These days, all companies have their unique organizational culture, which supplies a decent level of performance and establishes a healthy and strong working environment. According to Spicer (2020), “Organizational cultures are the signs and symbols, shared practices and underlying assumptions of an organization” (p. 1737). However, the COVID-19 outbreak and its consequences led to the necessity to adjust to new working conditions and make corporate culture more flexible. Therefore, the problem of organizational culture adaptivity arose, which was actively discussed in recent journal articles.
There is a variety of studies devoted to the challenges to business arouse from the COVID-19 pandemic. However, while searching for appropriate literature covering the problem of organizational culture adaptivity, some hardships were indicated. The most widespread one regarded a huge choice of articles published by people who are not specialists in this field. They expressed their opinion without profound research, and their guidelines and findings could appear to be superficial. In order to overcome this difficulty, it is advisable to read the works of professors and experienced entrepreneurs in professional journals.
“Organizational Culture and COVID-19” by Spicer
In the article “Organizational Culture and COVID-19″, Spicer covers a range of problems in organizational culture which arose due to the coronavirus pandemic. The author attempted to outline possible directions of research in order to adapt this aspect of working performance to the current circumstances. In general, all of them regard the organizational culture adaptivity in the face of possible changes in the working environment. Spicer (2020) questions the resilience of underlying assumptions and practices fixed in a company. He asks: “Do organizational cultures actually change when there is a wide-scale societal jolt, or do they remain stubbornly similar?” (Spicer, 2020, p. 1738). Moreover, the researcher prompts a profound comprehension of a problem by highlighting the necessity to define how exactly cultures within businesses change.
The third set of research questions involves the impact of these changes in symbolic work on the fixed practices and rules within companies. Spicer (2020) also contemplates the macro-level effect on organizational culture by asking whether overarching transformation will occur. Lastly, the author offers to estimate the actual influence of changes due to the COVID-19 pandemic on organizational culture (Spicer, 2020). Therefore, the author of the current article attempted to prompt profound research on different aspects of cultural adaptivity within companies in the face of different challenges.
Past Research in Organizations and Management by Bailey & Breslin
The purpose of the study “The COVID-19 Pandemic: What Can We Learn from Past Research in Organizations and Management?” is to find an effective solution to the current problem in adapting organizational culture. Contrary to the previous article, Bailey & Breslin (2021) consider that the already published works may be informative in this aspect. Consequently, the article contains a review of articles on responding to the challenges of organizational culture and adjusting it to new conditions, which were introduced during the past 20 years.
One of them, which Hadida, Tarvanien, and Rose published, addresses the necessity of being ready to adjust to new conditions. Bailey & Breslin (2021) mark: “their examination of the process of improvisation across levels, including the individual, interpersonal and organizational, has particular relevance in the current environment” (p. 4). The coronavirus outbreak resulted in crises, requiring businesses to continue their operation in new circumstances. It regarded individual employees who needed to adapt to new conditions of performing their responsibilities. Moreover, it impacted interpersonal relationships, which needed to be conducted online. Therefore, according to this study, it is vital to conduct improvisation on all the mentioned levels to successfully adapt to the new reality.
Sustainable Development of Teaching in Higher Education by Sá & Serpa
In the article “The COVID-19 Pandemic as an Opportunity to Foster the Sustainable Development of Teaching in Higher Education”, the problems caused by the coronavirus pandemic are observed via an example of high education. Sá & Serpa (2020) highlight the necessity to adapt to the new reality and use all the possibilities in the field of their research. They believe that organizational culture should be transformed, and the most effective approach is competent leadership (Sá & Serpa, 2020). Sá & Serpa (2020) mark: “as a transformative process, the COVID-19 pandemic may have created the conditions to ease adherence to new processes that foster sustainable development in higher education” (para. 32). Therefore, it is essential not to conceal the hardships faced by business, but to explore the methods of solving them.
