborate with suppliers to solve it (Boukerika, Ahmad, & Shaharruddin, 2019). The customer provides market knowledge, and the supplier provides technical expertise and manufacturing capabilities. Through close collaboration and open communication, the customer-supplier co-development process can produce a product or service that better meets customer needs and is more innovative and efficient than traditional supplier-customer relationships (Johnsen, Lacoste, & Meehan, 2020). This can improve product quality, customer satisfaction, and mutually beneficial partnerships.


To attain their goals, manufacturers frequently employ tactics such as supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development. For example, in the case of Toyota company supplier development is the effort made to better the supplier’s performance and capabilities to fulfill a buyer’s requirements. This entails determining where the supplier can make enhancements and offering guidance and training to get them there (Flankegrd, Johansson, & Granlund, 2023). Improved product quality and lower production costs are the end goals of supplier development initiatives.

Consumer development involves finding and understanding consumer wants and preferences and building new markets and client segments. Customer development increases customer satisfaction, loyalty, and retention, which boosts sales and profits. Customer-supplier co-development combines customer and supplier skills and resources to produce innovative goods and services that better suit customer needs (Siemieniako & Mitręga, 2020). Co-development improves product creativity and efficiency, creating a better, more competitive product. Toyota car manufacturing company uses supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development to improve performance and achieve their goals, whether through a more reliable supply chain, increased customer satisfaction, or a more innovative product offering (Najafi-Tavani et al., 2020).

The reason for supplier, customer, and supplier/customer co-development.

To maintain a competitive edge in today’s industrial market, businesses must consistently enhance their operations. Toyota can accomplish this through supplier development, customer development, and supplier-customer co-development. Because of the vital role they play in ensuring the consistency and quality of a company’s products, suppliers warrant special attention from management. A more stable supply chain and fewer product faults are possible outcomes of an organization’s efforts to boost the efficiency of its suppliers (Haq, 2021). Costs can be lowered, and productivity boosted through supplier growth initiatives, including process optimization and waste reduction.

Customer development helps firms understand customer wants and preferences and develop products and services that fulfill those needs. Customer happiness, loyalty, and retention can enhance sales and profitability. Client development can help firms find new markets and client segments, boosting their customer base and income potential (Sjödin, Parida, & Visnjic, 2022). Supplier-customer co-development helps develop innovative products and services that better fulfill market needs by combining the skills and resources of both parties. This collaborative approach can produce more inventive and efficient goods and improve supplier-customer relations. By exchanging expertise and insights with suppliers and consumers, co-development can help organizations anticipate and respond to market developments (Leng & Zhao, 2023).

Manufacturing firms can increase performance and gain a competitive edge through supplier development, customer development, and supplier-customer co-development. Companies can improve supply chain reliability and save money by investing in their suppliers’ performance. Companies can boost customer satisfaction and loyalty if they invest in their customers’ growth by learning more about what makes them tick (Xue, Dou, & Shang, 2021). Co-development allows businesses to work together with their suppliers or consumers to improve product quality and efficiency while also strengthening their connection.

Types of development

Improvements in processes, designs, capabilities, relationships, and communications can all be a part of developing a supplier, a customer, or both. The goal of supplier development is to have the supplier’s procedures and capabilities better accommodate the buyer’s demands. Lean manufacturing and Six Sigma are two examples of process improvement projects that can be implemented to accomplish these goals. Training and mentorship are two examples of capability development programs that can be used to increase the competence of a supplier’s staff (Flankegrd, Granlund, & Johansson, 2021). Supplier growth may also involve fostering better communication between the supplier and the end user by employing more frequent meetings and collaborative strategy sessions.

The goal of customer development is to discover new markets and different types of customers by learning about their wants and needs. Methods like market research and consumer feedback programs can help businesses learn more about their client’s wants and needs. Design and development efforts can also be part of this process to provide goods and services that are a better fit for the target audience (Petrucci et al., 2022). Customer growth can also entail establishing more permanent lines of communication between the business and its clientele, whether through customer service initiatives or otherwise.

Customer-supplier co-development combines the knowledge and resources of both parties to create innovative products and services that better fulfill market needs. Joint design and development can improve product innovation and efficiency. It may include supplier-customer competence development programs like cooperative training or knowledge sharing (Oh, & In, 2023). Co-development may also involve regular supplier-customer meetings or cooperative planning. Supplier, customer, and customer-supplier co-development might involve different development activities based on the organization and its partners’ needs and goals. Manufacturers can improve performance and competitiveness by increasing processes, competencies, connections, and communication.

Who is involved

The Toyota firm and its suppliers participate in supplier development, while the manufacturing company and its customers participate in customer development. Manufacturing firms and their suppliers or end-users might engage in customer-supplier co-development to create innovative new goods and services. Thus, the participants in each development type are:

  1. For supplier development, the manufacturing company and its suppliers are involved.
  2. The manufacturing company and its customers are the parties involved in Customer development.
  3. The manufacturing company, suppliers, and customers are involved in Customer-supplier co-development.

