Pacific Islanders Culture: The Tapa Essay Sample For College

History of a tapa

Clothing plays a major role in the molding of a society’s culture. Through this, one can identify the way of life of a given society. The tapa is among the clothes that have been in the pacific islands since the nineteenth century. It is basically a bark cloth that is extracted from the paper mulberry’s inner bark. The beating of the bark is done using beaters with varying gauges of grooves. At the beginning, the beater with the coarsest groove is used and this progresses until finally a beater with the finest groove is used. Research shows that tapas originate from many different cultures and people. For example, the Chinese are known to have had the knowledge of tapa making which was passed on to other communities during the migrations where the craft spread and was adopted in East Indonesia (Neich et al 2.)

It’s material

Several aspects of tapa show the culture of pacific islanders. To begin with, the material used for making this cloth gives a hint that these people were gatherers. Apart from the mulberry tree which is mainly used and preferred in the pacific islands, tapa can also be obtained from the breadfruit and wild fig trees. Their cultural sense of wealth is also evidenced in the motifs on the cloth. The tapa is embroidered with motifs from plants and animals and sometimes beads can be used to show sophistication or a person’s degree of wealth. The tapa itself brings about an aura of tangible and intangible pacific culture due to the symbols woven in them in the form of a particular event. For example, certain symbols are stenciled in the garments formed and are used during different occasions such as weddings, funerals and other traditional celebrations. The materials made in ancient times are gathered and put in museums where they help to facilitate events such as the “the festival of pacific arts” which helps to bring together the people from these regions and give them a feeling of the ‘pacifians’ thus reinforcing their culture. (Perkins, par. 4)

Tapa and the cultural ceremonies

By referring to the tapas, one can also realize that these people were fishermen. Tapas were mostly used in making loincloths that were used by men and adorned during the construction of canoes. Samples of tapas put together serve to convey different messages that bring about the traditional and cultural heritage of the pacific people. As pointed out in this essay, they showed their artistic inclination and also helped in the identification of ceremonies. By focusing on various methods of production and designing labels on the tapas one cannot help but notice that they not only represent artistic or historical ideas but a combination of both which merge to bring about a sense of pacific cultural heritage to the pacifians (Perkins, Par 5)

Tapa and westernization

With the onset of westernization in the pacific islands, most of the symbols and designing elements took on a new look with the women who embroidered these patterns moving in step with westernization. The art of making these tapas served to show both diversity in tradition and culture and also it brought the people of the pacific in common unity. This points out that tapas indicated the presence of two cultures within the pacific islands. First, the designs that were original to their culture and later westernized designs indicating the entrance of the western culture. (Colchester, par. 4)


Through these findings, it can clearly be seen that clothing does serve and plays a vital role in the pacific island’s culture. In this case, the tapa shows evidence that even though history and changing times, the pacific community is still in the union as indicated by the one cultural activity; the art of making garments from the bark of trees. From this cultural activity, one can have a clear picture of what the culture of the pacific islanders is and was like.

Works Cited

Colchester, C. Clothing the Pacific. 2003. Web.

Neich Roger, Pendergrast, Mick and Pfeiffer, krzysztoff. Pacific Tapa. Hawaii. University of Hawaii Press, 2004.

Perkins, Hannah. Talking Tapa. Queensland University Technology. 2009. Web.

Internal Versus External Customers

Southwest airlines

A southwest airline is an airline established and incorporated in America. It is the largest airline in terms of customer served per year in the world. It also has the third largest number of aircrafts in the world. On average south west operates about 3500 flights per day. The company started more than 38 years ago. Southwest aims at ensuring that its customers get to their destination within the shortest time possible while paying the lowest fares possible. The airline is characterized by having only one type of aircraft, the Boeing 737. The airline’s mission is ‘dedication to the highest quality of customer service with a sense of warmth, friendliness, individual pride, and company spirit’ the company has got clearly set out policies for unaccompanied minors, as well as customers with disability thus making it all an encompassing.

Strategy description

This marketing strategy called “setting the buying criteria” was developed by Ryan Healy, a freelance copy writer and was published in the Ezine articles. The strategy is about how a company can make its prospective customers make a buying decision. The strategy involves setting a buying criteria in the marketing material used by the company, be it brochures, sales letters or the internet. You define the characteristics of a good buying behavior. In setting these criteria, you need to be keen to exclude your competitors from being in a position to qualify to the criteria. The criteria should also not exclude all competitors. It should however sufficiently narrow the competition field to a manageable level. In other words it should to a larger and lesser extent be exclusive. For example in our case the southwestern airline may develop buying criteria such as ‘stable working conditions, equal opportunity for learning etc’. such a criteria would help the airline attract more qualified human resource as well as keeping its human resource together.This strategy is effective into luring potential customer become customer. The strategy for one allows the prospective customer to see your company as trustworthy or one that can be trusted. By telling them what to look for in the product they are about to buy you build some trust in yourself in the eyes of the customer. Secondly the strategy lets the prospective customer make their own conclusions. By telling what to watch out for, you are not telling them to buy your products about you are indirectly giving them guidelines for making a purchase or make a conclusion. Lastly the strategy means that you will be going a step further and doing a different thing from your competitors. In setting the criteria, you should be able to define your buying criteria, position your criteria, and provide the reasons why the criteria is the way it is.