The Revealed Problem and How It Is Explored
Thus, the coronavirus pandemic required all the businesses to change their habitual ways of operation, which included their organizational culture as well. Companies were required to use other possibilities for performing their usual duties, as the previous ones could not be used (Sapta et al., 2020; Sá & Serpa, 2020). In general, the adaptivity of shared practices, set beliefs, and principles within companies appeared to be the key factor which helped businesses to overcome all the negative consequences of the COVID-19 outbreak (Spicer, 2020; Sá & Serpa, 2020). This quality benefited the company, prompting leaders to utilize new ways of operation. Therefore, one of the pressing concerns about organizational culture during the coronavirus pandemic is its ability to adjust to new conditions rapidly and effectively.
This problem was researched by scientists and business professionals in the past, even before the coronavirus outbreak. For instance, Bailey, K. & Breslin (2021) mention a study offering to conduct improvisation on individual, interpersonal and organizational levels in order to adhere to adaptivity. However, it is worthy admitting that further research should be done, considering all the specialties of the current crises (Spicer, 2020). Spicer (2020) highlights a range of questions, aimed to profoundly explore the organizational culture adaptivity, covering all aspects. Spicer (2020) reckons that it is essential to define how exactly the changes are conducted and their impact on the fixed practices in a company. This will give an in-depth understanding of the problem and approaches for solving it. Therefore, it will be helpful for businesses to overcome the challenges arouse by the COVID-19 outbreak.
In conclusion, it can be noted that businesses had to overcome a range of negative consequences of the coronavirus pandemic and attempt to continue the operation, following all the safety restrictions. Companies had to elaborate effective strategies in order to adjust to new working conditions rapidly and not decrease the level of productivity. In this context, the ability to alter the organizational culture of businesses competently was vital for successful operation. Thus, it has become a pressing concern actively discussed in related journals.
Bailey, K. & Breslin, D. (2021). The COVID-19 pandemic: What can we learn from past research in organizations and management?. International Journal of Management Reviews, 23, 3–6.
Sá, M. J. & Serpa, S. (2020). The COVID-19 pandemic is an opportunity to foster the sustainable development of teaching in higher education. Sustainability, 12(20), 8525.
Sapta, I. K. S., Muafi, M., & Setini, N. M. (2021). The role of Technology, organizational culture, and job satisfaction in improving employee performance during the Covid-19 pandemic. The Journal of Asian Finance, Economics and Business, 8(1), 495–505.
Spicer, A. (2020). Organizational culture and COVID-19. Journal Of Management Studies, 57(8), 1737-1740.
Eliminating Non-Verbal Communication Challenges Across Cultures
In the current age of rapid urbanization and global connectivity, the English language has grown so fast, crossing international borders and eventually becoming universal. From the time the language received official recognition, its roots have inevitably spread deeper into diverse cultural settings. The need for intercultural competence and increased civilization exerted unprecedented pressure on different ethnic groups to adopt English as a common denominator for daily communication. According to Méndez García, an English teacher in a non-English-based country should have intercultural awareness to bridge the potential gap between disparities in the culture of students. In addition, the teacher must apply his prowess to eliminate non-verbal communication challenges by ensuring students comprehend their own culture while appreciating the ethnic diversity of their schoolmates. The significance of intercultural awareness as an English teacher in general and its contributions towards eliminating kinesics challenges across ethnicities form the basis of discussion for this paper.
Development of Proposed Questions
Intercultural competence is defined as the potency of a person to maintain rational action, thought, and belief patterns despite the change in environment. On the contrary, non-verbal communication incorporates paralanguage elements of speech used to change the meaning and express emotions of the speaker as defined by (Tietze & Piekkari, 2020). They entail subsets such as tonality, intonation, pitch, and volume. In the modern world, where cities and learning institutions have become cosmopolitan, the relevance of interracial awareness and non-lingual communication cannot is critical. The increased interconnectivity of people prompts the need to emphasize the importance of the fore-cited elements. According to (Rocha & Freitas, 2022), intercultural competence is relevant to an English teacher when combating nonverbal communication challenges, especially during interactions with students from different cultural settings.
