Paper On The American Civil War

The American Civil War of 1861-1865 remained as a defining moment in American history and was fought between neighboring states with incidences of brothers on opposite sides of the battle waging war against each other. It threatened to erode the fabric holding together the American civil society and patriotism with claims on dismantling the Union. The impact of the war is felt to date and will continue and has played a vital role in shaping modern politics, culture and the wider American society (Parish, 2020). The war served as an outlet of tensions brewing over the decades between the North and the South, touching on sensitive cultural issues such as slavery and economic progress.

The impact of the war was not limited to the actual battlefields but instead extended to shape the nation’s identity, culture, and progress. The issue of slavery was a divisive factor, and social, political and economic factors combined to form a recipe that would serve as a potent test to the idea of a united nation and the sheer power of the Union. In this paper, we will undertake a detailed exploration of the American Civil War to determine the multifaceted causes of the war, the course of the war, immediate and long-term consequences of the war while outlining the enduring legacy it has put on the face of America (Silkenat, 2019). The American Civil War is not just a matter of dates or battles fought but serves as a mirror to decipher the complicated nature of humankind, the fragility of shared beliefs, and the inevitable turn of infinite progress overall. This paper will serve better to understand the struggles and triumphs of the great nation we know today.

It is utterly impossible to pinpoint one factor as the cause of the war as tensions had been brewing for years and this would ultimately culminate in the outburst of the war. Slavery was the major issue of debate but the causes can be classified as economic, social, and political factors (Draper, 1870). Notably, although there were longstanding factors that caused the war, there were immediate factors that served as the spark that ignited the war. Economic differences were on display with the North and the South having clearly different economic models. The north majorly relied on industrialization and urbanization, while the economy of the South depended heavily on agriculture with enslaved people being the chief source of labor on farms. The north had a diversified economy that was fluid and able to adapt with changing circumstances, but the South was a rigid one, with any slight changes having far-reaching consequences.

The vast differences in the two economic models created misaligned interests on issues such as trade tariffs, eradicating slavery, and policies. The northern states had made massive progress towards eliminating slave labor towards attaining an industrialized labor force in line with market forces, while eradicating slavery in the south was vehemently opposed as it meant increasing the cost of agricultural production. This was a key point of divergence, and tensions hit the roof. The scope of federal authority was a point of conflict with northern states seeking more power vested upon the union’s leaders. At the same time, the South preferred the autonomy of federal states to make decisions based on their unique circumstances (Goldin & Lewis, 1975). In essence, southern states felt that the Union was infringing on their rights on such issues like federal rights.

Additionally, as differences widened, citizens began identifying more with their regions instead of the central authority and sectionalism kicked in. The mentality of us versus them took center stage and animosity brewed to levels never experienced before. Abraham Lincoln was elected president in 1860, a Republican and the southern states now felt that they were secluded from the federal government.

Moreover, the immediate cause of the war was the secession of the southern states from the central Union and this coincided with the period after the election of President Lincoln. Lincoln took office in March 1861, and by then seven states had seceded and proceeded to form the Confederate of States of America. Secession was a significant threat to the integrity of the Union, and the President had to marshal the Union troops to prepare for war to preserve the Union. The first shots of the Civil war would then be recorded at Fort Sumter in Charlestown Harbor in South Carolina in April 1861, an attack by the Confederate forces that sparked a military conflict. The attack meant that the war was now in full spring. Jefferson Davis was the official President of the Confederate States and the attack at Fort Sumter caused the Union forces stationed there to surrender. The move caused more states to join the Confederate through secession, and the union was forced to mobilize in readiness for full-scale war. The Union lost some of the early battles notably the First Battle of Bull Run, and this dispelled the notion that the war would be short-lived. Battles took place in Virginia, and in the West Union Forces sought to block the Mississippi River to cause divisions in the confederacy.

The war was ravaging on all sides, and in 1863 President Lincoln signed the Emancipation Proclamation, which was a momentous decree to signify a change in Union war objectives and decreed abolishing slavery a primary goal in the war. The Battle of Gettysburg in July 1863 was a turning point in the course of the fight to end the advance of the Confederacy forces to the North and the Siege of Vicksburg to mark control of Union forces on the Mississippi River (Foote & Hess, 2021). The next phase of war was very severe, and massive casualties were reported on either side. Still, the size of the Union meant that were better positioned in dealing with losses and continuing with war unabated.

