The problem is that the long-standing and unjust prohibition of the psychoactivedrug marijuana has been lifted by voters in Arizona and California. Under thenew law, doctors can prescribe marijuana to those patients who can possiblybenefit from the drug’s medicinal purposes. Used for alleviating pain andsuffering, the drug can provide needed relief for many people. However, to theconcerned, it appears that with the new propositions government has grantedpermission to posses and consume a drug that has been banned for decades. The “smoke” has yet to settle in Washington, but a reaction to the new laws from thefederal government seems unlikely. Optimistic supporters hope that similarpolicies and propositions will soon come to voters in other states.

The debate over the legalization of Cannabis Sativa, more commonly knownas marijuana, is currently one of the more heated controversies in the countrytoday. The drug has been unrightfully prohibited since the 1930’s for itsdangerous effects. However, earlier and more primitive cultures were able tosafely explore marijuana’s usage for both medicinal and hallucinogenicproperties. The usage of marijuana has existed for thousands of years in manycountries world wide and can be documented as far back as 2700 BC in ancientChinese writings. In the earlier cultures, marijuana usage was accepted and itseffects documented. However, the United States government overlooked all of theinformation and banned the drug. Recently, however, there has been a resurgencein the opinion of the drug’s positive medicinal purposes.

Studies on the medicinal uses of marijuana have been conducted on manypatients that suffer from various health problems. In patients with the AIDS,the drug served as a beneficial way to stimulate appetite. Thousands of AIDSpatients already use marijuana illegally for this condition and have reportedexcellent results. For those AIDS victims, marijuana can reduce the nausea,vomiting, and loss of appetite that are common to the syndrome. Another medicalfunction for marijuana is to combat glaucoma, the leading cause of blindness inthe United States. Glaucoma is an eye disease that results from pressure thatbuilds up over time and causes great pain and vision loss to sufferers. In theglaucoma patients, marijuana can aid in relieving the intraocular pressure onthe eyeball, and thereby alleviate the pain and sometimes stopping the progressof the condition. Multiple sclerosis is another incurable condition that couldbenefit from the legalization of marijuana. The disease disrupts the normalfunctioning of the nerves in the brain and the spinal cord. The common agonizingsymptoms include tingling, numbness, impaired weakness, difficulty in speaking,painful muscle spasms, loss of coordination and balance, fatigue, weakness orparalysis, loss of bladder control, urinary tract infections, constipation, skinulcers, and severe depression. Cannabis , because of its relaxing qualities hasa startling and profound effect on the symptoms of multiple sclerosis. For thesufferers it stops muscle spasms, reduces tremors, restores balance, restoresbladder control, and restores speech and eyesight. Many wheelchair-bound MSpatients report that after smoking marijuana they can walk.

Those who oppose the medical usage of marijuana argue that the AmericanHealth Association neither accepts nor believes that marijuana serves anypurpose in medicine. Doctors claim that there is a great risk that results fromsmoking the drug. Inhaling any burning substance is harmful to the lungs andcould eventually produce detrimental effects including cancer. Despitecannabis’ known adverse effects to lung function, it has never been reported tocause a single instance of lung cancer. On the other hand, tobacco, a legal andreadily accessible poison, is expected to kill 400,000 people this year. Asolution to the doctors’ concerns would be to consume marijuana throughalternative methods of ingestion that cause diminished effects on bodily health;smoking the drug with a different apparatus or ingesting it without smokingcould greatly decrease the harmful effects to the human body.

Currently, according to the current laws of the United States government,possessing, selling, or using marijuana is illegal. The federal government isproud of its tough policy on illegal drugs. As citizens, we are all thankfulto live in an environment protected from the unregulated drug market and crimethat would likely from an unrestricted drug trade. But the opportunities thatare missed and the pain and suffering endured from the prohibition of marijuana,are oppression not protection. Our country was founded on a policy of democracy,where people decide what is best for government. The decision of marijuanalegalization should be given to the voters just as in Arizona and California.

For too long there has been a ban on marijuana, and it is time for the public tojoin together and force a change. Someday soon perhaps voters and officialswill be able to sit together and join in the tradition of passing the peace pipe.

## Georg Cantor Founded Set Theory And Introduced The

R concept of infinite numbers with his discovery of cardinal numbers. He also advanced the study of trigonometric series and was the first to prove the nondenumerability of the real numbers.