For example, a teacher in Spain is obliged to have rich cultural knowledge and blend into the ethnic diversity of the students since he is in a foreign cultural context. The teacher’s perceptions when interacting with learners should reflect beyond the surface norms and beliefs because these components are only the tip of the massive iceberg as emphasized by (Dumitraşcu-Băldău & Dumitraşcu, 2019). He should be able to tap into the deep societal proponents in the new environment that entails his current language styles and existential virtues as discussed in the section below.
The Iceberg Analogy
This phenomenon symbolically delineates processes regarding human social interactions and experiences of life. The model portrays culture as a piece of iceberg; whereby the minor tip represents visible external culture characterized by quick dynamism, ease of learning as well as involuntary control. The top forms an aggregate of ten percent encompassing basic life fundamentals such as food, artworks, clothing, language, and social events like celebrations and games. As cited by (Tsareva, Gulnaz & Murtazina, 2020), the remaining 90% is double-faceted and represents shallow and deep cultural aspects. When the two wide segments are classified further, features like communication styles, beliefs, values, attitudes, and perceptions are derived. Additionally, aspects of courtesy, body language, attitude towards elders, personal hygiene, and tolerance of physical pain are all blended in this segment. A clear understanding of these cultural dimensions can help in eliminating hurdles encountered during non-verbal communication among students from different ethnic topologies in school.
Challenges facing Non-Verbal Communication across Cultures
Although intercultural competence promotes better understanding among individuals from different ethnic backgrounds, some barriers have continued to limit the free exchange of information in society. These obstacles occur under different circumstances including the school setting. Some of them are; misunderstanding and lack of clarity in communication which is a result of unclear nonverbal cues like gestures. According to (Bakun et al., 2019), certain expressions and signs may convey different meanings to different cultural groups, thus hindering effective communication across these cohorts. Author (Khaydarova, 2021) explains further that teachers should learn a reasonable proportion of paralinguistic from the foreign language to overcome such predicaments. In addition, the facilitator must comprehend theories and concepts upon which the language is built for better teacher-student interaction within and outside school. Some of the theories that form the foundation of different languages have been highlighted in the section below.
Evidence of Participant’s Understanding of Intercultural Competence Concepts
Many empirical research studies have been documented in the wake of intercultural awareness. It is through these prior studies that an English teacher emphasizes upholding the correlation and direct relationship between the language being taught and the culture surrounding his or her students. Authors (Hesan, Munir & Setiawan, 2019) highlight that the interdependence between local and foreign communication contexts has been echoed by several conceptual frameworks. These postulations include but are not limited to the socio-cultural conjecture, Schema hypothesis, Whorf’s model, and the Semiotic rubric.
There is a distinct plethora of articulation, morphological characteristics, vocabulary, and articulation that is determined by the situations surrounding the speakers. According to (Purnell, 2018, several non-verbal cues accompany spoken English, all of which are form the basis of the aforementioned theories. These language facets range from tonal variations, and facial expressions to gestures as cited by (Ratnasari, 2018) and tend to occur involuntarily. In most cases, they are usually developed and nurtured outside the traditional classroom setting and therefore represent the true message of the communicator.
Throughout this paper, it is evident that the role of inter-ethnic competence in teaching English and surpassing kinetics barriers cannot be underestimated. In that regard, a teacher in this niche would opinionate on the necessity to reinforce intercultural competence among learners to promote cohesion, peaceful coexistence, and harmony within the school context and beyond. The idea of intercultural communicative teaching can be achieved through the formulation of instructional engagement templates by English teachers to supplement their classes with interethnic knowledge. Similarly, the facilitator can blend the pre-existing intercultural rubrics in teaching sessions to test their efficacy in eliminating nonverbal communication barriers among students. Teachers can set aside time to discuss cultural aspects with their learners and tailor their sessions on transforming learners’ beliefs regarding the existence of defined cultural polarities among them despite the rigidity of school curriculums.
Bakum, Z., Palchykova, O., Kostiuk, S., & Lapina, V. (2019). Intercultural competence of personality while teaching foreign languages. Revista Espasios, 40, 23-24.