General Ulysses Grant took control of Union forces, and his strategies aimed at putting surrender on the confederacy to coerce them into surrender. Total war set in, and the Southern states found themselves isolated and unable to press on with the war as the country entered 1865. The submission of General Robert E. Lee to General Grant at Appomattox Court House on April 9, 1865, effectively terminated the war’s major combat operations. Other Confederate soldiers surrendered in the following months, culminating in Confederate General Edmund Kirby Smith’s capitulation in June 1865.

The immediate consequences of the war were earmarked by loss of lives on either side. It is estimated that over 600,000 soldiers lost their lives and the number of casualties was massive and impossible to determine (Sainlaude, 2019). The civil war remains one of the deadliest wars in American history and cities, homes, and property worth millions was destroyed during the war. The emancipation of enslaved people occurred and slavery was abolished, declaring slaves free human beings. The freedom sparked a continuous civil rights movement to end all forms of discrimination that remained such as racial discrimination. The end of the war gave room to the reconstruction era despite resistance from southern states, with amendments passed to reflect the changes made in the course of the war to abolish slavery and accord voting rights to African Americans.

The long-term consequences touch on the reunification of the United States under a strong Federal authority and the question of secession was settled once and for all. The end of the war reiterated the unity of Union into one nation under shared beliefs, and the power of the Union extended beyond state authority. Industrialization did not stop entirely in the course of the war and continued to support the cause of the northern war effort and this expanded across the nation once the war ended (Draper, 1870). The south embraced industrialization and a paradigm shift took place away from an agrarian society and this is credited for the improved living standards across the nation.

The war is credited for the mid-nineteenth century rise of the Civil rights movement to champion for the rights of minority groups with leading figures like Martin Luther King Jr and Malcolm X. The campaign sought to eradicate all forms of discrimination and ensure that all American citizens, irrespective of their innate differences such as skin color received equal and fair treatment. The war set a precedence for the Federal government to play a leading role in solving national crises and calamities, as observed during the COVID-19 Pandemic, to alter the impact of the virus through national vaccination efforts. Additionally, it caused a perpetual cultural shift with nationalism and taking pride in the Union flag growing immensely. Exceptionalism was embraced across all facets of society and the war has shaped art, cultural practices and literature (Varon, 2008). Evidence supporting the impact of the civil war includes the thirteenth, fourteenth and fifteenth Reconstruction amendments, civil rights activists and the spreading of industrialization.

In conclusion, the American Civil War of 1861 to 1865 is an inextricable part of modern American history. The war cements President Lincoln among the great American presidents and he ranks among the founding fathers such as George Washington, Thomas Jefferson and James Maddison. The war has been the most grueling threat to the Federal government in history and the Union forces standing their ground to preserve the Union is a great beacon of hope on the strength of the United States. The war also serves as a point of origin to remember the soldiers who gave their lives that the nation might live and this sheer sacrifice should be remembered as they created the freedoms we hold today. The war ended to mark the abolishment of freedom and underscore the proposition that all men were created equal and all forms of discrimination are intolerable as they infringe on the rights of individual citizens. Future research on the American Civil war should conduct comparative studies with similar wars that have occurred in other parts of the wide and seek to establish the lived experiences of different American ethnic groups during the war. The focus on how the memory of the war has evolved over the years and the cultural modifications caused by the war should be determined.


Draper, J. W. (1870). History of the American Civil War (Vol. 3). Harper.

Draper, J. W. (1870). History of the American Civil War (Vol. 3). Harper.

Foote, L., & Hess, E. J. (Eds.). (2021). The Oxford Handbook of the American Civil War. Oxford University Press.

Goldin, C. D., & Lewis, F. D. (1975). The economic cost of the American Civil War: Estimates and implications. The Journal of Economic History35(2), 299-326.

Parish, P. J. (2020). The American Civil War. Routledge.

Sainlaude, S. (2019). France and the American Civil War: A Diplomatic History. UNC Press Books.

Silkenat, D. (2019). Raising the White Flag: How Surrender Defined the American Civil War. UNC Press Books.

Varon, E. R. (2008). Disunion!: The Coming of the American Civil War, 1789-1859. Univ of North Carolina Press.

Professional Action Plan: Physical Therapy

Physical therapy is more than just the mending of bodies; it is a holistic endeavour that encompasses the intricate interplay between the physical and psychological dimensions of healing. Drawing inspiration from sports psychology concepts of motivation, communication and interpersonal, as an aspiring physical therapist, I can harness their power to create an environment that not only facilitates physical recovery but also nurtures the psychological well-being of their patients.

