Opioids And Analgesic Essay Example For College


Opioids and analgesics are commonly used to manage modеratе to severe pаin. The pаinkillers oxycodone and acetaminoрhen, combined to make Percocet, are commonly recommended to treat acute and chronic pain. This paper will discuss the concept of opioids and analgesics, the classification of Percocet, side effects and adverse effects of medications, drug interactions, nursing interventions, and lab values.

Classification of the drugs

Percocet is classified as an opioid and analgesic. Oxycodone, a constituent оf Percоcet, is classified as a semi-synthetic opioid. It binds to the mu-opioid receptors in the brain and spinal cord, thereby mitigating pain. The analgesic constituent of Perсoсet, namely Acetаminophen, eхerts its therаpeutic effect by impeding the biosynthesis of prostaglandins, which are bioactive molecules that instigate inflammation and nociception. Percocet has a higher risk of misuse and addiction than other opioids and analgesics.

Side effects and adverse effects of medications

Dizziness, sleepiness, nausea, vomiting, constipation, and respiratory depression are common adverse reactions to Рercocet аnd other oрioids. The prolonged use of the substance is associated with unfavorable outcomes such as the development of tolerance, physical dependence, addiction, and withdrawal symptoms (Xu et al., 2021). Оpioids have a greater risk оf side effects аnd аddiction compared to non-opioid analgesics like acetaminophen or ibuprofen.

Drug interactions

The danger of respiratory depression and drowsiness from Percocet is amplified when used with other drugs, such as benzodiazepines, opioids, and muscle relaxants. The danger of adverse effects and overdose is amplified when opioids and analgesics are combined with substances like antidepressants, antihistamines, and alcohol.

Nursing intervention

Nurses can help manage pain in patients taking Percocet by monitoring vital signs, administering medication as prescribed, and using non-pharmacological interventions such as heat therapy or relaxation techniques. Nurses must provide patient education on the potential hazards and advantages of Percocet and offer direction on appropriate administration, safekeeping, and elimination of the drug.

In addition to these measures, nurses can assess patients for potential opioid misuse, abuse, or addiction. Such includes screening for risk factors, monitoring signs of opioid dependence or withdrawal, and providing referrals to addiction treatment services if necessary (Fiore et al., 2022). For patients on Percocet, nurses can collaborate with medical professionals to create tailored pain management regimens that consider their medical histories, present conditions, and other elements that can affect how they respond to the drug. Nurses can ensure patients obtain safe and efficient pain treatment while reducing the risk of opioid-related harms by offering comprehensive care and support.

Lab values

Liver function tests, namely alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), may serve as a viable means of monitoring liver function in individuals undergoing oрioid therapy (Le et al., 2022). Тhe еxtеndеd utilizаtion of oрioids such as Percocet may result in hepatic impairment, which an increase in the levels of these hepatic enzymes can identify. Renal function monitoring in patients undergoing opioid therapy can be facilitated by utilizing kidney function tests such as creatinine and blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels. Opioid use can cause renal failure with prolonged use, which increased laboratory values can indicate.

Electrolyte levels such as sodium, potassium, and calcium should also be monitored in patients taking opioids, as these medicationscаn affect electrolyte balance. An imbalance in electrolytes cаn lеad to cаrdiаc arrhythmias or seizures, which cаn be lifе-thrеatеning (Le et al., 2022). Regulаr monitoring of lab vаlues can help hеalthcarе providers detect any potential complications associated with opioid use and adjust treatment plans accordingly.


Opioids and analgesics are frequently employed to manage pain of moderate to severe intensity. However, their utilization carries a significant potential for adverse outcomes and the development of addictive behaviors. Percocet, a compound medication comprising oxycodone and acetaminophen, is categorized as an opioid and analgesic agent and possesses a significant propensity for misuse and dependence. The management of pain in patients taking Percocet is a critical aspect of nursing care, and nurses are instrumental in this regard. Nurses should monitor vital signs, provide Percocet as recommended, and educate patients about its dangers and advantages in managing pain. Lab values can also monitor patients taking opioids and detect any potential adverse effects. Additional investigation is required to formulate pain management strategies that are both safer and more efficacious.