Purnell, L. (2018). Cross-cultural communication: Verbal and non-verbal communication, interpretation, and translation. In global applications of culturally competent health care: Guidelines for Practice (pp. 131-142).
Tsareva, E., Gulnaz, F., & Murtazina, E. (2020, April). Developing students’ intercultural competence during the professionally-oriented course in English as a foreign language. In 2020 IEEE Global Engineering Education Conference (EDUCON) (pp. 1110-1114).
Rocha, J., & Freitas, S. V. (2022). Intercultural Competence, Communication, and education: The speech-language pathologist/therapist’s intervention. Concepts and Dialogues across Shifting Spaces in Intercultural Business, 32.
Dumitraşcu-Băldău, I., & Dumitraşcu, D. D. (2019). Intercultural communication and its challenges within the international virtual project team. In MATEC Web of Conferences (Vol. 290, p. 07005). EDP Sciences.
Hesan, M., Munir, A., & Setiawan, S. (2019). Integrated components of intercultural competence in English language teaching at college: a case study. Indonesian Journal of English Teaching, 8(1), 72-80.
Khaydarova, U. P. (2021). Intercultural communication is a pattern of learning content in linguacultural competence. Academic Research in Educational Sciences, 2(1).
Ratnasari, D. (2018). The importance of cross-cultural understanding in foreign language teaching in the Asian context. Bahasa Dan Seni, 46(2), 124-131.
Tietze, S., & Piekkari, R. (2020). Languages and cross-cultural management. The SAGE Handbook of Contemporary Cross-cultural Management, 181-195.
Poverty: Resilience And Intersectionality Theories
It is believed that the determinant of social development is the economy, and the dominant is either politics or ideology. In current conditions, at the transition stage to the information society, such a dynamic and vibrant picture of the world is emerging that it is pretty tricky for a person to be aware of all events constantly. At the same time, in parallel, but with a particular influence, the processes of globalization are taking place, within the framework of which there is a standardization of trends in certain areas of human life. However, modern society is not without ailments that have a negative impact and a long history. These include poverty, which has the most significant economic and social consequences, depending on the prevalence scale. On the other hand, scaling the problems to each person in poverty makes it possible to classify the various factors that help and hinder the exit from poverty. A lot can depend on a person, but a society with its attitudes and power also plays an important role.
Poverty is the economic condition of a person or social group who cannot satisfy the minimum needs. There are concepts of absolute and relative poverty: absolute poverty is closely related to the concept of the poverty line – the income level below which a person is considered poor and cannot satisfy basic needs. Relative poverty is associated with an unequal distribution of income. It is the inability to lead a normal lifestyle for most of society. Resilience theory is the study of a stable trajectory of the healthy functioning of a person after various serious, usually adverse events (Masten, 2018). On the other hand, this theory can be described as adapting flexibility over a long distance. Intersectionality implies similarities between different forms of discrimination and oppression that tend to reinforce each other. In other words, this theory uses an integrated approach in studying the interactions between different forms of dominance, diversifying them but not differentiating them. This paper assesses the impact of poverty on adult life in interaction with the environment, looking at risk and protective factors and the impact of power and oppression on the experience of poverty.
Resilience theory in this context has more to do with protective factors affecting adults living in poverty. Poverty implies many deprivations and problems at different levels and scales, both within the individual and at the national level. The primary mechanism that turns poverty into a physiological problem is stress. Constant stress exhausts the human body, leading to other ailments, much more severe diseases from depression to heart disease. At the family level, poverty leads to starvation, lack of various amenities, information, and, most importantly, opportunities to get out of the vicious circle. Poverty has serious social and economic roots and consequences, which lead to a constant widening of the gap between the rich and the poor.
