Othello And Reputation Free Essay

Othello is tragedy written by William Shakespeare. that demonstrates the power and strength of repute. The drama describes how Othello and Desdemona effort to construct a life together. ignoring their difference in age and race. Although shortly after their matrimony. an covetous Iago uses cunning prevarications to undermine their one time healthy relationship. Reputation plays a critical function in this drama ; it enables or restricts certain characters. necessarily opening the doors to the tragic stoping.

Iago uses his repute for honestness to derive the trust of certain characters. merely to utilize it for dishonest intents. First Iago uses his honorable repute to pull strings Cassio. doing him to lose his place as Othello’s lieutenant. When Iago provinces. “ I know my monetary value. I am deserving no worse a place” ( I. I. 11 ) shows how Iago is covetous of Cassio’s place in the military. Giving Iago motivation to seek and acquire Cassio demoted. Second Othello is clouded by his undue trust towards Iago. leting Iago to convert him things that he would non normally believe.

An illustration of Othello’s trust towards Iago is in ( I. I 12 ) . “This chaps of transcending honestness. ” It shows how Iago has Othello’s complete trust. which allows Iago to lead on Othello without being caught. In add-on. Iago once more uses his repute to successfully lie to Roderigo about his feelings towards Othello ; go forthing Roderigo to believe all of Iago’s actions are in his favor. An illustration of Iago deriving Roderigo’s trust is in act 1 scene 1 lines 43. which provinces. “I follow him to function my bend upon him. Here Iago is explicating to Roderigo about their common hatred towards Othello. and how they can both profit from it. Iago uses his honorable repute to pull strings and deceive others. doing unfortunate events that otherwise would non happen.

Similar to Iago. Othello’s repute of being a rigorous military general besides plays a large function in Desdemona’s decease and the result of the drama. An illustration would be when Iago informs Othello about how Desdemona is perpetrating adultery. I. I 12 ) “I will chop her into musss! Cheat on me! ” This shows how Othello is shocked and appalled about this information. In Act 2 Scene 2 line “For non did I hate but in honor. ” describes how Othello is unable to face Desdemona about this newfound information. Since as a military general facing a adult female about a job is morally and socially unacceptable. Leaving him no pick but to believe Iago’s lies.

Therefore. Othello’s inability to discourse with Desdemona about Iago’s claims indirectly depicted he result of the drama and Desdemona’s life. Unlike Iago and Othello. Cassio has a repute that varies throughout the drama leting other characters to utilize it to their advantage. When Cassio gets rummy. his repute for being a good honest lieutenant is lost. Since ( I. I 12 ) “Ill make the an illustration. ” shows Othello’s newfound deficiency of trust towards Cassio. hence leting Iago to easy convert Othello that Desdemona is perpetrating adultery with Cassio.

Again when Othello overhears Cassio and Iago discoursing Cassio and Bianca’s relationship. he impetuously assumes they are speaking about Desdemona due to Othello’s already negative image of Cassio. Cassio’s tarnished repute allows certain characters to pull strings the ideas and beliefs of others. ensuing in a big displacement in the relationships between characters. altering the result of the drama. The repute of characters depicts and fuels the narrative. necessarily taking to the gruesome stoping.

Without Iago’s honest repute. he would hold ne’er been able to convert Othello that Desdemona was perpetrating criminal conversation. In add-on Cassio’s diminished repute fuelled Iago’s prevarication about Desdemona. doing it easier for Othello to believe Iago. Finally. Othello’s high rank in the military restricted him from facing Desdemona about the possibility of an matter. which prevents the truth from emerging. All the characters in “Othello” have a certain repute. although it his how they choose to utilize them that decides the result of the narrative.

Defined Benefit And Defined Contribution In Pension Schemes Accounting

Pension is fund that is built during the working life of the employee and so used to procure the income after retirement. These financess can be operated by employer ( occupational pension ) who invests over clip or instead employee can put in a fund of their pick ( private pension strategy ) . Both of these strategies generate income after retirement.

The pension financess are operated in many states. Harmonizing to international fiscal service the UK pension fund is $ 1,464 billion, Germany had $ 268 billion and France had $ 164 billion.