Fiore, J. F., El-Kefraoui, C., Chay, M. A., Nguyen-Powanda, P., Do, U., Olleik, G., … & Feldman, L. S. (2022). Opioid versus opioid-free analgesia after surgical discharge: a systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized trials. The Lancet399(10343), 2280-2293.

Le, B. H., Aggarwal, G., Douglas, C., Green, M., Nicoll, A., & Ahmedzai, S. (2022). Oxycodone/naloxone prolonged‐release tablets in patients with moderate‐to‐severe, chronic cancer pain: Challenges in the context of hepatic impairment. Asia‐Pacific Journal of Clinical Oncology18(1), 13–18.

Xu, L., Krishna, A., Stewart, S., Shea, K., Racz, R., Weaver, J. L., … & Rouse, R. (2021). Effects of sedative psychotropic drugs combined with oxycodone on respiratory depression in the rat. Clinical and Translational Science14(6), 2208–2219.

People Compare Each Other On Social Media Essay Example

Comparison on social media has become an increasingly common form of communication and self-expression. Whether through bragging rights or creating a story edited to perfection, these platforms have allowed people to compare themselves with others. This can have positive and negative effects depending on how comparison is used in a given situation. While the comparison is often seen as a way to motivate those around us, it can also lead to cyberbullying, stressing family members, losing confidence, and self-numbing if not appropriately handled. This essay will explore the consequences of comparing ourselves with others on social media and how it can lead to negative alterations in perception and unhappiness with our accomplishments. The essay will also discuss the different outcomes of comparing each other on social media – from positive inspiration for progress to negative consequences such as cyberbullying – and how we can use comparison to ensure better outcomes for ourselves.

Comparison of social media

Blindly Comparing and Not Measuring Ourselves

It is too easy on social media to get caught up in the comparison with others. We often scroll through photos of lavish vacations or expensive luxury items and want those same experiences for ourselves. People create edited stories, making them appear perfect and untouchable by anyone else’s standards. This can lead us to compare ourselves with others – not always considering our unique capabilities or measuring our successes – ultimately leading us down an unhealthy path of self-doubt and lack of motivation (Jan et al.332). Blindly comparing without measuring can strip away any appreciation for the hard work we have put in towards achieving our goals; instead, it takes away from the joy we should feel when accomplishing something meaningful with our lives.

While comparison can be helpful if it spurs us on to try harder, too often, this is not the case. We tend to focus our comparisons with those most similar and within our orbit, bringing out feelings of inferiority or depression when we feel like we do not measure up (O’Reilly et al. 12). Teenagers are particularly susceptible to pursuing validation through social media due to its effect on the brain’s reward system – activating dopamine just as drugs do – making adolescents genuinely addicted. Even adults who grew up before the age of social media take part in the reflected appraisal, where they develop their sense of self from how others view them, risking incessant depression if they consistently compare themselves unfavorably instead of measuring themselves against their past accomplishments more than what other people post about their lives online now.

Straying from the Real Focus of Life and Losing Ourselves

It is not just blindly comparing and not measuring ourselves that can lead to unhealthy comparisons on social media. We can become so preoccupied with impressing others that we lose sight of what is truly essential. Often, people will portray themselves as living a perfect life instead of sharing moments that capture their true essence and character. It can make people focus on outside opinions about their lives rather than their personal goals and ambitions. When faced with such an issue, individuals may begin straying from what truly matters in life, such as relationships and family values, or simply enjoying the present moment instead of pursuing vain desires for perfection all over social media platforms.

Constantly comparing ourselves to others or their accomplishments is a slippery slope that can lead to an unrealistic view of life and take us further away from living authentically. This way of thinking impacts both our perception of reality and our mental health (Jan et al. 330). It is due to the automatic negative thoughts that arise when someone perceives themselves as inferior or having less than someone else. The constant desire for perfectionism leads to never-ending dissatisfaction resulting in low self-esteem (Wilson et al., 529). People no longer focus on celebrating our successes, instead comparing them with what other people have achieved or posted online, which gives them social acceptance and validation from their peers. Another danger is that the more time people spend scrolling mindlessly through these platforms looking at other’s lives, the further detached they become from our truth, creating an illusionary world where everything looks picture-perfect despite what may be happening behind closed doors – leading some people into more bottomless pits of depression trying hard to replicate a lifestyle they cannot reach without realizing how far removed it is from authentic living or reality.