The problem of income inequality has a high social significance, having the ability to exacerbate the situation in society and hurt the country’s economy. The US has the highest level of income inequality among industrial nations (Telford, 2019). Even if the poor do not commit acts of violence against other people, the society in which they live still suffers losses. Poor people cannot fully participate in the life of society; their creative potential is not revealed and is wasted fruitlessly. Inherited poverty is incredibly tragic when the poor children with the same abilities have much less self-fulfillment than their peers born in families with average incomes. Poverty reflects the prevalence of low-paid jobs and labor processes, defined by low wages, low-income jobs, incomplete and precarious, often bordering on unemployment, which pushes people into unemployment and economic inactivity. The most vulnerable groups are often multi-racial due to structural racism, which exacerbates the situation for low-income families by limiting access to public services.
If the global consequences and causes are often discussed at the national level, then the problems of personal poverty are more subjective and varied. Due to various deprivations, the vision that others have the opportunity to earn more money, a person may develop psychological problems. At the same time, several protective factors can develop critical thinking by adulthood. All these factors have a dynamic development throughout a person’s life, and are reflected in this work through the demonstration of factors at three stages of life: young, middle and late adulthoods. Many of these stem from childhood and include social solid, language and physical development, a sense of mastery and control in late adolescence, and problem-solving skills (Hutchison, 2018). The foundations are laid during adolescence, against which an adult, to varying degrees of success, will act in conditions of poverty.
Family factors include the mother’s employment and community involvement. It is essential to consider that the adolescent’s involvement in the community should be supportive, not an entrapment nature (Hutchison, 2018). If the adolescents feel supported not only within their families but also beyond their borders, they are more likely to develop self-confidence, which is usually sorely lacking in poor people (Dou et al., 2020). However, this problem is projected onto a national problem with income inequality, which has the consequence of the inaccessibility of prestigious and higher education for children from low-income families, who then cannot get a well-paid job. A teenager may get the impression of not belonging to a prosperous society, which contributes to stratification, discrimination, and a host of other social ills. Lack of opportunities and constant stress leads to the only possible way out – crimes, including theft, deceit, and many other things that negatively affect society.
As a result, much is laid in the process of raising a child in a family, and much depends on the psychological state of the family itself. An equally important factor is the ability to plan and motivate further action to overcome poverty or level its consequences (Hutchison, 2018). It often requires resources of positive emotions. According to the sustainability theory, it is a positive psychological experience that is an opportunity to organize one’s behavior in the right direction, regardless of environmental factors (Masten, 2018). In order to avoid the appearance of various psychological problems, entire systems are being developed that must be applied at the stage of growing up a child in a family. In other conditions, the aforementioned protective factors are responsible for stability.
All protective factors have the peculiarity that they protect a person’s further existence, while risk factors describe the risk already in the present moment. In later life, middle adulthood, protective factors include experiences from young adulthood such as military service, romantic relationships, experiences of altruism, high literacy, and a sense of purpose (Hutchison, 2018). Here the influence of these factors on stability becomes more concrete, as the personality becomes more mature, based on certain principles formed under the influence of these factors. Their other dynamics will noticeably decrease every year, leaving only the most important of them. In interaction with the environment, these factors are more manifested as an experience that helps to avoid various mistakes. In conditions of poverty, various interactions with society are seen as an opportunity to get out of this state, or at least not aggravate it. In late adulthood, risk factors are more critical; protective factors include caring for one’s mental and physical health.
In the theory of intersectionality, the risk factors that affect a person in poverty should be considered. Problems with health, wealth, and development in childhood are significant risk factors for youth, which as a result, is reflected in adulthood. Based on prosperity and development, a young person may develop conflicts in educational institutions or the places of his first job. An aggressive response to such conflicts is also a risk factor: if people do not overcome the poverty line, aggression against the background of stress will accompany them all their lives, causing various diseases. Against the background of such conflicts, social injustice, cases of hooliganism, and other offenses, including substance abuse, may become more frequent (Hutchison, 2018). The death of relatives conflicts in the family does not contribute to forming a mature and stable personality by adulthood. According to the theory of intersectionality, such a person will contain both the causes and manifestations of the consequences of discrimination.