Strategy application

The strategies can be applied in human resources management in the southwest airlines. This can very well apply to those employees of other competing airlines who would like to work for Southwestern and also to keep the employees of the airline i.e. to prevent staff turnover. The strategy would include outlining the benefits that the employees would get that other airlines would not offer. This would act South western’s buying criterion. The criterion would probably read like, ‘a good pay, pension plan, insurance policy, two days off per week’. Probably not all airlines could be offering these benefits to its employees. This will make southwestern to have an advantage in securing and maintaining customers. The thing is any person looking for these benefits would consider working for south western since it has already outlined what the staffs are looking for.

Strategy implications

Organizational credibility pertains to extent an organization’s organizational trustworthy or legitimacy in the eyes of the stakeholders who include the shareholders, the clients, business partners as well as the general public (Luo, Y., 2007, p.221). Credibility is important for a firm to build and maintain good relations with the other parties or the stakeholders. Credibility emanates from the firm’s reputation, customer loyalty, trustworthiness, social image, etc (Luo, Y., 2007, p.221). Setting a buy criterion for southern airline would help to build and maintain organizational credibility. This is because the criteria would to a large extent portray how the airlines staff as well as staffs front other airlines perceive the airlines management. This help create a good image fop the company and thereby helping in building credibility. As stated earlier good credibility come simple things such as the company’s image, customer satisfaction etc. this strategy can therefore be very efficient in creating, building and maintaining a good organizational credibility for the airline. Consider for example if south western developed criteria that emphasized on its role and measures to conserve the environment. This would create a situation where the general public would see the company’s corporate social responsibility and therefore improving on the credibility.

Organizational change can take two main dimensions, the gradual change or the radical or transformative change (Denison, R., 2001, p.104). Scholars recommend a separate strategy to bring about organization change, though some hold to the school of thought that the business strategies such the marketing strategies can be used to bring about organizational change. If business strategies are to be used to bring about organization change then the change can only be a gradual one since radical changes calls for transformation of the entire organization, or a major one on the organization’s structures. Use of business strategy to bring about organization change is a long process. The process involves using the business strategy to come up with an organization strategy which is then used to develop a human resource management strategy. The human resource management strategy is used to affect people and bring about organizational change (Burke, W., 2002). In our case we want to use the business strategy to provide improved exposure for human resource management and thereby enable organization change. Suppose for example southwestern airline developed a strategy of increasing the number of passengers using its Boeing 737. This would call for a buying criteria designed to make prospective clients decide to fly on a south western flight. We assume that the strategy succeeds and customer base increases. This would in turn call for a strategy to ensure that our staff dedicates themselves to serving the increasing number of passengers. The need to improve our human resource management would actually increase. In other words our buying strategy to increase our passenger’s base thus leads to more attention on human resource management. We therefore create a strategy to manage our human resources. This, in the long run will bring about organizational change (Denison, R., 2001, p.105).


Certain marketing and sales strategies may be developed by the organization to achieve diverse objectives,, such wining or maintaining clients and staffs, improving human resource management or even bringing about organizational change.

Reference List

  1. Burke, W.W. (2002). Organization change: theory and practice. New Delhi: Sage
  2. Denison, R.D. (2001). Managing organizational change in transition economies. Newyork: Lawrence Erlbaum associates, Inc
  3. Luo, Y. (2007). Global dimensions of corporate governance.MA: Blackwell Publishing

Future Trends Of E-Commerce

Discuss Future Trends of EC


This paper deals with the future trends of e-commerce. The research project is focused on how the e-commerce market place will look like next year and after five years. The transformed position of the e-commerce after a decade is also discussed here. The improvement that has been made by the advanced technology on the future e-commerce transactions is the focusing point of this research paper.

Reply to the tutor

E commerce will provide improvement in the communications, processes and decision making. The application of e commerce in organisation will facilitate the transferring of data in more accurate and speedy ways accessible to all of the individuals in the organisation. In place of mere communication process, e commerce facilitates the discussion between the members in the organisation in a more strengthened ways. In e-commerce based communication along with voice based data transfer, audio visual features are also applicable and thus it improved the communication process. It avoids the problems in traditional communication process such as data over load, as well as time lagging and supports better organisational environment. Thus e commerce based communication process improves the organisational efficiency.