The abuse of digital communication platforms and social networks can lead to cyberbullying. This form of bullying involves an individual using these outlets to harass or intimidate another person. The effects on victims can be severe and can cause them to experience mental health issues (Ybarra et al., 2016). The increased opportunities for comparison on social media are likely to contribute significantly to this problem; by creating an environment where people feel judged and targeted based on their appearance or achievements. When people believe others are superior to them, they may engage in cyberbullying. It is either because they cannot keep up with the constant posts about someone else’s accomplishments or simply because seeing other people happy makes them unhappy. Cyberbullying is directed at individuals and can manifest in the form of organizational harassment, such as trolling cultures that target specific demographics, and it has greatly increased on social media (Jan et al. 332). This behavior should never be tolerated since it contributes negatively to mental health issues and puts vulnerable people at risk.

Moreover, as competition for attention on social media increases, so does the hatred among peers (Schønning et al., p.8). People often create accounts solely to slander others and mock their posts or photos, sometimes even resulting in death. The lack of clear physical boundaries associated with cyberbullying makes it especially difficult for victims who are bullied. They often find themselves being bullied multiple times a day without reprieve from their tormentors while still having no idea who they are. Cyberbullies may target someone’s physical appearance or lifestyle choices to bring out feelings of insecurity and superiority that may lead them down a path toward depression.

In the comparison of life

Forcing the Family and Self to Bear the Scope

The impact of comparison does not end just with social media; it has extended its reach to our daily lives. Families can be forced to bear the burdens when someone compares themselves with others in an unhealthy manner. This is especially true for those living in families where academic excellence is highly valued and heavily emphasized within families; children are often told to constantly compare themselves with others, setting higher and higher expectations for themselves that may not even be achievable. It can put immense pressure on the individual and their family members as they strive for something that may never come – taking away any sense of joy or fulfillment from reaching one’s goals. Furthermore, for those who find themselves making unhelpful comparisons on social media, the implications may extend beyond their mental well-being; projecting their insecurities onto others forces them to bear the scope of comparison too. Family members are particularly vulnerable to this phenomenon because children often mimic their parent’s behavior. If one parent is constantly comparing themselves to others on social media, this could lead young people to develop similar thinking patterns.

Creating Stress and Losing Confidence

Social comparison on social media can lead to increased stress and anxiety as users attempt to keep up with others that appear more successful, leading to a loss of confidence. The constant striving for perfection can often lead to disappointment or inadequacy when results are not achieved. According to (Bozzola et al. 6), people who spend excessive amounts of time comparing themselves online often feel worse about their own lives, and this dissatisfaction may have severe implications for mental health.

When unhealthy comparisons are made, they can be detrimental to an individual. When people constantly compete with others without being aware of their capabilities or potential, they often forget the bigger picture and instead focus on unrealistic goals, which may cause them immense stress and anxiety. “Social media makes you feel like you should have a particular life, and if your life is not like that because of your condition, then it is a negative thing”(Wilson et al., 525). As outlined earlier, social comparison is both spontaneous and ongoing, so it is almost impossible for users to take a break from being constantly bombarded with images or messages that make them strive harder in order to fit in; this creates a cycle whereby they struggle even more when they do not meet the standards set by others which leads onto further losses in self-esteem and confidence.

Self-Numbing and Complete Swing

Excess use of social media is linked to increased stress and anxiety and self-numbing or escape behaviors. People may get into the habit of using social media to avoid uncomfortable feelings or life issues – this can lead them to become even further detached from their true selves, creating an illusionary world where everything looks picture-perfect despite what may be happening behind closed doors. This creates dangerous situations as people are exposed to constant images of perfect lifestyles. They then attempt to imitate these lifestyles, often resulting in complete swings in behavior, such as going from one extreme, for example, being very quiet and keeping themselves isolated, to another where they become too outgoing or attention-seeking. If not effectively treated, this can have severe mental and physical health consequences.

