Our Opinions On Vaccines And What Factors Influence Them Essay Example

Role of Culture, Norms, and Beliefs in our Opinion on Vaccinations

Immunization is a cost-effective strategy for averting millions of infectious illness episodes and deaths worldwide. Vaccines are preparations that, when administered, elicit immunological responses that result in the creation of antibodies that aid in the fight against infectious pathogens. Vaccination programs encounter challenges despite their public health benefits. One impediment is a public perception of vaccination’s relative dangers. The adoption of vaccination has been affected by sociocultural variables such as perception, socioeconomic position, gender norms, religion, and ethnicity. Parental perceptions about vaccination have a significant role in determining whether or not to use a vaccination program (Ames et al., 2019).

Vaccine scares and unexpected increases in vaccine demand serve as a reminder that the efficacy of mass immunization campaigns is determined by the public opinion of vaccination. The longing to keep the children and community healthy and disease-free is a reoccurring topic that motivates parents and guardians to vaccinate their children. According to CDC research on National Immunization Safety, parents who believed vaccinations were safe were presumably to get their children vaccinated than those who were indifferent or believed vaccines were harmful.

Additionally, parents who believed vaccinations were safe were presumably encouraged by their primary care provider to vaccinate their children more than parents and guardians who consider vaccines risky. Research done in Mozambique discovered that caregivers’ strong desire to keep children and the community healthy and disease-free affected their decision to get their kids vaccinated since the majority of caregivers recognized vaccines’ significant benefits to the child and family. Despite the vaccine’s very modest risk compared to its advantages, parental anxiety is a significant barrier to optimally children receiving vaccinations. The research found that parents were more inclined to forego vaccinations for their children due to fears about adverse effects. A similar conclusion was given in research done in the United States. Parents and guardians who chose not to vaccinate their children cited safety or side effect worries as the primary reason for their reservations regarding vaccination. The Declaration of Alma Ata on Primary Health Care indicated the significance of community participation in promoting and maintaining health, stating that “the people have the right and responsibility to participate individually and collectively in the planning and implementation of their health care.”

The community’s opinion of immunization programs and their involvement in them positively reinforces the parental perception. Concerns about vaccination safety are expressed by parents within the surroundings of their community and may be collaborated by other guardians in the same community (Ames et al.,2019). Religion and spirituality are critical components in determining how an infection is believed to be vulnerable and how severe it is perceived. Religious leaders are revered, and their power can persuade congregation members to accept or reject vaccination. Similar views exist in Pakistan, where some religious and tribal leaders express worry that the polio campaign is a Western plot to dominate the Muslim people.

Local culture influences people’s perceptions of danger or perceived vulnerability; individuals give value (positive or negative) to a problem based on their own experiences, and they trust specialists from comparable cultural backgrounds. Some religious authorities prohibit vaccination. Certain cultures prohibit men from administering childhood vaccinations. Some beliefs in most cultures are that vaccines cause infertility, with some believing that the vaccines pose reproductive health risks to anyone hoping to get pregnant. I believe that we have deep-seated, normative values that determine how we interpret the world around us, perceive risk, and make decisions. These cultural logics are universal across nationality, race and ethnicity, age, religion, and political orientation and they are fixed, unchanging. These cultural beliefs and norms, therefore, shape our present opinion on vaccines.

How Social Opinions Shape Our Values and Ideas on Vaccines

Vaccines have aided in eliminating and weakening the spread of various infectious illnesses, including smallpox, polio, measles, chickenpox, and meningitis. However, many people express worries about vaccine-related adverse events. These issues vary from concerns about overburdening the child’s immune system to contentious claims concerning vaccine-related adverse effects. One common misconception is that the vaccination may induce the disease against which it is intended to immunize. Another widely held belief is that vaccines, particularly the MMR vaccine (MMR stands for measles, mumps, and rubella), cause autism. The autism connection has generated much controversy.