How is it achieved

Depending on the needs and goals of the manufacturing organization and its partners, many strategies can be implemented to foster supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development. Methods typically employed by each development modality are as follows:

Supplier Development:

Manufacturers may additionally offer their providers training and mentorship applications to higher equip them to satisfy the producer’s wishes. It is far from possible for producers and suppliers to collaborate on efforts to cope with troubles of quality and overall performance in the supply chain. It is feasible for producers and their suppliers to collaborate on initiatives with the purpose of boom the productivity and performance of the delivery chain.

Customer Development:

Toyota car manufacturers can benefit from market research by learning more about consumer wants and needs. Manufacturers can learn where they might improve their products and customer service through programs designed to collect feedback from end users. Toyota car manufacturers can use consumer feedback to improve product and service development to satisfy end users.

Customer-Supplier Co-Development:

Manufacturers and their suppliers or consumers may collaborate to create innovative products and services through joint design and development. Manufacturers and their partners can co-create new solutions to existing market problems. Toyota and its suppliers or distributors may join to find and fix issues plaguing their supply chain or clientele. In addition to these methods, successful supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development depend on open lines of communication and strong working relationships. The manufacturing firm and its collaborators can benefit from maintaining a regular schedule of meetings, cooperative planning sessions, and open lines of communication.

Depending on the manufacturing firms and their partners’ priorities, the methods employed in supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development may diverge. Companies can improve performance, boost customer satisfaction, and gain a competitive edge in the manufacturing sector by working together and being proactive about these projects (Sjödin, Parida, & Visnjic, 2022).

The risks, costs, and benefits and how they are measured

There are risks, costs, and rewards that manufacturing organizations must weigh when pursuing supplier development, customer development, or customer-supplier co-development. The following is an analysis of each:


  1. Dependency: It can be difficult for businesses to transition to new suppliers or customers if they have become too dependent on their current ones.
  2. Intellectual property: Theft or misuse of intellectual property is a potential risk when sharing confidential information with business partners.
  3. Quality and performance: If a manufacturer’s providers or customers do not meet the desired exceptional or overall performance criteria, the producer can also enjoy setbacks together with delays, extra effort, or different unfavorable repercussions.


  1. Training and development: It is feasible that in order for producers to get hold of the effects they prefer from their employees and providers, they may want to invest money in training and improvement packages for those events.
  2. Communication and collaboration: Time and strength are needed to establish and preserve open verbal exchange strains, normal conferences, and cooperative planning classes.
  3. Technology and equipment: It is possible that updating the technology and equipment will be required to back the development efforts.


  1. Improved quality and performance: Manufacturers can boost product quality and performance by collaborating with suppliers and end users.
  2. Cost reduction: Savings can be achieved through increased productivity and less waste when businesses work together.
  3. Innovation: By working together, companies may create groundbreaking innovations in response to the ever-changing demands of consumers.

Measuring the outcomes:

The effectiveness of a producer’s studies and development sports may be evaluated with the help of metrics including those:

  1. Supplier performance: It is miles possible to preserve a watch on how well producers’ providers carry out phrases of exceptional, timely shipping and pricing.
  2. Customer satisfaction: To gauge how satisfied and devoted their clientele is, manufacturers can conduct surveys and employ other measures.
  3. Financial performance: Financial performance in manufacturing can be gauged through indicators like revenue, profit, and return on investment, which should be boosted through development efforts.

Supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development carry risks and costs, but the payoff might be substantial. Manufacturers can make sure they are improving their performance and competitiveness as intended by measuring the outcomes and analyzing the success of these activities regularly.

What measures are commonly used?

Many different metrics are used by manufacturers to gauge the success of their supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development efforts. Among these are:

  1. Supplier performance metrics: Suppliers are evaluated on their capacity to meet the needs of the manufacturing company by a variety of variables, such as quality, delivery, cost, and responsiveness.
  2. Customer satisfaction metrics: Measures of customer satisfaction with the products or services given by the manufacturer can be gleaned via surveys, net promoter scores, and loyalty programs.
  3. Financial metrics: The financial performance of the producing business enterprise is evaluated using these standards, which may also include sales, profit, go-back on funding, and different financial variables.
  4. Innovation metrics: To evaluate the effect of improvement efforts on the organization’s innovation competencies, these metrics hold music of the latest items or services generated, patents submitted, and different innovation-associated measurements.

Manufacturers can analyze the efficacy of their research and development efforts and adjust courses as necessary using these metrics. Businesses can make data-driven decisions that enhance their connections, capabilities, and performance with suppliers and customers.

Future trends in this subject area

Sustainability, digitization, and collaboration will likely shape supplier, customer, and customer-supplier co-development trends. Manufacturing businesses may prioritize supply chain development to lessen their environmental effect and improve social responsibility (Sjödin, Parida, & Visnjic, 2022). Suppliers and customers must work together to achieve supply chain sustainability goals. Digitalization will also affect supplier-customer interactions. Digital technology will improve supplier and customer collaboration, streamline processes, and boost efficiency in manufacturing (Xue, Dou, & Shang, 2021).