Furthermore, an unhealthy comparison can lead to a complete swing of our emotions. We may become so used to comparing ourselves with others that we begin to find solace in activities such as drinking or drug use to numb the pain and emptiness that comes from feeling inadequate due to constant criticism. The swing in emotions can also lead to poor sleep quality (Kolhar et al.2220). This can have very dangerous consequences on individuals’ lives and even those around them; it is essential, therefore, that we stay aware of how comparisons affect us mentally and physically in order not only not to succumb to severe depression but also to be able to recognize when we need outside help if necessary.

Benefits of Comparing Others

Inspiration for progress

Though comparison on social media can be detrimental if not handled properly, many benefits still come from it. One of the most notable is its ability to inspire progress. When observing another person’s accomplishments, we can learn from them and employ what we observe. Our goals may be more achievable than originally thought through careful analysis and implementation of their strategies (Uhls et al., 68). Furthermore, observing others’ successes in specific areas, such as personnel growth or even business-related achievements, can create an internal motivation within us to strive for greatness in whatever endeavor we choose to pursue. In a sense, comparison on social media helps us stay hungry for success, leading to better outcomes when used correctly.

Furthermore, gauging our progress against others can be a powerful push to improve ourselves. Witnessing the accomplishments that others can make and the heights of success, they reach can motivate us to strive for our objectives. Comparing ourselves to others can also help us evaluate our progress, recognize what we need to work on, and set reasonable goals (Raggatt et al. 8). Additionally, through comparison, we may gain insight from another’s successes or missteps, which could then be applied in good ways in life. Finally, comparing ourselves to those who are performing better than us can motivate us to enhance our performance and abilities. Seeing how far someone else has come in their career or life journey may spur us toward achieving ours. Furthermore, when we see someone else reaching success in an area where we are striving for success, it could remind us that our efforts will eventually pay off if we keep at it with diligence and hard work.

Looking for Different Directions and Mistakes

The other advantage of comparing ourselves to others is that it allows us to examine and evaluate different directions, strategies, and mistakes. When we observe how another person achieves their goals or handles particular situations, we can explore new methods for our projects. By recognizing the errors people make in their pursuit of success, we can gain a greater understanding of how what to avoid doing to achieve our goals (Uhls et al., 68). This ability to critically analyze someone else’s behavior and performance gives us the insight to make informed decisions when striving toward our goals. We can also study what has been done before us in a particular field of interest and modify our strategies accordingly. It allows us to improve by trial and error when issues arise; with this knowledge comes a sense of comfort that whatever adjustments we make are from well-thought-out decisions instead of brashly jumping into something unfamiliar. Furthermore, having access to other people’s experiences provides insight into how certain situations should be approached so there is less room for error when trying new things or problem-solving various dilemmas.

Helping People Build Confidence

Finally, comparing ourselves to others can build confidence in many areas. When scrolling through social media, we often encounter successful moments from people we know and admire. Seeing this could lead us to feel inspired and motivated by their accomplishments, which ultimately gives us the courage to take risks that may not have been taken if the comparison had not been present in the first place. This sense of security that one gains from knowing that they are capable of great things themselves is invaluable when it comes down to actually pursuing those endeavors with a positive outlook on life. Subsequently, comparison can provide an extra boost for people who doubt themselves or want more out of their lives than what they currently have. All-in-all, using others’ successes as motivation could be what someone needs to make strides toward achieving their personal goals without feeling discouraged.


In conclusion, comparing ourselves on social media can have both positive and negative effects. While comparison can cause us to strive for unattainable levels of perfection or engage in self-numbing behaviors, it also has its benefits – from inspiring our progress to helping build confidence as we pursue our goals. As such, it is important to be mindful of how comparisons are used. It is always important to evaluate their potential implications before drawing any conclusions about ourselves or others. Through careful monitoring and fostering a supportive environment both online and off, we can ensure that comparison does not lead us down unhealthy paths of cyberbullying or depression but instead serve as an instrument for growth in our respective pursuits.