Discuss Future Trends of EC


E-commerce market is one of the growing markets due to the increased users of internet. E-commerce is the purchase or sale of products or services through internet. It is alternatively known as Online Shopping. The payment is through electronic means. B2B (Business to Business) and B2C (Business to Consumer) are common types of E-commerce.

E-commerce after one year

After one year it is expected that there will emerge new business models and revenue streams in the e-commerce business sector. The cost and time required for the e-commerce transactions should be reduced and it will improve the operational performance of the business in the sector. Reliability and high speedy access will support the customers as well as the business firms to get better servicing. Due to the rapid change of technologies, the cost will be reduced and thus the attractive pricing policies can be adopted by the firms for their online marketing. According to Moors Law, “the performance of micro-processors (computing power) doubles every 18 months resulting in cheaper, faster and convergent technologies.” (Current and future trends 2001). Thus business firms will be supported with provision of better shopping options and competitive pricing. It will help to carry out the business in more cost-effective manner and with speedy expansion of the market. The business processes shall be streamlined by using the innovative and advanced techniques. The customer base and demand shall be increased further with the added advantages of the e-commerce sector. The value chain of the business should be strengthened with increased profit margins.

After 1 year it is expected that the mobile internet marketing will be a prominent method of online marketing. Innovative mobile phone products supported with high speed digital mobile services will gain more customer base. It is expected to get elevated growth rate in the sector with advanced speedy service and lower consumption cost. The new trend in the e-commerce sector is related to technological advancement. E commerce will provide improvement in the communications, processes and decision making. It will enter in all aspects of the organisation. It will have an incredible opportunity in the purchasing and supply functions. In the field of communication it will grow to be an invaluable tool. By better supporting of e-commerce, the supply chain system in the business will become more advanced and greatly facilitated. (Carter 1999, p.33).

E-commerce in the next five years

Various trends have taken out in e-commerce over the past few years. There are a variety of opinions about the future of e-commerce. Some argue that the e-commerce will be heading in the coming years although online sales are growing. Giga Information Group analyst Andrew Bartels in his interview with Economic Times points out that the current trends are the continuation of the past trends and are significant for e-commerce. The five trends identified by him are multichannel retailing, more satisfied customers, consumers do their own thing, death of the mid size e-tailer, and more profits. (Regan 2002).

A recently published report says that e-commerce sales are expected to grow to about $30billion in the next five years. U.S. E-commerce Forecast 2008 to 2012 Report by Forrester Research Inc points out the following figures of online retail sales from 2008 to 2012.

Year sales               (in billion)

2008                          $ 204

2009                       $ 235.4

2010                        $ 267.8

2011                          $ 301

2012                        $ 334.7

Study by Retail analysts Verdict Research shows that consumer spending on online marketing has increased three times in 2006 and it is expected to triple in the next five years. There will be a rise of 8.9% in retail sales by 2011 in UK.

E-commerce after a decade

E-commerce will have to face new changes in the coming decade. As per a survey, there will be 3-D virtual shopping malls instead of e-commerce and there will be personalized advertising through the flexible online environment. That means e-commerce will be changed to v-commerce. “This move to virtual shopping will also place increased demand on the technology used to support online services such as web hosting, and so the robustness and reliability of these providers will be critical to its success.” (E commerce to 2020).

The supporting field of e-commerce will also change. Marketing and advertising will be changed for more customization. Other technology related fields like web hosting also will change. Another significant change will also take place in retail sector. (E commerce to 2020). Personalization in the web page will be another significant change in the e-commerce environment. It is need of the hour since the customer loyalty towards a website is relatively lower when comparing with the traditional shops. Beyond the personalization in the web page, a customer will be able to select a particular product as per his need that means he can select the name; product specification etc. can be changed from one customer to another. Online advertising, micro-commerce, co-marketing and cross selling deals will be getting more popularity. Industry expert predict that a customer can buy a product even from banner advertising without going for the company site. Thus the industry will be going to face several types of changes in the near future. (Smith 2009).


The E-commerce market increases day by day. Even though there are arguments against it, most of the studies show that e-commerce has a major influence on people and the internet users have increased. E-commerce has become important among the consumers and suppliers due to its advantages like: access to the global market, speedy transactions, reduced costs etc.


Ayny 2008, E commerce future in figures, Ecommerce Journal, Web.

Carter, Phillip, L 1999, The future of purchasing and supply: electronic commerce in the new millennium, Journal of Supply Chain Management, p.33, Web.

Current and future trends 2001, Electronic Commerce for Developing Countries, Web.

E commerce to 2020, Internet Retail, Web.

Regan, Keith 2002, Five E commerce trend to watch, Commerce Times: E Business means Business, Web.

Smith, Jaison 2009, E commerce in the future, Macrommwise, Web.

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