Supplier and customer growth will continue to rely heavily on collaborative efforts. Collaboration between suppliers and customers is becoming increasingly critical for controlling risks, assuring quality, and enhancing performance as supply chains become more complicated and global (Tristiyanto et al., 2021). Sustainability, digitization, and cooperation will likely be at the forefront of future trends in supplier development, customer development, and customer-supplier co-development as they seek to build more effective, resilient, and accountable supply chains.


In conclusion, the study shows that co-development between manufacturers and their suppliers and customers is crucial to the success of manufacturing businesses. A company’s product quality, costs, and operational efficiency can all benefit from close cooperation with its suppliers and consumers. The study’s results provide light on why these tactics should be used by industrial firms. In addition, the report stresses the significance of organizations prioritizing long-term profits through investments in supplier and customer relationships. The findings of this study highlight the importance of teamwork and innovation in the manufacturing sector.


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What Is The Level Of AI Application And Adoption Worldwide? Free Writing Sample


As the name suggests, Artificial Intelligence (AI) is assimilating human intelligence into machines by applying computer science knowledge. Fortunately, AI has simplified decision-making, including huge and complex data analysis, storage, and information retrieval. Mondal, B. (2020) asserts that AI has influenced personal, social, and business outlooks by developing products capable of playing music, creating social networks, and deriving data for use in e-commerce. However, despite AI’s benefits for humanity, the critics of AI are often concerned about the loss of human-to-human relations since AI is a machine.

Critics often argue that AI lacks human attributes such as compassion and empathy to bond with humans and release the same experience as communicating or interacting with fellow humans. Therefore, ethical concerns have been raised with the use of AI in fields like medicine, business, and education. The purpose of this research is to look into the fields which have had the most profound application and impact of AI by answering the research questions below;

Research Question 1: What is the level of AI application and adoption worldwide?

Research Question 2: How is AI affecting society and normal practices of human existence?

Research Question 3: What regulatory and ethical measures are being implemented to protect human activities and AI applications?

Key terms include artificial intelligence, use of artificial intelligence, AI Models, and automation.

AI is applicable in a wide range of fields today, including but not limited to; healthcare, education, the justice system, and financial services. According to Lee, H. S., & Lee, J. (2021), AI is used in academic research. However, it is still in its early stages. Moreover, AI is being applied in education in Physical Education (PE) by offering customized PE classes with learners’ evaluation and knowledge provision. Lee and Lee suggest that AI’s self-learning algorithm can offer a personal PE experience depending on the student’s psychology, abilities, and other characteristics. On the other hand, AI models such as Electronic Health Record (EHR) has improved patient outcome since it is used to analyze clinical data in ophthalmology. Moreover, EHR data has been useful in ocular disease diagnosis, such as diabetic retinopathy, through supervised machine learning that enhances risk assessment for early detection and predicting progression (Lin et al., 2020).

Since it is meant to be intelligent by artificial neural networks, one characteristic of AI is that it learns, and because it analyses clinical data in the case of EHR, it can solve problems. Moreover, according to Johri et al. (2021), AI has Natural Language Processing (NLP) subfield that uses machine learning to understand and manipulate human language to perform tasks such as spell check and translation. Additionally, AI is a machine that uses the knowledge of robotics, meaning it is more efficient, faster, and more accurate than humans. Furthermore, AI imitates human cognition, meaning it can perceive; for instance, it can recognize images. Therefore, the versatile nature of AI makes it more appealing to be adopted by humans across the globe.

The medical field is realizing the most real-world application of AI in their daily performance. According to Haleem et al. (2019), AI is set to change almost all areas of medicine. Haleem Javaid and Khan affirm that AI is used to digitally store medical records, perform check-ups, conduct personal therapy, offer targeted treatments, and discover new drugs. Moreover, AI assists surgeons in operations through imaging and offers better decision-making by performing risk analysis to control infections. Since AI reduces documentation time, understands human language, can analyze medical data, enables precise surgeries, and offers imaging tools, the use of AI in hospitals is so profound that almost every sector of medical institutions has AI models in use.

However, with increasing automation, there have to be frameworks that regulate AI applications in different fields. For instance, since AI is used in EHR, data protection policies regarding AI must be implemented to ensure patients’ data is safe. According to Rana et al. (2022), employee-related contingency regarding the application of AI includes a lack of data governance, inadequate training, and poor data quality. As we are bound to experience more technological innovations from AI, proper training and knowledge management should be prioritized to regulate AI as a tool, not to loosen the distinction between human and machine, thus upholding ethical practices.


AI is a powerful tool for this generation, and if properly applied, it will improve and sustain the quality of life. AI has revolutionized different fields of our society, more profoundly, the medical sector, where doctors and surgeons apply AI models in medical procedures and data storage. However, we must foster ethical practices while we adopt AI use. Therefore, data protection policies and accountability must be established where institutions use AI models to perform specific tasks. One thing to note is that AI has a brighter and darker side. Therefore, we should maximize the benefits and minimize the risks of using AI.


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