This fact is reflected in the fact that aggressive young people in conflicts themselves contribute to the violence that underlies oppression. Poverty issues are often historically linked to different races, which add to the intersection in the field of racism. The stereotypical predisposition, which is the basis of the study of intersectionality, is detrimental to victims of violence. The bad attitude of society towards adults from low-income families is the fault of society and the historical order, but at the same time, the reaction of people to such an attitude leads to the multiplication of evil. In middle adulthood, risk factors echo those in youth: leftover bad habits, health problems, early marriage, loneliness, and poor nutrition (Hutchison, 2018). Problems with work can result from an unhealthy lifestyle and poor performance at school. Poverty contributes to most of these factors, making a person dependent on the labor market’s economic situation. It is possible that conflicts, racism, discrimination may have a different ground from the social position, but according to the theory of intersectionality; as a result, it will also play a role.
A poor situation rarely appears in a person during his life; as a rule, people begin to live in poverty and either get out of it or stay in it. Consequently, risk factors have an extended structure that changes shape throughout adulthood. Often there is a tendency to project negative behavior, which is a consequence of poverty and the reason for the impossibility of getting out of it, laid down from childhood into adulthood. If the family had a parent’s alcohol problem, the person is more likely to be addicted to alcohol later in life due to a combination of other factors (Sattler & Gershoff, 2019). The absence of positive emotions in the family model not only fails to guide the development of resilience but also develops the foundations on which discrimination and oppression are based. Due to poverty, a person cannot take care of himself sufficiently, and without having any idea of the feeling of altruism, love, and mutual assistance instilled in the family, a person will also not be able to build a healthy interaction with society.
Diversity, Power, Oppression
Diversity inclusiveness is the current trend in social responsibility around the world. Discrimination based on income, poverty, or social status is also unacceptable in almost all organizations and countries. Large enterprises even draw up their codes of conduct in the workplace. However, smaller enterprises, which are less well known to the general public, do not often follow these trends. It is due to the fact that in small companies, there is practically no control over working conditions and wages. Diversity in such workplaces creates a specific ground for discrimination, which, if not controlled, can have highly negative consequences.
In this case, the authorities should stop these events. In addition, it is essential to eradicate the root cause of historical stereotypes that prevent poor people from adapting to a healthy social life and society. However, cases of structural racism, which in the case of poverty increase the degree of intersections of discrimination, are still prevalent even now (Bailey et al., 2021). State structures in a state where such stereotypes are suppressed hinder the healing of society, causing more mistrust of authority and the possibility of conflict. Consequently, the most vulnerable groups represented by representatives of different races and genders are subjected to attacks and self-will by local authorities and state structures, which, against the backdrop of poverty, increases cravings for psychoactive substances and crime. Oppression continues to multiply at various levels and scales, hindering the healing of society in a global, national sense.
An adult is an already formed personality, mature in its principles laid down from childhood. Poverty contributes to the development of many risk factors, while protective factors depend on family and community organizations such as school and individual abilities and personality traits. If the problem lies on the basis of state structures and families that are unable to adapt to the conditions of poverty, then a person brought up on such values will not be open to dialogue with society and the authorities. Moreover, the government should initiate this dialogue; however, according to research, the income gap is increasing every year; therefore, the programs do not work (Telford, 2019). An adult, in this case, if he starts a family, continues to broadcast negative values the need for aggression and set his example for children, continuing to move in a vicious circle. By summing up all the factors that, according to the theory of intersectionality, can reach tremendous quantitative values, only influential people in a given situation, with a successful combination of other circumstances, can get out of poverty and develop resistance to such oppression.
In modern society, many problems lead to intersectionality, including poor people. The maturation of a person and the formation of personality is a critical process, depending on many factors that positively and negatively impact resistance to problems. Poverty implies many problems, which are a consequence of various economic, political, and historical backgrounds. Resilience can only develop if there is a positive psychological experience, which is often absent in a person brought up in a low-income family and faced with rejection and discrimination in society. As a result, a person is formed by adulthood, brought up on negative values, aggression, and conflicts, who will use this model of behavior when interacting with society. As a result, a comprehensive solution is needed to combat poverty, requiring the participation of both the authorities and the society with poor people.
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