In 1998, a British physician called Andrew Wakefield released research in the Lancet magazine in Great Britain that established a relationship between the MMR vaccination and autism. The study garnered widespread media attention, leading to a decline in British vaccination rates from 91 percent in 1997 to almost 80 percent in 2003, accompanied by an increase in measles infections. A lengthy examination by the British Medical Journal established that the relationship in the research was fictitious and that Wakefield manipulated data to bolster his claims. He was discredited, and his license was revoked, yet uncertainty persists in the minds of many parents. For example, most websites against vaccination argue against vaccination’s efficacy and safety, citing toxicity in vaccines and utilizing personal experiences of vaccine harm.

Most anti-vaccination advocates’ arguments may be categorized as part of a wider tendency known as “denialism.” Denialism is described as “the use of rhetorical arguments to create the impression of serious discussion when none exists, a technique aimed at rejecting a thesis on which there is scientific consensus” (Hoffman et al., 2019). Denialism use tactics such as relying on “conspiracy theories,” employing faux experts who choose only supportive evidence and disrepute all other evidence, producing unrealistic prospects for what research can deploy, and employing misconceptions. Despite worries about the Internet’s growing effect on vaccination uptake, there is less research on the effect of exposure to websites campaigning against vaccines on vaccine decision-making.

According to studies, individuals who postpone or refuse vaccinations are considerably most certainly to have searched for information on vaccines on the Internet. Anti-vaccination websites have been found to affect knowledge about risks negatively and choosing to have one vaccinated (Hoffman et al., 2019). Nonetheless, further study is required to determine whether persons who before then had reservations about vaccination are more apparent to do Internet searches from various sources or whether the Internet searches produce reservations about vaccination. The Internet’s availability, along with a growing public interest in and participation in the interpretation of vaccination adverse event data, has increasingly enabled the promotion of false correlations as reality. Rumors among the Muslim community that the polio campaign was a Western plan to control the Muslim population and that polio drops were used to induce sterility in youngsters resulted in a significant increase in Polio cases in that area. As was the case with polio, historical results such as the bad experience with the Trovan experiment in Nigeria can erode trust in the public eye and impact vaccination uptake, particularly when paired with demands from important politicians and the media. I believe that the experience of a community is not always restricted to vaccination, although it may affect it and that the opinions of the community members affect our ideas and opinions about vaccines.

How Social Interactions Shape Our Opinions on Vaccines

A structure of human relationships and interactions is referred to as a social network. The accumulation of vaccination views can be interpreted using the social network concept. According to social network theory, a person’s position within a social forum determines how much that person and other network members affect each other’s views and conduct. A person placed centrally in the community will be impacted more, especially by others, and will have a greater effect than a person with fewer network connections (Centola & Lord, 2018). Someone with a high degree of proximity centrality has short communication links to other agents and is thus well-positioned to distribute vaccine knowledge. Vaccination is a social activity since it occurs within the framework of human relationships and the fact that receiving a vaccination (or not receiving one) affects the health of others. Social interactions are exemplified by social dyads, which involve the connection between the patient and the provider. Patients often get vaccines through their healthcare professionals, and as a result, the provider-patient connection is critical.

The trust placed in the government agencies that establish schedules and recommendations for vaccines is a significant predictor of vaccine uptake. Another major element influencing vaccination attitudes and practice are social networks. Individuals may discuss vaccination opinions with close members of the family and members of their social groups, therefore incorporating decisions on vaccinations into their social status. Another aspect is social norms, which dictate that people’s activities must conform to their behavior and prospect, including vaccination. As a result, the standards they perceive might exert influence. The vaccination behavior of health care workers and their ability to spread social principles regarding vaccination among their workmates is critical since by being immunized, they safeguard patients from illness. Our response to societal pressures about vaccination directly impacts the spread of infectious illnesses in regions where vaccination is not required. Community leaders and publicists can have a substantial impact on vaccination acceptance or reluctance.