Pension strategies are of two major types:

Defined benefit strategy

Defined part strategy


Define benefit strategy is a type of pension strategy which ensures a peculiar degree of income/benefit after retirement. Most of the cost of the benefit and hazard of the investing is borne by the employer nevertheless in the contributory define benefit strategy employees besides make mandatory parts. The pension sum is either calculated on the bases of the concluding wage of the employee or depend upon the mean net incomes of the employee throughout his employment old ages.

From the employer prospective the concluding wage strategy is expensive for the employer as comparison to other pension strategies.

Employee ‘s parts to the strategy are dependent on assorted factors such as:

Value of the strategy assets and investing output.

The composing of scheme rank.

Rate of salary growing of the strategy members.

Longer life span after retirement.

Changing regulative demands.

In the hard currency salary strategy, a non contributory define benefit strategy, employer contributes a certain sum to the pension fund on behalf of the employee. There is no duty of the employee for these parts.

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Defined part strategies are besides known as money purchase strategy in which the employee and the employer make parts into a pension fund harmonizing to prescribed regulations. At retirement the pension fund is used to purchase rente which is an income guaranteed for life of the receiver. Under defined part strategies following factors determine the pension income available at retirement.

The parts invested in the strategy ;

Merchandise provider/managers charges ;

The public presentation of the pension fund ;

The rente rate at retirement day of the month.

In this strategy the hazard of hapless returns on investing or high cost prevarications with the employee alternatively of employer, nevertheless this strategy can supply a combination of investing growing and security by puting initial parts in hazardous but high output investings. Near retirement these part are invested in relatively safer fiscal merchandises. At the clip of retirement employee besides have the option taking a revenue enhancement free ball amount sum from their pension fund. On altering the occupation the employee can either halt doing payment to his fund or reassign it to his new employer with some extra cost. Some experts advise that the defined part programs have higher hazard as these are dependant on the return on investings Most of the private and occupational strategies in the UK are define part strategies.


The defined benefit and defined part strategies can be best differentiated by finding where the hazards lie. In a defined benefit strategy, the employer bears the huge bulk of costs and if investing returns hapless output or costs addition, the pension fund can go deficient and the employer must refill the fund out of the concern grosss. Whereas in a defined part scheme the employer ‘s parts are paid at a fixed degree and therefore it is the employee who bears these hazards. If they are non able to increase parts when fund public presentation is hapless or cost additions, so their retirement income will be lower.

In UK there is an upper bound to the degree of income from a define benefit strategy where as there is no such upper bound to the degree of income generated from define part strategy. Hence the economic conditions like rising prices, cost of populating etc will hold less consequence on the employees in defined part strategy.

Employees have no control over the investing determinations in the defined benefit strategy and are merely eligible for preset extra returns on the investing where as in defined part strategy employees have full control of their investing and eligible for reception of all the returns on the investing.

Define part strategy can be easy transferred between employers as employee alterations his occupation this may affect some extra cost and therefore the employee can go on doing investing in his ain pension fund. However in instance of define benefit scheme the benefit from old part can non be easy transferred but the employee can halt doing future payments of benefits acquired till day of the month.

Several recent surveies have examined define benefit or part programs. Balcer and Sahin ( 1979 ) compared bothplans in a lifecycle scene, and found that net incomes fluctuation and occupation transportations consequence additions from define benefit program. Bodie, Marcus, and Merton ( 1988 ) mentioned that define benefit and specify part programs both have hazards, but that these hazards are different. However Both these surveies failed to do quantitative appraisal of comparative hazards. The consequences of ulterior surveies by Samwick and Skinner ( 2004 ) suggest that for many workers define part program will ensue in more station retirement net incomes when compared to the actuarial nowadays discounted value ( PDV ) of define benefit program benefits. Finally, Schrager ( 2005 ) analyzed informations on net incomes and occupation alteration forms from the Panel Survey of Income Dynamics and found that increased occupation turnover in the 1990s made define part plans more attractive relation to specify benefit programs for many workers

Why are Defined Contribution Schemes going more of import:

In the last few old ages there is a big displacement towards Defined Contribution strategies and many houses have frozen define benefit programs. Munnell and Sotos ( 2006 ) analyzed informations from Department of Labor and found that the figure of defined benefit programs have decreased to 6.6 million in twelvemonth 2003 from 9.6 million in the year1990. The major factors behind the diminution of defined benefit strategies are connected with the regulative and accounting restructuring.