Psychological Elements

As determined earlier, the intended career field under discussion for this paper is physical therapy. As a multidimensional field encompassing various psychological elements and dimensions, physical therapy plays a crucial role in the overall well-being and success of rehabilitation patients. With a particular interest in the field, I have understood that these psychological aspects are intertwined with the physical aspects of treatment and contribute significantly to the effectiveness of the therapy process. Therefore, I intend to further comprehend the unique demands of this anticipated career field by determining if these psychological elements are relevant and can be viable as targets for my action plan.

The most significant element of physical therapy is patient empowerment and engagement because physical therapists must work closely with patients to set goals, create treatment plans, and monitor progress. Therefore, empowering patients to participate in their recovery actively will foster a sense of control and involvement, leading to increased motivation and adherence to the prescribed exercises and interventions. When the empowerment seems to be slowly taking shape, there is a need to involve the physical and physiological aspects or experience, i.e., pain management and perception, such that the patients as clients understand the relationship between pain and movement. Caneiro, Bunzli and O’Sullivan (2021) explain that pain perception can reduce fear and anxiety associated with movement, which makes patients more receptive to therapy, perhaps a significant reason for the need for patient education on pain perception.

Motivation is also another element often accompanied by adherence because physical therapy requires that patients be motivated to commit to their treatment plans and adhere to exercise routines since it can be challenging. Physical therapists will employ motivational strategies like positive reinforcement and goal-setting techniques to enhance patients’ commitment and compliance with prescribed interventions to ultimately realize the set expectations (Bäck et al., 2020). While there can be emotional distress and frustration, physical therapy incorporates the coping and stress management element, where patients are advised to express their concerns and fears as they also get educated on stress management techniques and coping strategies. Significantly, the education should be accompanied by communication because it ensures the professional builds rapport while setting expectations and ensuring that patients understand their condition and the treatment options. In general, physical therapy builds upon motivation and adherence, coping and stress management, and communication and education elements.

Linking the Psychological Elements to Theoretical Knowledge on Sport Psychology

Patient empowerment relates to ensuring independence such that the main intent (facilitating long-term independence and sustainable function) is achieved with major recognition of the patient’s sense of powerlessness. While this empowerment can emulate the job’s specific requirements in using skills and knowledge to ensure the patient gains as much as possible, communication is important. Communication creates rapport and ensures patients comprehend their conditions, treatment plans, and expected outcomes to actively participate in rehabilitation and adhere to prescribed exercises and interventions. With communication components of empathy and understanding, the patient’s fear and anxiety are alleviated as the treatment approach is reinforced. As Ahlsen and Nilsen (2022) discuss, communication is the beginning of ensuring patient-centred care in physical therapy. Therefore, communication will not only establish the trust needed for effective therapy but also ensure the care is personalized through patient involvement in decision-making and communication of lifestyles, preferences and goals.

Interpersonal skills relate to motivation and adherence because patients need to be motivated to adhere to their prescribed exercises and interventions, which requires strong interpersonal skills. Therefore, physical therapists will build rapport and trust, creating a supportive environment where patients feel comfortable discussing challenges and setbacks that will, in turn, help in tailoring strategies to enhance adherence. At the same time, the professional will work towards providing emotional support and creating this safe space that allows for the free expression of emotional concerns for the development of effective coping strategies. Besides, changes in body image may trigger challenges in self-esteem, requiring that the professional provides encouragement, support, and positive reinforcement, fostering a sense of self-worth and self-esteem in patients as they progress through their therapy. In the end, patients will utilize the motivation propelled by physical therapists to embrace behavioural changes for the long-term benefits of adopting healthier habits.

Action Plan

In pursuing a career in physical therapy, it is significant to understand the psychological elements of the field because they are essential for achieving successful outcomes and building positive therapeutic relationships. This action plan will focus on skill building to match the expectations of the industry, i.e., strategic application of sport psychology concepts and optimization of the psychological experience for aspiring physical therapy students. This plan also intends to lay out motivation, communication, and interpersonal skills as the starting point for going into the physical therapy field.

I intend to work towards ensuring motivation in my job by setting both short-term and long-term goals starting from my academic and professional journey while utilizing intrinsic motivation based on personal meaning and enjoyment. Moreover, this process will factor in the self-determination theory that autonomy, competence and relatedness are core to professional development. I will be regularly assessing my strengths while seeking out opportunities for professional development and supportive networks within the physical therapy community. I also consider optimism as one of the practices individuals could use to actualize their projections for their future careers. Therefore, I look forward to practicing positive self-talk to counter self-doubt and boost confidence, together with a well-developed repertoire of affirmations to reinforce my abilities and resilience.