The media, including social media, have either a positive or negative vaccine influence and provide a forum for important opinion leaders to persuade others depending on the side one considers comfortable with. Social networking websites enable users to freely express their views and encounters and enable the organization of social networks to support or not support vaccinations. When government officials engage community leaders and request community input, social mobilization programs may be developed to enhance community awareness of the need for vaccinations and improve communication for vaccine uptake. Community leaders and members can be mobilized and taught to engage and spread these messages through door-to-door visits, community-based dialogues, gatherings of various age groups, traditional women societies, and religious leaders. I believe that these social interactions have an impact on our opinions of vaccines.


Ames, H., Glenton, C., & Lewin, S. (2019). Purposive sampling in a qualitative evidence synthesis: A worked example from a synthesis on parental perceptions of vaccination communication. BMC medical research methodology, 19(1), 1-9.

Centola, D., & Lord, T. (2018). The truth about behavioral change. MIT Sloan Management Review.

Hoffman, B. L., Felter, E. M., Chu, K. H., Shensa, A., Hermann, C., Wolynn, T., & Primack, B. A. (2019). It’s not all about autism: The emerging landscape of anti-vaccination sentiment on Facebook. Vaccine, 37(16), 2216-2223.

Digital Games’ Role In Experience Production


Unlike most entertainment platforms, digital media and video games connect individuals of different beliefs and backgrounds. More consumers are moving towards an industry that provides imaginative and meaningful experiences. Many people utilize video games and digital media to escape from reality. As a result, the experience economy has emerged as a new industry. Today, consumers are willing to pay for games and subscription-based content for the sole reason of the associated experiences. Digital media and video games connect technology, content, and economy in contemporary society. Digital media and video games provide highly relevant and high-quality digital experiences to engage consumers as companies seek to stay ahead of competitors. It is critical to explore how digital media and gamification relate to experience production and how they enhance consumer adventures.

Digital Media and Experience Production

Digital media and video games have become increasingly connected to experience production. Experience production refers to creating a meaningful adventure for consumers and selling the experience. Firstly, digital media and games have become a business in contemporary society. They have transformed into serious income-generating ventures from enthusiastic hobbies. Digital media is purely motivated by profits; therefore, it makes sense to sell products by offering experiential services. The digital media and video games industry is worth billions of dollars, and multiple firms compete to provide meaningful experiences to consumers. For example, the United Kingdom’s leisure software and entertainment market had grown to 1.35 billion euros in 2005, whereas the world video and computer games market was approximately 25.4 billion euros in 2004 (Kylänen, 2006, p. 9). Considering that more than a decade has passed, the global demand for digital games must be extremely high.

Secondly, digital media and video games are more connected to experience production for engagement. Engagement is a crucial method digital media can use to maintain a customer’s attention and buy a service or good. Thus, digital games concentrate more on keeping consumers engaged in evoking an emotional response from the customers. A significant dimension of experience production is consumer engagement. In digital media, consumers actively participate in creating their adventures through interactive experiences. For instance, digital games have become increasingly interactive and engaging. Players can choose many types of arenas, stories, and scenarios. Furthermore, a few digital games allow users to create their gaming environment, rules, scenarios, and stories (Kylänen, 2006, p. 144). Interestingly, most games have global communities where users can socialize with others allowing them to encounter different social experiences and lifestyles in the virtual world.

Thirdly, digital media and video games are connected to experience production through the involvement realm, which describes how a consumer is united with the experience’s performance through absorption or immersion. Absorption allows users to use their minds to interact with a particular experience, typically common when watching television shows. In contrast, immersion allows a user to virtually become part of a program. The two dimensions combine to give consumers unique encounters (Kylänen, 2006, p. 146). Absorption and immersion explain why some movies are so engaging and thought-provoking.