New Regulations: In UK the new ordinance require employers to stand for existent pension fund liabilities originating from contractual shortage or negative investing return within their histories.

Increased cost: Now a twenty-four hours people are populating longer hence seting excess force per unit area on pension financess doing decrease in fund values. Extra costs are involved due to removal of progress cooperation revenue enhancement alleviation and due to regulative demands introduced to protect employee ‘s involvement.

Peer force per unit area: many high profile companies shuting their define benefit strategy encourages other to make the same.

Defined part strategies are going progressively popular due to assorted sensed benefits chiefly for employers and besides for employees every bit good.

Hazard Stratification: In the private sector, this tendency has helped in switching the hazards associated with the investing from the employers to employees. Employers do non hold to refill pension fund in instance of loss from hapless output from investing or increasing cost. Recipients are now in full control of their investings and have increased duty to pull off their retirement assets. Employees are going more involved with the fiscal markets as their pension fund is invested in these merchandises.

Growth and Security: With the Defined Contribution Plan there are more opportunities to hold growing in pension fund than the Defined Benefit Plan. Post retirement net incomes are based on mean career income instead so concluding wage and besides on the public presentation of investing. Defined Contribution Plans provide the option of having fixed income with a fixed rente and at the same clip has possible to increase the pension fund. Therefore it provides both security and growing of employee financess

Workforce Mobility: One chief ground behind the increased importance of Defined Contribution Plan is the work force mobility. Employees move from one topographic point to another for better occupation. It is easier to reassign defined part program between employers whereas defined Benefit Plan is non movable.


Pension Regulations and Tax Policies: Define Benefit Plans are directed by the complicated pension ordinances and revenue enhancement policies to protect the involvements of employees. These complicated ordinances and policies have increased the cost of administrating Define Benefit Plans and has resulted in the shifting towards Define Contribution Plans.

Decline in fabricating industries: Define Benefit Plans were largely used by the fabrication industry. But with the diminution in these industries the usage of Define Benefit Plans has besides decreased and this has lead to the increased use of Define Contribution Plans peculiarly by service sector such as assorted non -profit doing authorities organisations.

Life Cycle Fundss: Define Contribution Plans besides provides the employees with merchandises such as Life Cycle Funds. The chief intent of these financess is to simplify the complicated investing procedure for the employees. Life Cycle Fundss have besides resulted in the shifting from Define Benefit Plans to Specify Contribution Plans.


Both define benefit and part strategies are meant to guarantee a guaranteed income for employees after retirement. Each has its advantages and disadvantages both for employers and employees. Although employers are prefering define benefit strategy now a yearss, surely when looking back at the recent recognition crunch andtroubled fiscal markets, it was non uncommon for defined benefit agreements to be keeping excesss and/or to be taking part holidays This will non be possible under a defined part strategy where the employer is required to keep the in agreement degree of parts irrespective of how good the investings are executing.

When employers try to compare the existent overall cost of supplying a typical defined benefit strategy with a typical defined part strategy, they normally forget that employers benefit from favourable investing returns with defined benefit strategies as many defined benefit agreements really cost a batch less when part decreases and part vacations are taken into history.

Under define part strategies, workers are in more control of their pension fund. In add-on to this hazards are besides under the control of the worker, who may make up one’s mind whether or non to work for a house with peculiar pension features, whether or non to voluntarily divide from a house with a define benefit program, or whether or non to lend the maximal sum to a define part program.

Where the employer buzzword maintain a defined benefit strategy for all employees so the aim must be to guarantee that the defined part strategy agreed is basically based upon parts that will really present an equal pension for future retiring employees.

Chiba International

In this case study, we can see many differences between both cultures like for instance the fact that American leave work earlier if they could but Japanese rockers tend to stay later to finish work. Meetings: Daily meetings are held at the beginning of each shift with all employees. These meetings are an opportunity for everybody to attend firstly but also to exchange and everybody is free and ever more encourage to speak and share information, problem, troubles… These meetings are not obligatory and with time almost everybody attend today to these frequently meetings.