Considering that motivation is more of an intrinsic consideration, working towards motivating patients creates the second phase that there has to be an initial assessment, then following up with the setting of SMART goals. At the same time, ensuring motivation in physical therapy considers education and engagement with patients, which calls for progress tracking and drafting personal plans for patients. An individualized approach should also be considered since there is a need for adjustable intensity and variety, and novelty. Given that communication was considered the initial strategy, I intend to ensure the presence of open dialogue and recognition of emotional barriers.

In general, the plan is to work on personal traits and then strengthen interpersonal skills and professional requirements for physical therapy. Considering motivation, communication, and interpersonal skills comprised the main arguments linked to the psychological elements of physical therapy, implementing them requires diving into their constituents, like active listening and practicing cultural sensitivity. Thus, I will be looking to facilitate positive performance and experience outcomes for myself and my patients by ensuring personal growth and professional development through continuous learning and self-reflection. While at it, I intend to ensure effective patient-centred care with the proper application of the empathetic approach, patient education, individualized treatment and plans and motivation enhancement. As a field, physical therapy requires supportive workplace relationships with other professionals culminated through interdisciplinary collaboration and cultural competence, where I will be sure to observe ethical and professional conduct by adhering to ethical standards of the profession, ensuring integrity, honesty, and patient confidentiality in all interactions. Otherwise, with professionalism in my demeanour, attire and communication, I would have contributed to improved patient outcomes in my patient population.


Incorporating the principles of motivation, physical therapists can set off determination within patients because of the art of goal-setting, tailored interventions, and a deep understanding of intrinsic and extrinsic motivations; therapists empower individuals to stride purposefully on their rehabilitation journey. Just as athletes draw strength from their aspirations, patients can channel their inner resolve to conquer challenges and exceed their own expectations. In the same way, communication and interpersonal skills can act as the heartbeat of the therapeutic relationship, mirroring the teamwork seen in sports and fortifying the emotional fortitude likened to the unwavering trust and friendship among teammates.


Ahlsen, B., & Nilsen, A. B. (2022). Getting in touch: Communication in physical therapy practice and the multiple functions of language. Frontiers in rehabilitation sciences3, 882099.

Bäck, M., Caldenius, V., Svensson, L., & Lundberg, M. (2020). Perceptions of kinesiophobia in relation to physical activity and exercise after myocardial infarction: a qualitative study. Physical therapy100(12), 2110-2119.

Caneiro, J. P., Bunzli, S., & O’Sullivan, P. (2021). Beliefs about the body and pain: the critical role in musculoskeletal pain management. Brazilian Journal of Physical Therapy25(1), 17-29.

Proposal For The Implementation Of A Nurse Informaticist Role

In the book “Nursing Informatics and The Foundation of Knowledge” (2021) by McGonigle and Mastrian, nursing informatics is elucidated as the amalgamation of nursing, computer, and information science. This convergence aims to effectively handle and convey data, information, and knowledge within nursing practice, elevating care quality, optimizing patient results, and reinforcing the foundation for evidence-based choices.

Role of the Nurse Informaticist

A nurse informaticist is a specialized nursing professional with clinical practice and information technology expertise. The role encompasses using data and technology to streamline nursing workflows, optimize patient care processes, and enhance clinical outcomes. Nurse informaticists bridge clinical practice and technology solutions, ensuring effective implementation and utilization of health information systems (Kleib & Nagle, 2018). They collaborate with healthcare teams, translating their clinical needs into technology requirements while also aiding in interpreting technological advances for nursing colleagues.

Nurse Informaticists and Other Stakeholders

Numerous healthcare organizations have recognized the value of nurse informaticists in optimizing care delivery and technology integration. For instance, the HIMSS Nursing Informatics Workforce Survey highlighted the presence of nurse informaticists in various healthcare settings, showcasing their role in improving patient outcomes by driving evidence-based technology implementations (Garcia-Dia, 2021).

Nurse informaticists collaborate extensively with interdisciplinary teams, including technologists, to enhance patient care. They liaise with nursing staff and IT professionals, ensuring seamless integration of electronic health records (EHRs), clinical decision support systems, and telehealth solutions. In their journal, Kreitzer et al. (2022) emphasize the collaborative nature of the role in enhancing communication and cooperation between clinical, administrative, and technical teams.

The Need for a Nurse Informaticist Position

Patient Care

Full nurse engagement in healthcare technology has a profound impact on patient care. Nurse informaticists empower nurses to provide more personalized and efficient care through evidence-based clinical decision-support tools, enabling timely interventions and reducing adverse events. The positive correlation between nurse informaticists’ involvement in implementing EHRs improves patient care outcomes (Yen et al., 2017).