Works Cited

Bozzola, Elena, et al. “The Use of Social Media in Children and Adolescents: Scoping Review on the Potential Risks.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 19, no. 16, 12 Aug. 2022, p. 6

Jan, Muqaddas, et al. “Impact of Social Media on Self-Esteem.” Ssrn.com, 31 Aug. 2017, pp.330-332

Kolhar, Manjur, et al. “Effect of Social Media Use on Learning, Social Interactions, and Sleep Duration among University Students.” Saudi Journal of Biological Sciences, vol. 28, no. 4, Jan. 2021, pp. 2216–2222

O’Reilly, Michelle, et al. “Is Social Media Bad for Mental Health and Well-being? Exploring the Perspectives of Adolescents.” Clinical Child Psychology and Psychiatry, vol. 23, no. 4, 20 May 2018, pp.1-12

Raggatt, Michelle, et al. “I Aspire to Look and Feel Healthy like the Posts Convey”: Engagement with Fitness Inspiration on Social Media and Perceptions of Its Influence on Health and Well-being.” BMC Public Health, vol. 18, no. 1, 10 Aug. 2018, p.8

Schønning, V., Hjetland, G.J., Aarø, L.E. and Skogen, J.C., 2020. Social media use and mental health and well-being among adolescents–a scoping review. Frontiers in Psychology11, p.8

Uhls, Yalda T., Nicole B. Ellison, and Kaveri Subrahmanyam. “Benefits and costs of social media in adolescence.” Pediatrics 140.Supplement_2 (2017): pp. 67-70.

Wilson, Ceri, and Jennifer Stock. “‘Social media comes with good and bad sides, doesn’t it?’A balancing act of the benefits and risks of social media use by young adults with long-term conditions.” Health 25.5 (2021): 515-534.

Performance Management And Motivation Essay Example

Performance management has developed over the years, with many organizations moving from traditional models. Unlike conventional models, modern performance management systems analyze employee performance and motivation in real time rather than relying on annual reviews. This can be attributed to the changing workplace environment along with technological advancements. Contemporary organizations depend upon various forms of performance appraisal and employee motivation to achieve their objectives and overall goals. Performance management refers to a range of activities a business engages in to enhance group or individual performance in assigned roles (Aguinis, 2019, p. 1). The core aim of performance management and motivation is to improve the firm performance. Motivated and engaged employees are often believed to perform better than those that are not motivated. Motivation is a critical factor for the success of an organization. In the current fast-paced business environment, performance managers play a pertinent role in assessing individual and team performance and developing strategies to improve these practices. Hence, performance management models are utilized in firms to bring motivation on an individual and departmental level. Consequently, more motivated employees tend to be productive and responsible in their given roles in the business. Organizations engage in performance management for different reasons supported by different models, which directly impact employee motivation and differ from performance appraisal in certain ways.

Reasons for Performance Management in Organizations

Organizations often conduct performance assessments for various reasons. Firstly, it is important to note that businesses rely on performance management and employee motivation system to give employee feedback regarding their roles and help organizations make crucial decisions. For instance, most organizations use performance appraisal models to determine workplace issues such as employee promotions and pay raises (Aguinis & Burgi-Tian, 2021, p. 234). Although performance managers are provided with information regarding individual and group performances in an organization, the practice mainly aims to design creative ways to motivate and engage employees, thus maximizing their productivity. This, in turn, helps the organizations in reaching the set objectives. Therefore, companies use data from this practice to design ways and methods of engaging employees and understanding their views and concerns at the workplace. Most performance managers acknowledge that understanding and giving each employee feedback regarding their performance will eventually impact the whole team and the whole organization. Thus, the information gained through performance management and employee motivation equips managers with strategies to improve performance within various departments and organizations.

Furthermore, performance management is significant in assessing the goals supported by employee feedback. In many organizations, the attention of performance managers must focus on the best-performing employees and those who score lowly. Hence, recognizing factors that cause low motivation and performance in an organization helps to determine the appropriate performance appraisal system (Rodriguez & Walters, 2017, p. 208). Companies set performance criterion which helps employees to perform their duties. Therefore, organizations advertise vacancies with defined job descriptions and skills required to attract qualified candidates. During hiring, the performance managers can openly discuss with the employees what is required of them. Given these roles of performance management and motivation, managers must ensure that adequate training and communication to employees regarding their roles are communicated. Therefore, performance management can be an instrumental tool in evaluating organizational goals.