Georg Ferdinand Ludwig Philipp Cantor was born in St. Petersburg, Russia, on March 3, 1845. His family stayed in Russia for eleven years until the father’s sickly health forced them to move to the more acceptable environment of Frankfurt, Germany, the place where Georg would spend the rest of his life. Georg excelled in mathematics. His father saw this gift and tried to push his son into the more profitable but less challenging field of engineering. Georg was not at all happy about this idea but he lacked the courage to stand up to his father and relented. However, after several years of training, he became so fed up with the idea that he mustered up the courage to beg his father to become a mathematician. Finally, just before entering college, his father let Georg study mathematics. In 1862, Georg Cantor entered the University of Zurich only to transfer the next year to the University of Berlin after his father’s death. At Berlin he studied mathematics, philosophy and physics. There he studied under some of the greatest mathematicians of the day including Kronecker and Weierstrass. After receiving his doctorate in 1867 from Berlin, he was unable to find good employment and was forced to accept a position as an unpaid lecturer and later as an assistant professor at the University of Halle in1869. In 1874, he married and had six children. It was in that same year of 1874 that Cantor published his first paper on the theory of sets. While studying a problem in analysis, he had dug deeply into its foundations, especially sets and infinite sets. What he found baffled him. In a series of papers from 1874 to 1897, he was able to prove that the set of integers had an equal number of members as the set of even numbers, squares, cubes, and roots to equations; that the number of points in a line segment is equal to the number of points in an infinite line, a plane and all mathematical space; and that the number of transcendental numbers, values such as pi(3.14159) and e(2.

71828) that can never be the solution to any algebraic equation, were much larger than the number of integers. Before in mathematics, infinity had been a sacred subject. Previously, Gauss had stated that infinity should only be used as a way of speaking and not as a mathematical value. Most mathematicians followed his advice and stayed away. However, Cantor would not leave it alone. He considered infinite sets not as merely going on forever but as completed entities, that is having an actual though infinite number of members. He called these actual infinite numbers transfinite numbers. By considering the infinite sets with a transfinite number of members, Cantor was able to come up his amazing discoveries. For his work, he was promoted to full professorship in 1879. However, his new ideas also gained him numerous enemies. Many mathematicians just would not accept his groundbreaking ideas that shattered their safe world of mathematics. One of these critics was Leopold Kronecker. Kronecker was a firm believer that the only numbers were integers and that negatives, fractions, imaginaries and especially irrational numbers had no business in mathematics. He simply could not handle actual infinity. Using his prestige as a professor at the University of Berlin, he did all he could to suppress Cantor’s ideas and ruin his life. Among other things, he delayed or suppressed completely Cantor’s and his followers’ publications, belittled his ideas in front of his students and blocked Cantor’s life ambition of gaining a position at the prestigious University of Berlin. Not all mathematicians were hostile to Cantor’s ideas. Some greats such as Karl Weierstrass, and long-time friend Richard Dedekind supported his ideas and attacked Kronecker’s actions. However, it was not enough. Cantor simply could not handle it. Stuck in a third-rate institution, stripped of well-deserved recognition for his work and under constant attack by Kronecker, he suffered the first of many nervous breakdowns in 1884. In 1885 Cantor continued to extend his theory of cardinal numbers and of order types. He extended his theory of order types so that now his previously defined ordinal numbers became a special case. In 1895 and 1897 Cantor published his final double treatise on sets theory. Cantor proves that if A and B are sets with A equivalent to a subset of B and B equivalent to a subset of A then A and B are equivalent. This theorem was also proved by Felix Bernstein and by Schroder.

The rest of his life was spent in and out of mental institutions and his work nearly ceased completely. Much too late for him to really enjoy it, his theory finally began to gain recognition by the turn of the century. In 1904, he was awarded a medal by the Royal Society of London and was made a member of both the London Mathematical Society and the Society of Sciences in Gottingen. He died in a mental institution on January 6, 1918. Today, Cantor’s work is widely used in the many fields of mathematics. His theory on infinite sets reset the foundation of nearly every mathematical field and brought mathematics to its modern form.

II. Infinity Most everyone is familiar with the infinity symbol . How many is infinitely many? How far away is “from here to infinity”? How big is infinity? We can’t count to infinity. Yet we are comfortable with the idea that there are infinitely many numbers to count with: no matter how big a number you might come up with, someone else can come up with a bigger one: that number plus one–or plus two, or times two. There simply is no biggest number. Is infinity a number? Is there anything bigger than infinity? How about infinity plus one? What’s infinity plus infinity? What about infinity times infinity? Children to whom the concept of infinity is brand new, pose questions like this and don’t usually get very satisfactory answers. For adults, these questions don’t seem to have very much bearing on daily life, so their unsatisfactory answers don’t seem to be a matter of concern.

At the turn of the century Cantor applied the tools of mathematical rigor and logical deduction to questions about infinity in search of satisfactory answers. His conclusions are paradoxical to our everyday experience, yet they are mathematically sound. The world of our everyday experience is finite. We can’t exactly say where the boundary line is, but beyond the finite, in the realm of the transfinite, things are different.