Protected Health Information

Managing protected health information (PHI) is critical to healthcare technology. Nurse informaticists are pivotal in developing and enforcing strategies to ensure patient data privacy, security, and confidentiality. By adhering to standards such as the Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act (HIPAA) and leveraging encryption, access controls, and audit trails, nurse informaticists safeguard PHI. Nurse informaticists and interdisciplinary teams can employ various methods to ensure privacy, security, and confidentiality. Role-Based Access Control (RBAC) assigns specific permissions based on roles, reducing unauthorized access risks (de Carvalho Junior & Bandiera-Paiva, 2018). Encryption safeguards data at rest and in transit, while regular staff education minimizes accidental breaches. Two-Factor Authentication (2FA) adds an extra layer of security, and regular auditing detects and prevents unauthorized access. Secure Mobile Device Management (MDM) is essential for data accessed from mobile devices (Sisala & Othman, 2020). These approaches improve patient care, reduce data breaches, and improve organizational efficiency.


The integration of nurses in health care technology significantly enhances workflow efficiency. Nurse informaticists design and implement technology solutions that streamline nursing processes, reducing redundant tasks and administrative burdens. These streamlined workflows contribute to improved nurse satisfaction, enhanced patient care experiences, and more time spent at the bedside. Informaticists optimize workflows through EHR customization and interoperability enhancements.

Costs and Return on Investment

While investing in nurse informaticists incurs initial costs, the long-term benefits far outweigh the expenses. Nurse informaticists contribute to reduced medication errors, shorter hospital stays, and enhanced care coordination, resulting in cost savings for healthcare organizations.

Opportunities and Challenges

The addition of a nurse informaticist role presents numerous opportunities for interdisciplinary collaboration. By collaborating with nursing staff, IT professionals, and clinicians, nurse informaticists can facilitate the development and implementation of innovative solutions that address clinical challenges. This collaboration leads to improved patient care outcomes and fosters a culture of continuous improvement and learning.

Introducing nurse informaticists into the healthcare workforce may have challenges, such as resistance to change, workflow disruptions, and technology adoption barriers (Al-Hawamdih & Ahmad, 2018). To overcome these challenges, organizations can invest in robust training programs for nursing and technical staff, promote open communication channels, and establish change management strategies. Additionally, nurse informaticists can serve as educators and champions, advocating for technology adoption while addressing concerns and facilitating a smoother transition.

Key Takeaways

  1. Implementing a nurse informaticist role bridges the gap between nursing practice and health care technology, enhancing patient care outcomes through evidence-based technology integration.
  2. Nurse informaticists collaborate with interdisciplinary teams to optimize workflows, safeguard PHI, and drive cost-effective technology implementations.
  3. ROI is demonstrated through improved patient care quality, reduced adverse events, streamlined workflows, and cost savings by utilizing nurse informaticists.

In conclusion, including nurse informaticists can enhance technological capabilities, foster interdisciplinary teamwork, and ultimately improve patient care quality while realizing substantial returns on investment.


Al-Hawamdih, S., & Ahmad, M. M. (2018). Examining the Relationship Between Nursing Informatics Competency and the Quality of Information Processing. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing36(3), 154–159.

de Carvalho Junior, M. A., & Bandiera-Paiva, P. (2018, February 19). Health Information System Role-Based Access Control Current Security Trends and Challenges. Journal of Healthcare Engineering.

Garcia-Dia, M. J. (2021). Nursing informatics: An evolving specialty. Nursing Management52(5), 56.

Kleib, M., & Nagle, L. (2018). Factors Associated With Canadian Nursesʼ Informatics Competency. CIN: Computers, Informatics, Nursing, 1.

Kreitzer, M. J., Koithan, M., Sullivan, S. D., Nunez, M., & Voss, M. (2022). Integrative Nursing and the ANA Scope and Standards of Practice: Expanding the Reach of Nursing for Families and Society. Creative Nursing28(4), 228–233.

McGonigle, D., & Mastrian, K. (2021). Nursing Informatics and the Foundation of Knowledge. In Google Books. Jones & Bartlett Learning.

Sisala, S., & Othman, S. H. (2020). Developing a Mobile Device Management (MDM) Security Metamodel for Bring Your Own Devices (BYOD) in Hospitals. International Journal of Innovative Computing10(2).

Yen, P.-Y., Phillips, A., Kennedy, M. K., & Collins, S. (2017). Nursing Informatics Competency Assessment for the Nurse Leader: Instrument Refinement, Validation, and Psychometric Analysis. The Journal of Nursing Administration47(5), 271–277.