Motivational Theories and Performance Management

Scholars have proposed many theories exploring how motivation is linked to organizational performance management. For instance, Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs theory provides that people are often motivated to satisfy lower needs before moving to higher ones (Hopper, 2020, P. 2). The theory categorizes human needs into physiological, safety, social well-being, and self-actualization categories. Performance managers engage in activities that promote employee motivation by meeting their perceived needs. Another instrumental theory is the Expectancy Theory which holds that employee motivation depends on the extent to which the individual requires something. For instance, employees who require promotion or pay raises will likely be highly motivated in their respective work compared to those who are less motivated. Also, the goal-setting theory is often applied in motivation and performance management studies as it connects goal setting with task performance (Debara, 2022, par. 2). It also addresses the setting specific, challenging, reachable, and acceptable objectives between a manager and the employee, reiterating the employee’s importance in setting goals (par. 6). To enhance collaboration, the set goals must be part of the company’s performance plan and clearly disseminated to the employee. Managers can offer periodic feedback concerning the employee’s progress and provide motivation practices, improving organizational performance (Murphy, 2020, p. 14). Therefore, the actual motivation process is shown where employees dedicate certain energy levels to work at any given time and possess various needs that must be satisfied. Specifically, these theories comprise employees allocating more commitment and energy to actions that maximize their needs and cause satisfaction. Importantly, the key to performance management is ensuring that assessments and results are modified and structured to help the employees focus on their actions to align with the organizational culture and objectives. Motivation also means that the employees’ self-esteem and job involvement are enhanced after seeing their efforts leading to organizational objectives. Given this information, the above theories provide managers with a framework to improve organizational employee performance and motivation.

Impacts of Performance Management on Employee Motivation

Employee motivation has significant implications for organizational success. It is worth noting that employees’ motivation is the primary driver for innovation and creativity in a workplace. Therefore, an organization’s clear performance management practice depends on goal-setting, adequate feedback, and a robust consequence management system (Ozkeser, 2019, P. 803). This is because most organizations often focus on excellent performers with elevated potential while ignoring middle and lower performers. Therefore, performance managers must design a proper consequence management framework to address these issues (Ozkeser, 2019, p. 804). Employees are likely to reduce their efforts if no action is taken on lower performers on the team. For instance, setting performance standards for low-performing workers encourage teamwork and group motivation. Performance managers must, as a result, continuously act on low performers at the same rate as the higher performers. Regarding motivation, performance management helps higher-performing employees to continue devising ways of improving their duties hence setting themselves up for promotions and salary raises (Ozkeser, 2019, P. 803). Since employees possess unique abilities, strengths, and experiences, performance management helps them to maximize their hidden potential as they are motivated to achieve their dreams. Ultimately, performance management practices impact employee performance by ensuring that the employees have clear goals and commitments and often receive feedback and training from the managers to improve their performances.

Redesigning Performance Management Processes in an Organization

When a business improves and continues transforming, its respective performance management strategies must also improve. Organizations have many options for effective ways to update their performance management processes. For instance, performance management practice must move from a top-down approach to shared ownership in which managers function as coaches while teams drive performances. Also, organizations can navigate from annual reviews to regular performance assessment activities. This is because the annual employee performance review is susceptible to bias as it depends on memory and employees’ past behavior and performances (Stange, 2022, par.8). Managers should deliver employee feedback instantly, whether positive or negative hence it should not wait until the end of the year. Frequent and real-time employee performance reviews help to address weaknesses and provide instant feedback, which enhances productivity. For instance, managers can conduct monthly meetings with their employees to iron out issues and recommend them depending on their performance. The meetings between managers and employees must be developmentally and future-oriented, transparent, and inclusive. Hence, organizations have various effective approaches to redesigning their performance management process to guarantee organizational success.