Sets and Set TheoryCantor is the founder of the branch of mathematics called Set Theory, which is at the foundation of much of 20th century mathematics. At the heart of Set Theory is a hall of mirrors–the paradoxical infinity. Georg Cantor was known to have said, “I see it, but I do not believe it,” about one of his proofs.

The set is the mathematical object which Cantor scrutinized. He defined a set as any collection of well-distinguished and well-defined objects considered as a single whole. A collection of matching dishes is a set, as well as a collection of numbers. Even a collection of seemingly unrelated things like, television, aardvark, car, 6} is a set. They are well-defined and can be distinguished from one another.

Sets can be large or small. They can also be finite and infinite. A finite set has a finite number of members. No matter how many there are,given enough time, you can count them all. Cantor’s surprising results came when he considered sets that had an infinite number of members. Sets such as all of the counting numbers, or all of the even numbers are infinite sets.

In order to study infinite sets, Cantor first formalized many of the things that are intuitive and obvious about finite sets. At first, it seems like these formalizations are just a whole lot of trouble, a way of making simple things complicated. Because the formalisms are clearly correct, however, they provide a powerful tool for examining things that are not so simple, intuitive or obvious.

Cantor needed a way to compare the sizes of sets, some method for determining whether sets had the same number of members. If two sets didn’t have the same number of members, he needed a method for telling which one was larger. Of course this is simple for finite sets. You count the members in both sets. If the number is the same, they are the same size. If the number of members in one set is greater than the number of members in the other, then that set is larger.

You can’t count the members in an infinite set, though, so this method won’t work for comparing their sizes. If there are two infinite sets, one must need some other way to tell if one is larger.

The formal notion that Cantor used for comparing sizes of sets is the idea of a one-to-one correspondence. A one-to-one correspondence pairs up the members of one set with the members of another. Sets which can be matched to each other in this sense are said to have the same cardinality. We could pair up the elements of the imaginary settelevision, aardvark, car, 6} with the numbers 1,2,3,4}. It is possible to do this so that one member of each set is paired up with one member of the other, no member is left out, and no member has more than one partner. Then we can be sure that the set1,2,3,4} has the same number of members as the set television, aardvark, car, 6}.

one-to-one correspondence:television, aardvark, car, 6}1, 2, 3, 4}So, what is bigger? infinity+X? infinity+infinity ? Or infinity(infinity)? To calculate which is bigger cantor used sets and one-to-one correspondence.

These one-to-one correspondence sets show that even though we add an unknown variable, multiply by two, and square a set, the upper and lower sets still remain equal. Since we will never run out of numbers any correspondence set with two infinite values will be equal. All these sets clearly have the same cardinality since its members can be put in a one-to-one correspondence with each other on and on forever. These sets are said to be countably infinite and their cardinality is denoted by the Hebrew letter aleph with a subscript nought, .

OTHER INFINITIESCantor thought once you start dealing with infinities, everything is the same size. This did not turn out to be the case. Cantor developed an entire theory of transfinite arithmetic, the arithmetic of numbers beyond infinity. Although the sizes of the infinite sets of counting numbers, even numbers, odd numbers, square numbers, etc., are the same, there are other sets, the set of numbers that can be expressed as decimals, for instance, that are larger. Cantor’s work revealed that there are hierarchies of ever-larger infinities. The largest one is called the Continuum.

Some mathematicians who lived at the end of the 19th century did not want to accept his work at all. The fact that his results were so paradoxical was not the problem so much as the fact that he considered infinite sets at all. At that time, some mathematicians held that mathematics could only consider objects that could be constructed directly from the counting numbers. You can’t list all the elements in an infinite set, they said, so anything that you say about infinite sets is not mathematics. The most powerful of these mathematicians was Leopold Kronecker who even developed a theory of numbers that did not include any negative numbers. Although Kronecker did not persuade very many of his contemporaries to abandon all conclusions that relied on the existence of negative numbers, Cantor’s work was so revolutionary that Kronecker’s argument that it “went too far” seemed plausible. Kronecker was a member of the editorial boards of the important mathematical journals of his day, and he used his influence to prevent much of Cantor’s work from being published in his lifetime. Cantor did not know at the time of his death,that not only would his ideas prevail, but that they would shape the course of 20th century mathematics.

## Control Of Blood Glucose

Blood glucose is the primary source of energy in the human body, and is theonly source of energy for the brain. The glucose is transported all overthe body via the blood plasma and if there is too much present it is storedin the kidneys as glycogen (polysaccharide carbohydrate).