Experience Economy and Its Benefits

The experience economy describes how experiences are commoditized and differentiated to match consumer needs. The experience economy explains the shift of customer interaction with firms and summarizes how such a change has forced companies to innovate and accommodate different consumer expectations. Under the experience economy, businesses provide memorable events to consumers, and such memories become a product. As a result, the value of a firm’s services or goods increases. Many companies include various experiences in their traditional service offerings in today’s world. The experience economy has various benefits. Firstly, the experience economy is focused on the customer, leading to an increase in the value derived by consumers. Various businesses try to compete, offering additional services and experiential values to customers. As a result, customers appreciate such services and gain by deriving the enhanced value. Secondly, the experience economy builds customer loyalty for firms that utilize it effectively (Kylänen, 2006, p. 158). Brands deliver authentic moments that build lasting and real connections, increasing consumer loyalty.

Gamification and Experience Enhancement

Gamification allows various persons to work collaboratively to exercise their minds and bring them together. It refers to the introduction of game mechanics and thinking to engage people and solve challenges in non-game settings. Most individuals are motivated extrinsically or intrinsically (Xu, Weber, and Buhalis, 2013, p. 528). Gamification techniques are many and can be used to engage the audience. For instance, an event planner can utilize quizzes and trivia to promote a gathering or increase awareness of an event’s theme. Quizzes enable the audience to retain the information received. Furthermore, networking can be achieved by using name tags to socialize. A person would pick a name tag and find the individual matching the tag. When they meet, they can talk briefly, and some people may make friends (Anonymous). Finally, scavenger hunts can promote interest in the essential event aspects and foster trust and collaboration.


In conclusion, it is essential to explore how gamification and digital media relate to experience production and engage audiences. Digital media and video games are related to experience production because of profits, engagement, and involvement. The experience economy tries to offer the best-imagined experiences to consumers to cater to their changing needs. It promotes value creation and customer loyalty as consumers are satisfied. Gamification involves utilizing game mechanics in non-game settings like events and can enhance occasions through networking games, quizzes, and scavenger hunts.

Reference List

Anon, Event gamification: A unique way to enhance the event experience. Super Event. Web.

Kylänen, M. (ed.) (2006) Articles on experiences: Digital media & games. Rovaniemi: Lapland Centre of Expertise for Experience Industry.

Xu, F., Weber, J. and Buhalis, D. (2013). ‘Gamification in tourism’, in Xiang, Z. and Tussyadiah, L.(eds.) Information and communication technologies in tourism 2014. New York: Springer, pp. 525-537.

Confidential Information Storage And Disclosure

Working for a large agency, Hank is responsible for tracking the progress of numerous clients engaged in programs that help them recover from various alcohol and drug problems. Hank also has access to the company’s database and is accountable for making the reports that contain clients’ confidential information, including names, addresses, and even criminal histories. The deontological theory asserts that individuals should observe their direct duties when they make particular decisions requiring ethical considerations. Thus, since Hank is entrusted with confidential information, its protection from accidental disclosure or unsanctioned access is his primary obligation to clients.

It is also worth noting that clients are the main stakeholders in this case. When Hank takes this critical data home, he puts the confidentiality and privacy of people at significant risk since this data becomes accessible to any of his relatives, friends, or other unauthorized persons.

Hank violates item 1.6 of the ACM Code of Ethics and Professional Conduct, stating that computing professionals should assume necessary precautions to avert accidental disclosure. He also severely breaks item 1.7 indicating the crucial importance of honoring confidentiality and defending it in all cases except for those where the law is violated. Besides, this paragraph states that the contents and nature of the data can be disclosed only by appropriate authorities.

Considering these points, home is a hazardous context that threatens the confidentiality of clients. In this regard, Hank should not have brought this information home but should complete his tasks connected with reports at work. Now, he needs to return the CD to the workplace and make sure that the information on the disk is not discovered. Furthermore, it is worth emphasizing that the company where Hank works also violates the code because it should have established the system inhibiting its employees from using the data outside the company.

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