Differences between Performance Management and Performance Appraisal

Although these terms are used interchangeably, they differ in various processes and practices. Armstrong (2021, p. 9) defines performance appraisal as the managers’ formative assessment and rating of employees. Unlike performance management, performance appraisal tends to be continuous and more comprehensive (DeNisi & Murphy, 2017, p. 421). Additionally, while performance appraisal is often a top-down approach, performance management is a combined process achieved through dialogues. Furthermore, while appraisals are conducted annually, most performance reviews occur continuously and periodically. Finally, performance appraisals are performed by the human resource department, while line managers conduct performance management. Hence, it is essential to draw a distinguishing line between performance management and appraisal to be able to incorporate performance management to improve motivation successfully.

Conclusively, businesses have discovered the importance of performance management and employee motivation to facilitate their growth and success. Studies also have shown that employee performance management systems have significant implications for motivation. Therefore, providing employees with structures, objectives, and frameworks that help them improve performance also motivates them. Organizations perform performance management for many reasons, including assessing ways of promoting and increasing salaries. Additionally, theories such as goal-setting and Marlow’s Hierarchy of Needs provide a conceptual framework for managers to understand the impact of motivation on employee performance. Employee performance management affects productivity as it addresses goal setting and teamwork, which are crucial for organizational success. Therefore, organizations can redesign their performance management tools to ensure better motivation, but it is fundamental to differentiate performance management from performance appraisal.


Aguinis, H. (2019). Performance management for dummies. John Wiley & Sons. https://books.google.com/books?hl=en&lr=&id=0wqWDwAAQBAJ&oi=fnd&pg=PA3&dq=Aguinis,+H.+(2019).+Performance+management+for+dummies.+John+Wiley++Sons.&ots=0OlPJP5c6z&sig=YYkn-qVX2kmVSWybZUD1wYGQSRA#v=onepage&q=AguinisH.(2019).Performancemanagementfordummies.JohnWileySons.&f=false

Aguinis, H., & Burgi-Tian, J. (2021). Talent management challenges during COVID-19 and beyond Performance management to the rescue. BRQ Business Research Quarterly24(3), 233-240. https://doi.org/10.1177/23409444211009528

Armstrong, M. (2021). Performance management. https://vulms.vu.edu.pk/Courses/HRM613/Downloads/ARMSTRONGSHANDBOOKOFPERFORMANCE.pdf

Debara, D. (2022, June 22). Goal-setting theory: Why it’s important, and how to use it at work. Goal-Setting Theory: Why It’s Important, and How to Use It at Work. Retrieved May 4, 2023, from https://www.betterup.com/blog/goal-setting-theory#:~:text=yourbestapproach.-,Whatisgoalsettingtheory,vaguegoalsoreasygoals.

DeNisi, A. S., & Murphy, K. R. (2017). Performance appraisal and performance management: 100 years of progress? Journal of applied psychology102(3), 421. https://www.cbs.dk/files/cbs.dk/denisietal_jap2017.pdf

Hopper, E. (2020). Maslow’s hierarchy of needs explained. ThoughtCo, ThoughtCo24, 1-3. http://www.christianworldmedia.com/client/docs/603_1585079540_17.pdf

Murphy, K. R. (2020). Performance evaluation will not die, but it should. Human Resource Management Journal30(1), 13-31. https://doi.org/10.1111/1748-8583.12259

Ozkeser, B. (2019). Impact of training on employee motivation in human resources management. Procedia Computer Science158. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.procs.2019.09.117

Rodriguez, J., & Walters, K. (2017). The importance of training and development in employee performance and evaluation. World Wide Journal of Multidisciplinary Research and Development3(10), 206-212. https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Kelley_Walters/publication/332537797_The_Importance_of_Training_and_Development_in_Employee_Performance_and_Evaluation/links/5cefe41092851c4dd01ba833/The-Importance-of-Training-and-Development-in-Employee-Performance-and-Evaluation.pdf

Stange, J. (2022, July 5). The who, what, why, and how of performance management. Employee Success Software. Retrieved May 4, 2023, from https://www.quantumworkplace.com/future-of-work/performance-management