The level of blood glucose has to be maintained by the body. Too higherlevels or too lower levels will cause problems in the body. The osmoticproperties of the cell will be affected, if there are high amounts ofglucose outside the cell and low amounts inside the cell, which will meanthere are higher amounts of water inside the cell as there is outside thecell, so water will move out of the cell and the cells will begin toshrink. Another big problem is that the cells will not be able to respireproperly as they will not have the correct amounts of energy. This can beparticularly dangerous to the brain cells as their only source of energycomes from glucose. Cells take up the glucose through insulin this issecreted by the Islet B cells (? cells). When the cells do not secreteenough insulin the body cannot take up the glucose properly and problemswill begin to occur.

When the production of insulin in the body starts to break down or ifenough is not produced, problems will occur. This problem is classed as adisease Diabetes mellitus (sugar diabetes). There are 2 types of diabetes:type 1, diabetes also referred to as Juvenile- onset diabetes or insulindependent diabetes. This type of diabetes starts at a young age and cancause many complications. The pancreas doesn’t secrete any insulin bodythis then causes the cues in the body not to accept any glucose, so thecell starts to metabolise. Se the next available energy source proteins andfats in the body (this process is know as gluconecgenesis), which leads toa build up of keto-acids in the body, these lower the PH in the body andthis can lead to a person going in to a coma.

Type 1, diabetes can be caused by a genetic disorder where the genetic codefor the production of insulin is not present or there is a deficiency inthe genetic coding. The reason why this occurs is a person may get aspecific virus and when the white blood cells go to destroy it they alsodestroy any infection and cells, if there is no cells present any insulincan be secreted. Type 2, diabetes is the other type of diabetes that canoccur. This is also known as non-insulin dependent diabetes or maturityonset insulin. This type of diabetes is normally seen in lot patients andin obese people. Type 2, diabetes also seems to be passed on genetically.

With this type of diabetes, insulin is produced from the pancreas but thereisn’t enough or don’t respond receptors on the cells so only small amountsof glucose are taken in by the cells. This type of diabetes can goundetected for a long time and people will hardly notice it. Currently type2, diabetes is being diagnosed is children a lot more, but this is believedto be linked with obesity. The symptoms are, the same for both types ofdiabetes mellitus.

The symptoms include: o Tiredness- unable to concentrate o Acidosis occurs- affects the PH and enzymes begin to denature.

o Muscle waste ages o Loss in weight o Constantly thirstyDiabetes mellitus cannot be cured (at the moment) but both are treateddifferently. Type 1, diabetes is treated with regular insulin jabs. Type 2,diabetes can be treated through a balanced diet. In both causes it is bestto have a well balanced diet and to eat small amounts regularly. This wellbalanced diet has to be maintained. During the day the levels of glucose inthe body are constantly changing this has to do with the food eaten. Aftera meal the amount of glucose in your blood will increase, this is whereinsulin would be secreted in a normal person, but in a person with diabetesthis would not occur and the glucose levels would remain high, due to thisthe cells in the body would shrink due the osmotic properties of the cells.

See figure 2Figure 2 biology 2 bookLegendThis shows how the blood glucose levels differ during the day and what thebody does to counter act this.

Diabetic people will have to monitor their own blood glucose levels. Theperson taking a number of blood samples during the day can do this, theywill be able to see if there glucose levels are too high or too low.

Currently advancements are being made to control diabetes or even cure it.

A new drug called ISO-1 is said to be a potential cure for type-1 diabetes.

This works by blocking the protein that plays a major role in the immunesystem, which eventually causes the destruction of the beta cells. Usingthis drug will stop the destruction of the cells, so they can continue tosecrete insulin. This has only been tested on mice that were geneticallymodified so that they would develop diabetes, 90% of these mice did notdevelop diabetes. It is still awaiting trails in humans. currently peoplewith diabetes are having to have insulin jabs a number of times a day. Anew device has been created that makes the diabetics life easier. The pumpdelivers small amounts of insulin throughout the day so the body can absorbit in to the cells more effectively, so now people can decide when theywant to eat and don’t have to schedule it with there jabs. The pump worksby pumping small amounts of insulin in to the blood stream throughout theday. It is pumped into the body via a plastic pipe, which is put under theskin near the abdomen. The drug is a potential cure and in a number ofyears the doctors have said that they can modify the drug so that it can beeffectively used in human.

Bibliography1) http://www.diabetes.org.uk/home.htm2) http://www.minimed.com/patientfam/pf_insulinpumptherapy.shtml3) Coster S, Gulliford MC, Seed PT, Powrie JK, Swaminathan R, MonitoringBlood Glucose Control In Diabetes Mellitus: A Systematic Review, 20004) Dr Antony Leeds, Professor Jennie Brand-Miller, A Glucose Revolution,19965) http://www.diabetes.org/home.jsp6) http://my.webmd.com/content/article/56/659027) Mary Jones, Jennifer Gregory, Cambridge Advanced Sciences Biology 2,2001word count 1096