One very important point we can highlight from these meetings is that they strongly increase teamwork and team atmosphere Sales force: The American sales force is very particular and use in this company. Indeed, the word В« sales В» means in fact Sincerity, Ability, Love, Energy, Service which is pretty much appreciated by everyone in the company and also outside the company like for instance by the customers or suppliers. In other words, the honesty and sincerity are part of the philosophy of Chips, and the customers are very glad of this philosophy.

In addition, there is no commission basis according to the sales so no real competition inside the salesperson in the company which is a good point for the atmosphere. U. S. Management: This point is a little different between the two cultures. Indeed, U. S. Executives tend to push through their family before work and it’s the contrary for Japanese executives who don’t hesitate to stay later at work because they really care about the future and the sustainability of their company.

However, we learn though thespians executives try to not take decision late in the day when U. S. Executives are already go home which is a good thing for the atmosphere once again and for the good of the company. Financial people: At this level we can see an impressive performance with the theory of the В« Noodle Peddler В» that is practiced in this company. There is no marketing department to save money and a daily basis of sales, returns, net shipment costs and expenses.

Open communication: The workforce is very homogeneous with the use of daily meetings and a suggestion box is disposed in the company with frequently a publication of the answer of these suggestions’ questions. Chips also use В« Compass h to improve teamwork and an extreme and recurrent communication between managers and employees to collect feedbacks and reduce problems. This point is very important since we talk about two very different cultures. Appraisal and Reward systems:

Concerning the appraisal and the reward, Chips use a no-layoff commitment policy instead of a lifetime employment with rewards for service and performance. As I said higher, there is an important use of feedback and Chips also hire within the company to fill the gaps when they need. Quality and Service: The productivity in the United States has reached almost the same amount than in Japan, which is very good for the company. The quality of the products and the customer service are two major points of the company’s philosophy and Chips continue to improve this by training a lot their employees.

Can Japanese management practices work in the United States without adaptation? Why or why not? What cultural values are relevant? As we see before, the vision of different themes related to business are very different from a Japanese point of view and from an American one. At this question will answer yes, Japanese management will need an adaptation because their attitudes and philosophy Of work are very different than American.

However we can also see that it exists similarities between both cultures, like for instance the use of open communication and the customer service which is very important for both cultures. For the cultural values, I’m going to use Hypotheses cultural dimensions Collectivism – Individualism: United States: 91 on the individualism dimension Japan: 46 on the individualism dimension Japanese society are more collectivist because they research a good work atmosphere with the fact that everyone’s opinion count in the final decision.

In the united States, the employees are more selfish and tend to leave the work as soon as they can with an informal and direct communication. Masculinity – Femininity: United States: 62 on the masculinity dimension Japan: 95 On the masculinity dimension Japan is one of the most masculine society of the world which imply a very intense competition at each other, like for instance competition between employees in a company, which one will sell the most…

On the other hand, American people show their masculine drive individually only. They like to be granted and rewarded for a well job done and get a sentiment of proud. American also work to get a social status and be considered as the best. Power distance: united States: 40 on the power distance dimension Japan: 54 on the power distance dimension Both culture are very close concerning this dimension but Japanese still have a higher power distance which means they better accept position and authority than American do.

Uncertainty avoidance: united States: 46 on the uncertainty avoidance dimension Japan: 92 on the uncertainty avoidance dimension This time too Japan is one of the most uncertainty avoiding country with is score Of 92 which occurs because Of all natural disasters that face every time Japan. Thereby Japanese people are prepared for any uncertain situations American will adapt their behavior following the context in which they are. They also are for the freedom of expression and willing to hear different opinion from different person. 2. How should Ken and John adapt Casaba’s California practices to their situation?

What problems will they run into (cultural and otherwise)? Chips International is a Japanese company with Ken Moratoria which is the general manager and John Sinclair which is the personnel manager. Together they’re trying to adapt the Japanese practice to increase the profit of their company. Chips International used to adapt itself to the Japanese culture slowly by taking time and Ken and John should follow this way and not want to implement it too fast because employees won’t understand and it will create a bad atmosphere and maybe some complaints and a decrease of productivity.

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